Talk:Musculoskeletal System - Skull Development

From Embryology
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Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2019, December 16) Embryology Musculoskeletal System - Skull Development. Retrieved from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Talk:Musculoskeletal_System_-_Skull_Development

2018

Johns Hopkins Fetal Skull Collection (1918–1951)

Johns Hopkins Fetal Skull Collection (1918–1951) - Simplified | Full
Specimen Adolf H Schultz Number Adolf H Schultz Number (Old) Sex   Race   Basioccipital   Basisphenoid   Canines   Incisors   Incus   Left Ethmoid   Left Frontal   Left greater wing of Sphenoid Left inferior nasal conchae Left Lacrimal   Left lesser wing of Sphenoid Left Mandible Left Maxilla Left Nasal Left Occipital Condyle Left Palatine Left Parital Left Petrous Portion of Temporal Left Squamous portion of Temporal Left Tympanic Ring Left Zygomatic Mahmood Y El Najjar Age Malleus Molars Occipital Premolar Presphenoid Right Ethmoid Vomer Right Frontal Right greater wing of Sphenoid Right inferior nasal conchae Right Lacrimal Right lesser wing of Sphenoid Right Mandible Right Maxilla Right Nasal Right Occipital Condyle Right Palatine Right Parietal Right Petrous Portion of Temporal Right Squamous portion of Temporal Right tympanic Ring Right Zygomatic Stapes Stylohyal Ossification Ted Combs Age 1 Ted Combs Age 2 Ted Combs Notes Temporal Tympanic Ring Tympanohyal Ossification
JH 001 6 Blank M B P PNF 0 1 2 P P PNF A A PNF PNF PNF A P A P PNF PNF PNF A 5 IU 2 0 P 0 PNF P P P PNF A A PNF PNF PNF A P P P PNF PNF PNF P 0 NS 5-6 IU Left Occipital Condyle Missing 7/01 JR PF PETROUS PF SQUAMOUS NS
JH 002 15 253 M B P PNF 1 4 0 A P PNF A A PNF PNF PNF A P P P PNF PNF PNF A 5 IU 0 0 P 0 PNF A P P PNF A A PNF PNF PNF A P P P PNF PNF NS P 0 NS 7 IU OSSIFIED COMPLETE ROUND NS
JH 003 18 Blank M B P PF 0 3 0 P P PNF A A PF PF PNF A P P P PF PF PF P 1y PN 0 8 P 0 PF P A P PF A A PF PF PNF A P P P PF PF PF P 0 NS 11 PN LEFT GREATER WING MAY HAVE BEEN BROKEN No Data No Data FORMING
JH 004 34 394 M B P PF 2 7 0 P P PF A A PF PF PNF P P P P PF PF PF P 9PN 0 8 P 0 PF P P P PF A A PF PF PNF P P P P PF PF PF P 0 FORMING 12 PN ENTIRE BASICRANIUM FUSED No Data No Data Completely Ossified
JH 005 35 361 M B P PF 0 7 1 P P PNF A A PF PNF PNF A P P P PF PF PF P 0 3 P 0 PF P P P PNF A A PF PNF PNF A P P P PF PF PF P 0 NS 10 IU NO DATA NO DATA OSSIFIED
JH 006 36 258 M B P PF 0 0 1 P P NS A A PNF PNF PNF A P P P PNF PNF PNF P 0 0 P 0 PF P P P PNF A A PNF PNF PNF A P P P PNF PNF PNF P 0 NS 7 IU ADOLF H SCHULTZ DRAWING INCLUDED NO DATA NO DATA NS
JH 007 38 269 M B P PF 0 0 1 P P PNF A A PF PNF PNF A P P P PF PF PF P 1 2 P 0 PF P P P PNF A A PF PNF PNF A P P P PF PF PNF P 0 NS 10-11 IU IMPROPER OSSIFICATION OF DORSUM STELLA NO DATA NO DATA NS
JH 008 51 Blank M B A PF 0 0 0 A P ? A A ? PNF A A P P A A A A P 0 0 A 0 PF A A A ? A A ? PNF A A A A P A PNF A A 0 NS 5 IU NOT ALL BONES BELONG HERE NO DATA NO DATA NS
JH 009 56 271 M B P PF 0 4 2 P P PNF A A PF PNF PNF A P P P PF PF PF P 2 4 P 0 PF P P P PNF A A PF PNF PNF A P P P PF PF PF P 0 NS 10 IU NO DATA NO DATA NS
JH 010 58 340 M B P PF 0 0 1 P P PNF A A PF PNF PNF A P P P PF PF PF P 1 1 P 0 PF P P P PNF A A PF PNF PNF A P P P PF PF PF P 0 NS 9-10 IU NO DATA NO DATA NS
JH 011 62 Blank M B P A 1 0 2 P P A A A A PNF PNF A P P P PF PF PF A 1 3 P 0 A P P A PNF A A A PNF PNF A A P A PF PF PF A 0 NS 0 Newborn NO DATA NO DATA FORMING
JH 012 67 322 M B P PF 0 3 1 P P PNF A A PF PNF PNF A P P P PF PF PF P 0 1 P 0 PF P P P PNF A A PF PNF PNF A P P P PF PF PF P 0 NS 0 Newborn MOLAR BUDS INCLUDED NO DATA NO DATA NS
JH 013 69 299 M? B P PF 0 1 2 A P PNF A A PF PNF PNF A P P P PNF PF PF P 0 1 A 0 PF A P P PNF A A PF PNF PNF A P A P PNF PNF PNF P 0 NS 9 IU CHECK SEX <- BUG!!! NO DATA NO DATA NS
JH 014 71 323 M B P PF 2 7 2 P P PNF A A PF PNF PNF A P P P PF PF PF P 2 2 P 0 PF P P P PNF A A PF PNF PNF A P P P PF PF PF P 2 NS 0 Newborn NO DATA NO DATA NS
JH 015 78 298 M B P PF 0 0 2 P P PNF A A PF PNF PNF A P P P PF PF PNF P 2 0 P 0 PF P P P PNF A A PF PNF PNF A P P P PNF PNF PNF P 0 NS 8 IU IMPROPER OSSIFICATION OF THE STELLA TURCICA NO DATA NO DATA NS
JH 016 83 Blank M B P PF 1 4 2 P P PNF A A PF PNF A A P P P PNF PNF PNF P 2 3 P 0 PF P P A PNF A A PNF PNF PNF A P P P PNF PNF PNF P 0 NOT OBSERVED 7 IU NO DATA NO DATA NOT OBSERVED
JH 017 91 334 M B P PF 0 3 2 P P PNF A A PF PNF PNF A P P P PNF PF PF P 2 1 P 0 PF P P P PNF A A PF PNF PNF A P A P PNF PNF PNF P 1 NOT OBSERVED 10 IU NO DATA NO DATA NOT OBSERVED
JH 018 96 310 M B P PF 0 3 0 P P PNF A A PF PNF PNF A P P P PF PF PF P 0 0 P 0 PF P P P PNF A A PF PNF PNF A P P P PF PF PF P 1 NOT OBSERVED 10 IU SQUAMOUS PORTION OF OCCIPITAL IN 2 PIECES NO DATA NO DATA NOT OBSERVED
JH 019 109 315 M B P PF 0 0 2 P P PNF A A PF PNF PNF A P P P PF PF PF P 3 0 P 0 PF P P P PNF A A PF PNF PNF A P P P PF PF PF P 0 NOT OBSERVED 10 IU EXTRA BROKEN MALLEUS INCLUDED NO DATA NO DATA NOT OBSERVED
JH 020 110 257 M B P PF 0 4 2 P P A A A PNF PNF PNF A P P P PNF PNF PNF P 2 1 P 0 PF P P P A A A PF PNF PNF A P P P PNF PNF PNF P 0 NOT OBSERVED 6 IU TEMPORALS POORLY OSSIFIED NO DATA NO DATA NOT OBSERVED
JH 021 111 342 M B P PF 0 1 2 P P PNF A A PF PNF PNF A P P P PF PF PF P 2 4 P 0 PF P P P PNF A A PF PNF PNF A P P P PNF PNF A P 1 NOT OBSERVED 3 PN NO DATA NO DATA NOT OBSERVED
JH 022 126 367 M B P PF 1 4 1 P P PNF A A PF PNF PNF A P P P PNF PF PF P 1 3 P 0 PF P P P PNF A A PF PNF PNF A P P P PF PF PF P 0 NOT OBSERVED 10 IU NO DATA NO DATA NOT OBSERVED
JH 023 135 250 M B P PF 0 0 1 P P PNF A A PF PNF PNF A P P P PNF PNF PNF P 1 0 P 0 PF P A P PNF A A PF PNF PNF A P P P PNF PNF PNF P 0 NOT OBSERVED 8 IU VERY YOUNG NO DATA NO DATA NOT OBSERVED
JH 024 137 285 M B A PF 0 6 2 P P PNF A A PF PNF PNF A A P P PNF PNF PNF P 2 2 P 0 PF P P P PNF A A PF PNF PNF A A P P PNF PNF PNF P 1 NOT OBSERVED 8 IU NO DATA NO DATA NOT OBSERVED
JH 025 139 400 M B P PF 2 5 0 P P PNF A A PF PNF PNF A P P P PF PF PF P 2 3 P 0 PF P P P PNF A A PF PNF PNF A P P P PF PNF PF P 0 NOT OBSERVED 0 Newborn NO DATA NO DATA NOT OBSERVED
JH 026 144 Blank M B P PF 1 0 0 P P PNF A A PF A PNF A P P P PNF PNF A P 0 0 P 0 PF P P P PNF A A PF PNF PNF A P P P PNF PNF A P 0 NOT OBSERVED 10 IU "Two right lateral occipital bones and no left

JR 7/12/2001"

NO DATA NO DATA NOT OBSERVED
JH 027 147 391 M B A A 0 0 0 A P A A A A A A A A A A A A A A 0 0 A 0 A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A 0 NO BONE 2 PN LEFT FRONTAL IS THE ONLY BONE PRESENT. NO DATA NO DATA NO BONE
JH 028 155 355 M B P PNF 2 8 0 P P PNF A A PNF PNF PNF A P P P PF PF PF P 1 4 P 0 PNF P P P PNF A A PNF PNF PNF A P P P PF PF PF P 0 NOT OBSERVED 0 Newborn NO DATA NO DATA NOT OBSERVED
JH 029 159 273 M B A PF 1 1 2 P P PNF A A PF PNF PNF A P P P PNF PF PF P 2 3 P 0 PF P P P PNF A A PF PNF PNF A P P P PF PF PF P 1 NOT OBSERVED 9 IU NO DATA NO DATA NOT OBSERVED
JH 030 161 367 M B P PF 2 2 1 P P PNF A A PF PNF PNF A P P P PF PF PF P 1 3 P 0 PF P P P PNF A A PF PNF PNF A P P P PF PF PF P 1 NOT OBSERVED 0 Newborn NO DATA NO DATA NOT OBSERVED
JH 031 164 359 M B P PF 3 6 2 P P PNF A A PF See Note PNF A P P P PF PF PF P 1 8 P 0 PF P P P PNF A A PF See Note PNF A P P P PF PF PF P 1 NOT OBSERVED 2 PN "MANDIBLE ONCE FUSED, NOW BROKEN" NO DATA NO DATA NOT OBSERVED
JH 032 178 483 M B P PF 4 8 2 P P PF A A PF PNF PNF A P A P PF PF PF P 2 6 P 0 PF P P P PF A A PF PNF PNF A P A P PF PF PF P 2 NOT OBSERVED 15 PN MOST OF BASICRANIUM FUSED NO DATA NO DATA NOT OBSERVED
JH 033 184 365 M B P PF 4 5 1 P P PNF A A PF PNF PNF A P P P PF PF PF P 0 4 P 0 PF P P P PNF A A PF PNF PNF A P P P PF PF PF P 0 NOT OBSERVED 2 PN NO DATA NO DATA NOT OBSERVED
JH 034 189 377 M B P A 4 7 1 P P A A A A PNF PNF A A P P PF PF PF P 1 8 P 0 A P P P A A A A PNF PNF A A P P PF PF PF P 2 NOT OBSERVED 3 PN NO DATA NO DATA NOT OBSERVED
JH 035 2 306 F B P PF 1 7 2 P P A A A A See Note PNF A P P P PF PF PF P 2 3 P 0 PF P P P A A A A See Note PNF A P P P PF PF PF P 2 NOT OBSERVED 0 Newborn MANDIBLE WAS FUSED: NOW BROKEN NO DATA NO DATA NOT OBSERVED
JH 036 8 Blank F B A PF 2 2 0 A P PNF A A PF PNF A A A P P PF PF PF A 2 2 P 0 PF A P P PNF A A PF PNF PNF A A P P PF PF PF P 0 NOT OBSERVED 9 IU NO DATA NO DATA NOT OBSERVED
JH 037 14 236 F B P PF 0 0 2 A P PNF A A PNF PNF PNF A P P P PNF PNF PNF P 1 0 P 0 PF A A P PNF A A Broken PNF PNF A P P P PNF PNF PNF P 1 NOT OBSERVABLE 5 IU NO DATA NO DATA NOT OBSERVABLE
JH 038 17 Blank F B P PF 4 4 2 P P PNF A A PNF PF PNF A P P P PF PF PF P 2 5 P 0 PF P P P PF A A PF PF PNF A P P P PF PF PF P 2 NOT OBSERVED 14 PN ADOLF H SCHULTZ DRAWING INCLUDED NO DATA NO DATA NOT OBSERVED
JH 039 44 298 F B P PF 0 1 0 P P PNF A A PF PNF PNF A P P P PNF PNF PNF P 3 1 P 0 PF P P P PNF A A PF PNF PNF A P P P PF PF PF P 1 NOT OBSERVED 8 IU EXTRA MALLEUS NO DATA NO DATA NOT OBSERVED
JH 040 45 Blank F B P PF 0 5 1 P P PNF A A PF PNF PNF A P P P PF PF PF P 2 7 P 0 PF P P P PF A A PF PNF PNF A P P P PF PF PF P 1 NOT OBSERVED 0 Newborn POOR OSSIFICATION OF THE CALVARIA NO DATA NO DATA NOT OBSERVED
JH 041 53 440 F B A A 2 4 0 P P A A A A PNF PNF A P P P PF PF PF P 0 1 P 0 A P P A A A A A PNF PNF A P P P PF PF PF P 1 NOT OBSERVED 12 PN WHOLE SKULL BADLY OSSIFIED NO DATA NO DATA NOT OBSERVED
JH 042 57 366 F B P PF 2 5 0 P P PNF A A PF A A A P P P PF PF PF P 0 4 P 0 PF P P A PNF A A PF PNF A A P P P PF PNF PF P 2 NOT OBSERVED 2 PN NO DATA NO DATA NOT OBSERVED
JH 043 59 Blank F B P PF 0 0 2 P P PNF A A PF PNF PNF A P P P PNF PNF PNF P 2 0 P 0 PF P P P PNF A A PF PNF PNF A P P P PNF PNF PNF P 0 NOT OBSERVABLE 8 IU NO DATA NO DATA NOT OBSERVABLE
JH 044 61 340 F B A A 0 2 0 P P PNF A A A PNF PNF A A P P PF PF PF P 0 0 P 0 A P A A PNF A A A A PNF A P P P PF PF PF P 0 NOT OBSERVED 9 IU INCOMPLETE NO DATA NO DATA NOT OBSERVED
JH 045 63 340BUG!!! F B P PF 0 1 0 P A PF A A PF A A A A A A A A A A 0 1 A 0 PF A A A PF A A PF A A A A A A A A A A 0 NO BONE 12 PN - JH 05. BAD BONE. NO DATA NO DATA NO BONE
JH 046 70 345 F B P PF 0 8 1 P P PF A A PF PNF PNF A P P P PF PF PF P 2 7 P 0 PF P P P PNF A A PF PNF PNF A P P P PF PF PF P 2 NOT OBSERVED 3 PN NO DATA NO DATA NOT OBSERVED
JH 047 75 364 F B P PF 1 7 1 P P PNF A A PF PNF PNF A P P P PF PF PF P 1 5 P 0 PF P P P PNF A A PF PNF PNF A P P P PF PF PF P 0 NOT OBSERVED 0 Newborn NO DATA NO DATA NOT OBSERVED
JH 048 84 Blank F B P PF 0 2 0 P P PNF A A PF PNF PNF A P P P PNF PNF PNF P 1 0 P 0 PF P P P PNF A A PF PNF PNF A P P P PNF PNF PNF P 0 NOT OBSERVABLE 8 IU NO DATA NO DATA NOT OBSERVABLE
JH 049 86 341 F B P PF 0 1 2 P P PNF A A PF PNF PNF A P P P PF PF PF P 0 3 P 0 PF P P P PNF A A PF PNF PNF A P P P PF PF PF P 0 NOT OBSERVED 2 PN NO DATA NO DATA NOT OBSERVED
JH 050 88 294 F B A PF 0 2 2 P P PNF A A PF PNF PNF A P P P PF PF PF P 2 2 P 0 PF P P P PNF A A PF PNF PNF A P P P PF PF PF P 0 NOT OBSERVED 8 IU NO DATA NO DATA NOT OBSERVED
JH 051 101 290 F B P PF 0 0 2 P P PNF A A PF PNF PNF A P P P PF PF PNF P 1 0 P 0 PF P P P PNF A A PF PNF PNF A P P P PF PF PF P 2 NOT OBSERVED 8 IU NO DATA NO DATA NOT OBSERVED
JH 052 107 Blank F B P PF 0 0 0 P P PNF A A PF PNF PNF A P P P PNF PNF PNF P 2 0 P 0 PF P P P PNF A A PF PNF PNF A P P P PNF PNF PNF P 1 NOT OBSERVED 8 IU NO DATA NO DATA NOT OBSERVED
JH 053 118 311 F B P PF 0 5 1 P P PNF A A PF PNF PNF P P P P PF PF PF P 2 1 P 0 PF P P P PNF A A PF PNF PNF P P P P PNF PF PF P 2 NOT OBSERVED 9 IU NASAL BONES FUSED NO DATA NO DATA NOT OBSERVED
JH 054 120 252 F B P PF 0 0 1 P P PNF A A PF PNF PNF P P P P PF PF PNF P 1 0 P 0 PF P P P PNF A A PF PNF PNF P P P P PF PF PNF P 2 NOT OBSERVED 8 IU NO DATA NO DATA NOT OBSERVED
JH 055 121 276 F B P PNF 0 2 2 P P PNF A A PNF A PNF P P P P PNF PF PF P 2 0 P 0 PNF P P P PNF A A PNF PNF PNF P P P P PNF PNF A P 1 NOT OBSERVED 6 IU NO DATA NO DATA NOT OBSERVED
JH 056 122 313 F B A A 0 0 1 A ? A A A A A A A A A A A A A A 0 0 P 0 A A A ? A A A A A A A A A A A A A A 0 NO BONES ? ? TWO FRONTALS FROM TWO SPECIMENS (SIDES IN DISPUTE) EAR OSSICLES WITH SMALL....(?) NO DATA NO DATA NO BONES
JH 057 127 307 F B P PF 0 2 2 P P PNF A A PF PNF PNF A P P P PNF PF PF P 2 2 P 0 PF P P P PNF A A PF PNF PNF A P P P PNF PF PF P 2 NOT OBSERVED 10 IU NO DATA NO DATA NOT OBSERVED
JH 058 132 354 F B P PF 1 8 1 P P PNF A A PF PNF PNF P P P P PF PF PF P 1 4 P 0 PF P P P PNF A A PF PNF PNF P P P P PF PF PF P 0 NOT OBSERVED 4 PN NO DATA NO DATA NOT OBSERVED
JH 059 149 290 F B P A 0 0 1 A P PNF A A A PNF PNF A P P P PF PF PNF P 1 0 P 0 A A P P A A A A PNF A P P P P PF PF PF P 0 NOT OBSERVED 8 IU NO DATA NO DATA NOT OBSERVED
JH 060 150 2825 F B P PF 0 4 2 P P PNF A A PF PNF PNF P P P P PNF PNF PNF P 0 1 P 0 PF P P P PNF A A PF PNF PNF A P P P PNF PNF PNF P 1 NOT OBSERVABLE See Note See Note Age estimated as 8 months to Newborn NO DATA NO DATA NOT OBSERVABLE
JH 061 169 340 F B P PF 2 3 2 P P PNF A A PF PNF PNF P P P P PF PF PF P 2 8 P 0 PF P P P PNF A A PF PNF PNF P P P P PF PF PF P 0 NOT OBSERVED 0 Newborn NO DATA NO DATA NOT OBSERVED
JH 062 172 283 F B P PF 0 2 1 P P PNF A A PF PNF PNF A P P P PNF PNF PNF P 2 0 P 0 PF P P P PNF A A PF PNF PNF P P P P PNF PNF PNF P 0 NOT OBSERVED 7 IU NO DATA NO DATA NOT OBSERVED
JH 063 185 345 F B P PF 1 4 2 P P PNF A A PF PNF PNF P P P P A A A P 2 4 P 0 PF P P P PNF A A PF PNF PNF P P P P A A A P 0 NOT OBSERVED 10 IU NO DATA NO DATA NOT OBSERVED
JH 064 190 331 F B P PF 0 3 1 P P PNF A A PF PNF PNF P P P P PF PF PF P 1 3 P 0 PF P P P PNF A A PF PNF PNF P P P P PF PF PF P 0 NOT OBSERVED 2 PN NO DATA NO DATA NOT OBSERVED
JH 065 191 256 F B P PNF 0 0 0 P P PNF A A PNF PNF PNF P P P P PNF PNF PNF A 0 0 P 0 PNF P P P PNF A A PNF PNF PNF P P P P PNF PNF PNF A 0 NOT OBSERVED 5-6 IU NO DATA NO DATA NOT OBSERVED
JH 066 10 240 M W P PNF 0 0 2 P P PNF A A PNF PNF PNF P P P P PNF PNF PNF P 2 0 P 0 PNF A P P PNF A A A PNF PNF P P P P PNF A PNF P 1 NOT OBSERVED 5 IU NO DATA NODATA NOT OBSERVED
JH 067 20 Blank M W P PF 1 0 1 P P A A A PF PNF PNF P P A P PF PF PF P 0 3 P 0 PF P A A PNF A A PF A PNF A P A P PF PF PF P 0 NOT OBSERVED 0 Newborn Reported missing by JR 7/001 NO DATA NO DATA NOT OBSERVED
JH 068 40 Blank M W P PF 2 2 1 A P PF A A PF PNF PNF A A A P PF PF PF A 2 2 P 0 PF A A P PF A A PF PNF "PF, Zygomatic" A A A P PF PF PF P 1 NOT OBSERVED 2 PN NO DATA NO DATA NOT OBSERVED
JH 069 48 340 M W P PNF 1 4 1 P P PNF A A PNF PNF PNF P P P P PNF PNF PNF P 1 1 P 0 PNF P P P PNF A A PNF PNF PNF P P P P PNF PNF PNF P 1 NOT OBSERVED 7 IU NO DATA NO DATA NOT OBSERVED
JH 070 49 274 M W P PNF 0 0 2 P P PNF A A PNF PNF PNF P P P P PNF PNF PNF P 2 0 P 0 PNF P P P PNF A A PNF PNF PNF P P P P PNF PNF PNF P 1 NOT OBSERVED 6-7 IU NO DATA NO DATA NOT OBSERVED
JH 071 74 332 M W P PF 1 2 2 P P PNF A A PF PNF PNF P P P P PF PF PF P 2 3 P 0 PF P P P PNF A A PF PNF PNF P P P P PF PF PF P 0 NOT OBSERVED 10 IU NO DATA NO DATA NOT OBSERVED
JH 072 77 336 M W P PF 1 0 1 P P PF A A PF PNF PNF P P P P PNF PF PF P 2 1 P 0 PF P P P PF A A PF PNF PNF P P P P PNF PF PF P 2 NOT OBSERVED 10 IU NO DATA NO DATA NOT OBSERVED
JH 073 89 344 M W P PF 0 1 2 P P PNF A A PF PNF PNF A P P P PF PF PF P 2 2 P 0 PF P P P PNF A A PF PNF PNF A P P P PF PF PNF P 1 NOT OBSERVED 9 IU NO DATA NO DATA NOT OBSERVED
JH 074 92 279 M W P PNF 0 0 1 P P PNF A A PNF PNF PNF P A P P PNF PNF PNF P 2 0 P 0 PNF P P P PNF A A PNF PNF PNF P A P P PNF PNF PNF P 0 NOT OBSERVED 6 IU NO DATA NO DATA NOT OBSERVED
JH 075 105 Blank M W P PNF 0 0 2 P P PNF A A PNF PNF PNF P P P P PNF PNF PNF P 1 0 P 0 PNF P P P PNF A A PNF PNF PNF P P P P PNF PNF PNF P 0 NOT OBSERVED 6 IU NO DATA NO DATA NOT OBSERVED
JH 076 108 280 M W P PF 0 1 2 P P A A A PF PNF PNF A P P P PF PF PF P 2 1 P 0 PF A A P PNF A A PF PNF PNF P P A P PF PF PF A 0 NOT OBSERVED 9 IU NO DATA NO DATA NOT OBSERVED
JH 077 129 340 M W P PF 2 5 2 P P PNF A A PF PNF PNF A P P P PF PF PF P 1 5 P 0 PF P A P PF A A PF PNF PNF P P P P PF PF PF P 0 NOT OBSERVED 1 PN NO DATA NO DATA NOT OBSERVED
JH 078 131 364 M W P PNF 2 2 2 P P PNF A A PNF PNF PNF A A P P PF PF PF P 2 6 P 0 PNF P P P PNF A A PNF PNF PNF A P P P PF PF PF P 0 NOT OBSERVED 9 IU NO DATA NO DATA NOT OBSERVED
JH 079 136 363 M W P PF 0 6 2 P P PNF A A PF PNF PNF P P P P PF PF PF P 1 3 P 0 PF P P P PNF A A PF PNF PNF P P P P PF PF PF P 0 NOT OBSERVED 9 IU NO DATA NO DATA NOT OBSERVED
JH 080 138 355 M W P PF 0 0 1 P P PNF A A PF PNF PNF P P P P PF PF PF P 2 3 P 0 PF P P P PNF A A PF PNF PNF P P P P PF PF PF P 0 NOT OBSERVED 3 PN KERKRING'S CENTER OBSERVED NO DATA NO DATA NOT OBSERVED
JH 081 141 347 M W P PF 1 3 2 P P PNF A A PF See Note PNF P P P P PF PF PF P 2 5 P 0 PF P P P PNF A A PF See Note PNF A P P P PF PF PF P 2 NOT OBSERVED 2 PN MANDIBLE ONCE FUSED NOW BROKEN NO DATA NO DATA NOT OBSERVED
JH 082 143 326 M W P PF 3 6 1 P P PNF A A PF PNF PNF A P P P PF PF PF P 3 4 P 0 PF P P P PNF A A PF PNF PNF A P P P PF PF PF P 0 NOT OBSERVED 0 Newborn EXTRA MALLEUS INCLUDED NO DATA NO DATA NOT OBSERVED
JH 083 146 320 M W P PF 0 2 0 P P PNF A A PF PNF PNF A P P P PF PF PF P 0 2 P 0 PF A P P PNF A A PF PNF PNF A P P P PNF PNF PNF P 1 NOT OBSERVED 9 IU THREE PARIETAL FRAGMENTS NO DATA NO DATA NOT OBSERVED
JH 084 151 353 M W A PF 3 4 1 P P PNF A A PF PNF PNF A P P P PF PF PF P 1 4 P 0 PF A P P PNF A A PF PNF PNF P P P P PF PF PF P 0 NOT OBSERVED 3 PN NO DATA NO DATA NOT OBSERVED
JH 085 156 364 M W P PF 1 2 1 P P PNF A A PF PNF PNF A P P P PF PF PF P 0 6 P 0 PF P P P PNF A A PF PNF PNF P P P P PF PF PF P 1 NOT OBSERVED 2 PN NO DATA NO DATA NOT OBSERVED
JH 086 157 288 M W P PF 1 2 1 P P PNF A A PF PNF PNF P P P P PNF PNF PNF P 1 1 P 0 PF A P P A A A PF PNF PNF A P P P PNF PNF A P 0 NOT OBSERVED 8 IU NO DATA NO DATA NOT OBSERVED
JH 087 162 374 M W P PF 2 4 2 P P PNF A A PF PNF PNF P A P P PNF PNF PNF P 2 3 P 0 PF P P P PNF A A PF PNF PNF P A P P PNF PNF PNF P 0 NOT OBSERVED 9 IU NO DATA NO DATA NOT OBSERVED
JH 088 166 382 M W P PF 0 0 1 P P PF A A PF PNF PNF P P P P PF PF PF P 1 1 P 0 PF P P P PF A A PF PNF PNF P P P P PF PF PF P 0 NOT OBSERVED 4 PN MANY TOOTH FRAGMENTS NO DATA NO DATA NOT OBSERVED
JH 089 171 380 M W P PNF 1 3 1 P P PNF A A PF PNF PNF P P P P PF PF PF P 0 4 P 0 PNF P P P PNF A A PF PNF PNF P P P P PF PF PF P 0 NOT OBSERVED 10 IU NASAL BONES FUSED NO DATA NO DATA NOT OBSERVED
JH 090 179 Blank M W P PNF 3 4 2 P P PNF A A PF PNF PNF A P P P PF PF PF P 1 7 P 0 PNF P P P PNF A A PF PNF PNF A P P P PF PF PF P 1 NOT OBSERVED 3 PN NO DATA NO DATA NOT OBSERVED
JH 091 186 373 M W P PF 1 2 2 P P PF A A PF PNF PNF P P P P PF PF PF P 1 7 P 0 PF P P P PF A A PF PNF PNF P P P P PF PF PF P 0 NOT OBSERVED 9 IU NO DATA NO DATA NOT OBSERVED
JH 092 188 Blank M W P PNF 0 2 1 P P PNF A A PNF PNF PNF P P P P PF PF PNF P 1 0 P 0 PNF P P P PNF A A PNF PNF PNF P P P P PF PF PF P 0 NOT OBSERVED 8 IU NO DATA NO DATA NOT OBSERVED
JH 093 192 328 M W P PNF 0 0 1 P P PNF A A PNF PNF PNF P P P P PNF PNF PNF P 2 0 P 0 PNF P P P PNF A A PNF PNF PNF P P P P PNF PNF PNF P 0 NOT OBSERVED 7 IU KERKRING'S CENTER OBSERVED NO DATA NO DATA NOT OBSERVED
JH 094 13 Blank F W P A 0 0 2 P P A A A A PNF PNF P A P P PF PF PF P 2 5 P 0 A P P P A A A A PNF PNF A P P P PF PF PF P 2 NOT OBSERVED 0 Newborn TEETH FRAGMENTS NO DATA NO DATA NOT OBSERVED
JH 095 23 352 F W P PF 4 8 2 P P PNF A A PF PNF PNF P P P P PF PF PF P 2 4 P 0 PF P P P PNF A A PF PNF PNF P P P P PF PF PF P 2 NOT OBSERVED 4 PN TYMPANIC MEMBRANE INTACT NO DATA NO DATA NOT OBSERVED
JH 096 43 268 F W P PNF 0 0 1 P P PNF A A PNF PNF PNF P P P P PNF PNF PNF P 2 0 P 0 PNF P P P PNF A A PNF PNF PNF P P P P PNF PNF PNF P 1 NOT OBSERVED 5 IU ADOLF H SCHULTZ DRAWING INCLUDED NO DATA NO DATA NOT OBSERVED
JH 097 47 313 F W P PF 0 0 0 P P PNF A A PF PNF PNF P P A P PF PF PNF P 1 1 P 0 PF P P P PNF A A PF PNF PNF P P A P PF PF PNF P 0 NOT OBSERVED 8 IU ONE BONE FRAGMENT - SQUAMOUS TYPE NO DATA NO DATA NOT OBSERVED
JH 098 64 364 F W P PF 0 3 2 P P PNF A A PF PNF PNF P P P P PF PF PF P 2 2 P 0 PF P P P PNF A A PF A PNF P P P P PF PF PF P 1 NOT OBSERVED 3 PN NO DATA NO DATA NOT OBSERVED
JH 099 95 350 F W A A 0 0 0 A P A A A A A A A A A P A A A A 0 0 P 0 A A A P A A A A A A A ?(BROKEN) A P A A A A 0 NO BONES 4 PN HYDROCEPHALIC NO DATA NO DATA NO BONES
JH 100 100 365 F W P PF 0 5 2 P P PNF A A PF PNF PNF P P P P PNF PNF PNF P 2 2 P 0 PF P P P PNF A A PF PNF PNF P P P P PNF PNF PNF P 1 NO 0 Newborn NO DATA NO DATA NOT OBSERVABLE
JH 101 114 396 F W P PF 3 3 0 P P PNF A A PF See Noe PNF A P P P PF PF PF P 0 8 P 0 PF P P P PNF A A PF See Note PNF A P P P PF PF PF P 0 NO 5 PN MANDIBLE ONCE FUSED NOW BROKEN NO DATA NO DATA NOT OBSERVABLE
JH 102 116 400 F W P PF 0 0 2 P P PNF A A PF PNF PNF A P P P PF PF PF P 2 0 P 0 PF P P P PNF A A PF PNF PNF A P P P PF PF PF P 2 NO 2 PN TEETH NOT COUNTED NO DATA NO DATA NOT OBSERVABLE
JH 103 117 290 F W P A 0 0 0 A P A A A A A PNF A A A P PF PF PNF A 0 0 P 0 A A A P A A A A A PNF A P A P PF PF PNF P 0 NO 7 IU TWO TOOTH BUDS NO DATA NO DATA NOT OBSERVABLE
JH 104 128 368 F W P PF 0 0 2 P P PF A A PF PF PNF A P P P PF PF PF A 2 0 P 0 PF P P P PF A A PF PF PNF A P P P PF PF PF A 0 NO 5 PN TOOTH FRAGMENTS NO DATA NO DATA NOT OBSERVABLE
JH 105 134 Blank F W P PF 1 0 0 P P PNF A A PF PNF PNF A P P P PF PF PF P 0 4 P 0 PF P P P PNF A A PF PNF PNF A P P P PF PF PF P 0 NO 9 IU EAR OSSICLES PRESENT - NO COUNT NO DATA NO DATA NOT OBSERVABLE
JH 106 148 290 F W P PNF 2 0 0 P P A A A PNF PNF PNF A P P P PNF PNF PNF P 0 0 P 0 PNF P P P A A A A PNF PNF A P P P PNF PNF PNF P 0 NO 8 IU EAR OSSICLES PRESENT - NO COUNT NO DATA NO DATA NOT OBSERVABLE
JH 107 160 60 F W P PNF 2 3 2 P P PNF P A PNF PNF PNF P P P P PF PF PF P 2 5 P 0 PNF P P P PNF P A PNF PNF PNF P P P P PF PF PF P 0 NO 2 PN EAR OSSICLES PRESENT - NO COUNT NO DATA NO DATA NOT OBSERVABLE
JH 108 167 372 F W P PF 1 3 0 P P PNF P P PF PNF PNF P P P P PF PF PF P 1 2 P 0 PF P P P PNF P P PF PNF PNF A P P P PF PF PF P 0 NO 1 PN EAR OSSICLES PRESENT - NO COUNT NO DATA NO DATA NOT OBSERVABLE
JH 109 168 316 F W P PF 0 1 2 P P PNF P A PF PNF PNF P P P P PNF PF PF P 2 3 P 0 PF P P P PNF P A PF PNF PNF A P P P PNF PF PF P 0 NO 8 IU EAR OSSICLES PRESENT - NO COUNT NO DATA NO DATA NOT OBSERVABLE
JH 110 170 331 F W P PF 0 3 2 P P PNF P P PF PNF PNF P P P P A PF PF P 1 5 P 0 PF P P P PNF P A PF PNF PNF P P P P PF PF PF P 0 NO 0 Newborn EAR OSSICLES PRESENT - NO COUNT NO DATA NO DATA NOT OBSERVABLE
JH 111 175 342 F W A PF 0 1 2 P P PNF P P PF PNF PNF P P P P PNF PNF PNF P 2 4 A 0 PF P P P PNF P P PF PNF PNF P P P P PNF PNF PNF P 0 NO 10 IU EAR OSSICLES PRESENT - NO COUNT NO DATA NO DATA NOT OBSERVABLE
JH 112 194 317 F W P PF 0 1 2 P P PNF P P PF PNF PNF P P P P PNF PNF PNF P 2 0 P 0 PF P P P PNF P P PF PNF PNF P P P P PNF PNF PNF P 0 NO 8 IU NO DATA NO DATA NOT OBSERVABLE
Johns Hopkins Fetal Skull Collection (1918–1951) - The collection was begun by Adolph Hans Schultz (1891–1976) - fetal, stillbirths, newborns, and infants up to approximately one year of age. Collection of 112 specimens was transferred to the Cleveland Museum of Natural History on a permanent loan in 1973.

2017

Childs Nerv Syst. 2017 Jun;33(6):909-914. doi: 10.1007/s00381-017-3406-1. Epub 2017 Apr 10. A comprehensive review of the anterior fontanelle: embryology, anatomy, and clinical considerations. D'Antoni AV1, Donaldson OI1, Schmidt C2, Macchi V3, De Caro R3, Oskouian RJ4, Loukas M5, Shane Tubbs R6. Author information Abstract PURPOSE: Fontanelles are a regular feature of infant development in which two segments of bone remain separated, leaving an area of fibrous membrane or a "soft spot" that acts to accommodate growth of the brain without compression by the skull. Of the six fontanelles in the human skull, the anterior fontanelle, located between the frontal and parietal bones, serves as an important anatomical diagnostic tool in the assessment of impairments of the skull and brain and allows access to the brain and ventricles in the infant. METHODS: Using a standard database search, we conducted a review of the anterior fontanelle, including its embryology, anatomy, pathology, and related surgical implications. CONCLUSIONS: The diagnostic value of the anterior fontanelle, through observation of its shape, size, and palpability, makes the area of significant clinical value. It is important that clinicians are aware of the features and associated pathologies of this area in their everyday practice. KEYWORDS: Cranial calvaria; Skull; Soft spot; Suture PMID: 28396968 DOI: 10.1007/s00381-017-3406-1

2016

The remodeling pattern of human mandibular alveolar bone during prenatal formation from 19 to 270mm CRL

Ann Anat. 2016 Feb 24;205:65-74. doi: 10.1016/j.aanat.2016.01.005. [Epub ahead of print]

Radlanski RJ1, Renz H2, Tsengelsaikhan N2, Schuster F2, Zimmermann CA2.

Abstract

The underlying mechanisms of human bone morphogenesis leading to a topologically specific shape remain unknown, despite increasing knowledge of the basic molecular aspects of bone formation and its regulation. The formation of the alveolar bone, which houses the dental primordia, and later the dental roots, may serve as a model to approach general questions of bone formation. Twenty-five heads of human embryos and fetuses (Radlanski-Collection, Berlin) ranging from 19mm to 270mm (crown-rump-length) CRL were prepared as histological serial sections. For each stage, virtual 3D-reconstructions were made in order to study the morphogenesis of the mandibular molar primordia with their surrounding bone. Special focus was given to recording the bone-remodeling pattern, as diagnosed from the histological sections. In early stages (19-31mm CRL) developing bone was characterized by appositional only. At 41, in the canine region, mm CRL bony extensions were found forming on the bottom of the trough. Besides general apposition, regions with resting surfaces were also found. At a fetal size of 53mm CRL, septa have developed and led to a compartment for canine development. Furthermore, one shared compartment for the incisor primordia and another shared compartment for the molars also developed. Moreover, the inner surfaces of the dental crypts showed resorption of bone. From this stage on, a general pattern became established such that the compartmentalizing ridges and septa between all of the dental primordia and the brims of the crypts were noted, and were due to appositional growth of bone, while the crypts enlarged on their inner surfaces by resorption. By 160mm CRL, the dental primordia were larger, and all of the bony septa had become reduced in size. The primordia for the permanent teeth became visible at 225mm CRL and shared the crypts of their corresponding deciduous primordia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved. KEYWORDS: 3D-reconstructions; Alveolar bone; Dental primordia; Human; Mandible

PMID 26921449

2015

Transcriptional analysis of human cranial compartments with different embryonic origins

Arch Oral Biol. 2015 Sep;60(9):1450-60. doi: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2015.06.008. Epub 2015 Jul 2.

Homayounfar N1, Park SS2, Afsharinejad Z3, Bammler TK3, MacDonald JW3, Farin FM3, Mecham BH4, Cunningham ML5.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: Previous investigations suggest that the embryonic origins of the calvarial tissues (neural crest or mesoderm) may account for the molecular mechanisms underlying sutural development. The aim of this study was to evaluate the differences in the gene expression of human cranial tissues and assess the presence of an expression signature reflecting their embryonic origins. METHODS: Using microarray technology, we investigated global gene expression of cells from the frontal and parietal bones and the metopic and sagittal intrasutural mesenchyme (ISM) of four human foetal calvaria. qRT-PCR of a selected group of genes was done to validate the microarray analysis. Paired comparison and correlation analyses were performed on microarray results. RESULTS: Of six paired comparisons, frontal and parietal compartments (distinct tissue types of calvaria, either bone or intrasutural mesenchyme) had the most different gene expression profiles despite being composed of the same tissue type (bone). Correlation analysis revealed two distinct gene expression profiles that separate frontal and metopic compartments from parietal and sagittal compartments. TFAP2A, TFAP2B, ICAM1, SULF1, TNC and FOXF2 were among differentially expressed genes. CONCLUSION: Transcriptional profiles of two groups of tissues, frontal and metopic compartments vs. parietal and sagittal compartments, suggest differences in proliferation, differentiation and extracellular matrix production. Our data suggest that in the second trimester of human foetal development, a gene expression signature of neural crest origin still exists in frontal and metopic compartments while gene expression of parietal and sagittal compartments is more similar to mesoderm. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. KEYWORDS: Cranial suture; Differentiation; Extracellular matrix; Mesoderm; Neural crest; Proliferation PMID 26188427

2014

Direct Brain Recordings Reveal Impaired Neural Function in Infants With Single-Suture Craniosynostosis: A Future Modality for Guiding Management?

J Craniofac Surg. 2014 Dec 19. [Epub ahead of print]

Hashim PW1, Brooks ED, Persing JA, Reuman H, Naples A, Travieso R, Terner J, Steinbacher D, Landi N, Mayes L, McPartland JC.

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Patients with single-suture craniosynostosis (SSC) are at an elevated risk for long-term learning disabilities. Such adverse outcomes indicate that the early development of neural processing in SSC may be abnormal. At present, however, the precise functional derangements of the developing brain remain largely unknown. Event-related potentials (ERPs) are a form of noninvasive neuroimaging that provide direct measurements of cortical activity and have shown value in predicting long-term cognitive functioning. The current study used ERPs to examine auditory processing in infants with SSC to help clarify the developmental onset of delays in this population. METHODS: Fifteen infants with untreated SSC and 23 typically developing controls were evaluated. ERPs were recorded during the presentation of speech sounds. Analyses focused on the P150 and N450 components of auditory processing. RESULTS: Infants with SSC demonstrated attenuated P150 amplitudes relative to typically developing controls. No differences in the N450 component were identified between untreated SSC and controls. CONCLUSIONS: Infants with untreated SSC demonstrate abnormal speech sound processing. Atypicalities are detectable as early as 6 months of age and may represent precursors to long-term language delay. Electrophysiological assessments provide a precise examination of neural processing in SSC and hold potential as a future modality to examine the effects of surgical treatment on brain development.

PMID 25534054

2012

Paleontological and developmental evidence resolve the homology and dual embryonic origin of a mammalian skull bone, the interparietal

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012 Aug 28;109(35):14075-80. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1208693109. Epub 2012 Aug 13.

Koyabu D, Maier W, Sánchez-Villagra MR. Source Palaeontological Institute and Museum, University of Zürich, 8006 Zürich, Switzerland. daisuke.koyabu@pim.uzh.ch

Abstract

The homologies of mammalian skull elements are now fairly well established, except for the controversial interparietal bone. A previous experimental study reported an intriguing mixed origin of the interparietal: the medial portion being derived from the neural crest cells, whereas the lateral portion from the mesoderm. The evolutionary history of such mixed origin remains unresolved, and contradictory reports on the presence or absence and developmental patterns of the interparietal among mammals have complicated the question of its homology. Here we provide an alternative perspective on the evolutionary identity of the interparietal, based on a comprehensive study across more than 300 extinct and extant taxa, integrating embryological and paleontological data. Although the interparietal has been regarded as being lost in various lineages, our investigation on embryos demonstrates its presence in all extant mammalian "orders." The generally accepted paradigm has regarded the interparietal as consisting of two elements that are homologized to the postparietals of basal amniotes. The tabular bones have been postulated as being lost during the rise of modern mammals. However, our results demonstrate that the interparietal consists not of two but of four elements. We propose that the tabulars of basal amniotes are conserved as the lateral interparietal elements, which quickly fuse to the medial elements at the embryonic stage, and that the postparietals are homologous to the medial elements. Hence, the dual developmental origin of the mammalian interparietal can be explained as the evolutionary consequence of the fusion between the crest-derived "postparietals" and the mesoderm-derived "tabulars."

PMID 22891324


The BMP Ligand Gdf6 Prevents Differentiation of Coronal Suture Mesenchyme in Early Cranial Development

PLoS One. 2012;7(5):e36789. Epub 2012 May 31.

Clendenning DE, Mortlock DP. Source Department of Molecular Physiology and Biophysics, Center for Human Genetics Research, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, Tennessee, United States of America.

Abstract

Growth Differentiation Factor-6 (Gdf6) is a member of the Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) family of secreted signaling molecules. Previous studies have shown that Gdf6 plays a role in formation of a diverse subset of skeletal joints. In mice, loss of Gdf6 results in fusion of the coronal suture, the intramembranous joint that separates the frontal and parietal bones. Although the role of GDFs in the development of cartilaginous limb joints has been studied, limb joints are developmentally quite distinct from cranial sutures and how Gdf6 controls suture formation has remained unclear. In this study we show that coronal suture fusion in the Gdf6-/- mouse is due to accelerated differentiation of suture mesenchyme, prior to the onset of calvarial ossification. Gdf6 is expressed in the mouse frontal bone primordia from embryonic day (E) 10.5 through 12.5. In the Gdf6-/- embryo, the coronal suture fuses prematurely and concurrently with the initiation of osteogenesis in the cranial bones. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and Runx2 expression assays both showed that the suture width is reduced in Gdf6+/- embryos and is completely absent in Gdf6-/- embryos by E12.5. ALP activity is also increased in the suture mesenchyme of Gdf6+/- embryos compared to wild-type. This suggests Gdf6 delays differentiation of the mesenchyme occupying the suture, prior to the onset of ossification. Therefore, although BMPs are known to promote bone formation, Gdf6 plays an inhibitory role to prevent the osteogenic differentiation of the coronal suture mesenchyme.

PMID 22693558

The human calvaria: a review of embryology, anatomy, pathology, and molecular development

Childs Nerv Syst. 2012 Jan;28(1):23-31. Epub 2011 Nov 27.

Tubbs RS, Bosmia AN, Cohen-Gadol AA. Source Department of Neurosurgery, Children's Hospital, Ambulatory Care Center, 1600 7th Avenue South, Birmingham, AL 35294, USA. shane.tubbs@chsys.org

Abstract

INTRODUCTION: The human skull is a complex structure that deserves continued study. Few studies have directed their attention to the development, pathology, and molecular formation of the human calvaria. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A review of the medical literature using standard search engines was performed to locate studies regarding the human calvaria. RESULTS: The formation of the human calvaria is a complex interaction between bony and meningeal elements. Derailment of these interactions may result in deformation of this part of the skull. CONCLUSIONS: Knowledge of the anatomy, formation, and pathology of the human calvaria will be of use to the clinician that treats skull diseases. With an increased understanding of genetic and molecular biology, treatment paradigms for calvarial issues may change.

PMID 22120469

Principles of cranial base ossification in humans and rats

Acta Otolaryngol. 2012 Apr;132(4):349-54. doi: 10.3109/00016489.2011.642814. Epub 2011 Dec 27.

Santaolalla-Montoya F, Martinez-Ibargüen A, Sánchez-Fernández JM, Sánchez-del-Rey A. Source Otorhinolaryngology Department, School of Medicine, University of the Basque Country, Spain. Francisco.santaolalla@ehu.es Abstract CONCLUSIONS: 1. The principle of bilateral symmetry depends on the chordal cartilage that is the keystone in cranial base ossification in rats and humans, due to its anatomical situation and for the production of the chordin protein that regulates the bone morphogenetic protein BMP-7. 2. In humans and in rats, foramen lacerum closure follows a line of intramembranous ossification that depends on BMP-7, regulated by the first branchial pouch. 3. The cranial base ossification patterns and centres are similar in humans and in rats, except in the otic capsule, palate and the lateral pterygoid plate. 4. The neural crest may induce cranial ossification through the cranial nerves. OBJECTIVES: To study the patterns of cranial base ossification in humans and in rats, considering the chordal cartilage, and the otic, nasal and orbit capsules, as well as the participation of the branchial arches and pouches. METHODS: This was a light microscopy study of human fetal specimens obtained from spontaneous abortions with the following crown-rump-lengths (crl) 45, 74, 90, 134, 145 and 270 mm, and a 1-day-old neonate (360 mm crl), who had died of sudden death syndrome. We also examined Webster albino rat embryos of 16, 18 and 20 days of gestation and a postnatal series of rats 8 h and 1, 3, 4, 6, 7, 10 and 13 days old, as well as adult animals. RESULTS: In the 45 mm human fetus, the chordal cartilage with the nasal, otic and orbit capsules initiates cranial base ossification. Foramen lacerum closure begins in the 16-day-old rat embryo, following a line of membranous ossification between the external pterygoid process and the lateral alisphenoidal wing at ovalis foramen level. This is not a timing symmetrical process, which may persist until the 10th postnatal day in the rat. In the human fetus of 74 mm, the foramen lacerum space is closed by a membranous fusion ossification between the chordal cartilage and otic capsule, finishing at the 270 mm specimen. Endochondral ossification of the human otic capsule first appeared in the 145 mm (18 weeks) fetal specimen with four ossifying centres. The rat otic cartilaginous capsule showed rapid endochondral ossification, in the third and fourth postnatal day specimens.

PMID 22201370

http://informahealthcare.com/doi/abs/10.3109/00016489.2011.642814

2011

Morphological and morphometric study on sphenoid and basioccipital ossification in normal human fetuses

Congenit Anom (Kyoto). 2011 Sep;51(3):138-48. doi: 10.1111/j.1741-4520.2011.00322.x.

Zhang Q, Wang H, Udagawa J, Otani H. Source Department of Developmental Biology, Shimane University, Izumo, Japan.

Abstract

Congenital anomalies of the brain frequently correspond to cranial base anomalies, and a detailed description of morphology and individual variations in the developing cranial base is of clinical importance for diagnosing anomalies. Development of the human cranial base has been studied using dissection, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging, each of which has advantages and disadvantages. We here examined development of the normal human fetal cranial base using bone staining, which allows for direct observation of the ossification centers and precise three-dimensional measurements. We observed alizarin red S-stained sphenoids and basiocciputs of 22 normal formalin-fixed human fetuses with crown-rump lengths (CRL) of 115-175 mm. We defined landmarks and measured sphenoids and basiocciputs using a fine caliper. Growth patterns of these ossifying bones were obtained, and we found similarities and differences among the growth patterns. We also observed individual variations in the ossification patterns, in particular, single- or double-ossification center patterns for the basisphenoid. The orbitosphenoid and basisphenoid widths and ratios of the widths to the total cranial base width were significantly different between the two pattern groups, whereas the other measurements and their ratios to the total cranial base did not differ between the groups. We measured the cerebrum and pons in different sets of 22 human fetuses with CRLs of 105-186 mm and found close relationships with the development of corresponding parts of the cranial base. The results contribute to the quantitative and qualitative information about the growth patterns and variations during human fetal cranial base development. © 2011 The Authors. Congenital Anomalies © 2011 Japanese Teratology Society.

PMID 21848997

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1741-4520.2011.00322.x/abstract;jsessionid=D215C1671CDF1C62716033D0D5E688F1.d04t04


Modeling of the human fetal skull base growth: interest in new volumetrics morphometric tools

Early Hum Dev. 2011 Apr;87(4):239-45. doi: 10.1016/j.earlhumdev.2011.01.022.

Herlin C, Largey A, deMatteï C, Daurès JP, Bigorre M, Captier G. Source Craniofacial and Plastic Pediatric Surgery Unit, Lapeyronie Hospital, Montpellier, 371 Av Doyen Gaston Giraud, 34 295 Montpellier, France. christian.herl@free.fr Abstract BACKGROUND: Research on the skull base is important to improve our understanding of the growth and development of the modern human skull. To study the growth of the human fetal skull base, we assessed a new geometric morphometric tool, which does not require the use of bone landmarks. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Seven dry fetal skulls of an estimated gestational age ranging from 15 to 27 weeks were studied. Each skull was scanned using a standard CT scan and the image sets were post-processed to extract volumetric data by segmenting the skull base into predefined regions of interest. Our method of analysis was based on the inertial properties of reconstructed volumes. RESULTS: The volumetric study of the skulls highlighted an asynchronous speed of growth between the pre and post-chordal parts of the skull base whose preferential growth are in the vertical and horizontal planes. We also found different speeds of growth in the pre-chordal part depending on the type of ossification (endochondral or membranous). The overall shape of the skull base bones were preserved during the period studied except for the petrous pyramids. The expansion of bone parts was isometric with reference to a central point that was located at the intrasphenoidal synchondrosis. Finally, the analysis of the basicranial angles corroborated data from the literature in the sagittal plane and allowed their study also in the frontal and horizontal planes. CONCLUSIONS: This three-dimensional volumetric approach is a necessary complement to studies that are performed in the sagittal plane and are based on the identification of landmarks. The geometric morphometric method used by authors permitted to obtain original informations on the growth kinetics and bone tridimensional movements of the human fetal skull base.

Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

PMID 21300487

2010

Design and construction of a brain phantom to simulate neonatal MR images

Comput Med Imaging Graph. 2010 Dec 10. [Epub ahead of print]

Kazemi K, Moghaddam HA, Grebe R, Gondry-Jouet C, Wallois F.

Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Shiraz University of Technology, Shiraz, Iran; GRAMFC EA 4293, Faculty of Medicine, University of Picardie Jules Verne, 80036 Amiens, France. Abstract This paper presents the design and construction of a 3D digital neonatal neurocranial phantom and its application for the simulation of brain magnetic resonance (MR) images. Commonly used digital brain phantoms (e.g. BrainWeb) are based on the adult brain. With the growing interest in computer-aided methods for neonatal MR image processing, there is a growing demand a digital phantom and brain MR image simulator especially for the neonatal brains. This is due to the pronounced differences between adult and neonatal brains not only in terms of size but also, more importantly, in terms of geometrical proportions and the need to subdivide white matter into two different tissue types in neonates. Therefore the neonatal brain phantom created in the here presented work consists of 9 different tissue types: skin, fat, muscle, skull, dura mater, gray matter, myelinated white matter, nonmyelinated white matter and cerebrospinal fluid. Each voxel has a vector consisting of 9 components, one for each of these nine tissue types. This digital phantom can be used to map simulated magnetic resonance signal intensities resulting in simulated MR images of the newborns head. These images with controlled degradation of the image data present a representative, reproducible data set ideal for development and evaluation of neonatal MRI analysis methods, e.g. segmentation and registration algorithms.

Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. PMID 21146956


Fibroblast growth factor receptor signaling crosstalk in skeletogenesis

Sci Signal. 2010 Nov 2;3(146):re9.

Miraoui H, Marie PJ.

Laboratory of Osteoblast Biology and Pathology, INSERM UMR606 and University Paris Diderot, Paris 75475, Cedex 10, France. Abstract Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) play important roles in the control of embryonic and postnatal skeletal development by activating signaling through FGF receptors (FGFRs). Germline gain-of-function mutations in FGFR constitutively activate FGFR signaling, causing chondrocyte and osteoblast dysfunctions that result in skeletal dysplasias. Crosstalk between the FGFR pathway and other signaling cascades controls skeletal precursor cell differentiation. Genetic analyses revealed that the interplay of WNT and FGFR1 determines the fate and differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells during mouse craniofacial skeletogenesis. Additionally, interactions between FGFR signaling and other receptor tyrosine kinase networks, such as those mediated by the epidermal growth factor receptor and platelet-derived growth factor receptor α, were associated with excessive osteoblast differentiation and bone formation in the human skeletal dysplasia called craniosynostosis, which is a disorder of skull development. We review the roles of FGFR signaling and its crosstalk with other pathways in controlling skeletal cell fate and discuss how this crosstalk could be pharmacologically targeted to correct the abnormal cell phenotype in skeletal dysplasias caused by aberrant FGFR signaling.

PMID 21045207 The BMP antagonist noggin regulates cranial suture fusion STEPHEN M. WARREN, LISA J. BRUNET, RICHARD M. HARLAND, ARIS N.,ECONOMIDES & MICHAEL T. LONGAKER

"During skull development, the cranial connective tissue framework undergoes intramembranous ossification to form skull bones (calvaria). As the calvarial bones advance to envelop the brain, fibrous sutures form between the calvarial plates. Expansion of the brain is coupled with calvarial growth through a series of tissue interactions within the cranial suture complex. Craniosynostosis, or premature cranial suture fusion, results in an abnormal skull shape, blindness and mental retardation. Recent studies have demonstrated that gain-of-function mutations in fibroblast growth factor receptors ( fgfr ) are associated with syndromic forms of craniosynostosis. Noggin, an antagonist of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), is required for embryonic neural tube, somites and skeleton patterning. Here we show that noggin is expressed postnatally in the suture mesenchyme of patent, but not fusing, cranial sutures, and that noggin expression is suppressed by FGF2 and syndromic fgfr signalling. Since noggin misexpression prevents cranial suture fusion in vitro and in vivo , we suggest that syndromic fgfr -mediated craniosynostoses may be the result of inappropriate downregulation of noggin expression."

2009

Pediatric craniofacial surgery for craniosynostosis: Our experience and current concepts: Part -1

J Pediatr Neurosci. 2009 Jul;4(2):86-99. doi: 10.4103/1817-1745.57327.

Anantheswar YN, Venkataramana NK. Source Department of Plastic Surgery, Manipal Hospital, Kengeri, Bangalore, India.

Abstract

Craniostenosis is a disease characterized by untimely fusion of cranial sutures resulting in a variety of craniofacial deformities and neurological sequelae due to alteration in cranial volume and restriction of brain growth. This involves vault sutures predominantly, but cranial base is not immune. Association with a variety of syndromes makes the management decision complex. These children need careful evaluation by multiple specialists to have strategic treatment options. Parental counseling is an important and integral part of the treatment. Recent advancements in the surgical techniques and concept of team approach have significantly enhanced the safety and outcome of these children. We had an opportunity of treating 57 children with craniostenosis in the last 15 years at our craniofacial service. Out of them, 40 were nonsyndromic and 17 were syndromic variety. We describe our successful results along with individualized operative technical modifications adopted based on the current understanding of the disease.

PMID 21887189

Pediatric craniofacial surgery for craniosynostosis: Our experience and current concepts: Parts -2

J Pediatr Neurosci. 2009 Jul;4(2):100-7. doi: 10.4103/1817-1745.57328.

Anantheswar YN, Venkataramana NK. Source Department of Plastic Surgery, Manipal Hospital, Kengeri, Bangalore, India.

Abstract

Craniostenosis associated with other syndromes poses several clinical and management challenges. Involvement of cranial, facial, and systemic defects with an underlying genetic abnormality needs comprehensive understanding, to plan appropriate and safe treatment modalities. Often, these children require staging involving several/multiple surgical procedures. Unsuccessful outcomes and retrusion of the deformities are common in comparison to the nonsyndromic variety. We present our experience in treating 17 children with syndromic craniostenosis with successful outcomes and minimal morbidity. We also describe the principles behind the staging. Technology adoption has improved the results as well as reduced the complications to an acceptable minimum.

PMID 21887190

2008

Development and tissue origins of the mammalian cranial base

Dev Biol. 2008 Oct 1;322(1):121-32. doi: 10.1016/j.ydbio.2008.07.016. Epub 2008 Jul 22.

McBratney-Owen B, Iseki S, Bamforth SD, Olsen BR, Morriss-Kay GM. Source Harvard School of Dental Medicine, Department of Developmental Biology, 190 Longwood Avenue, Boston, MA, 02115, USA. bmcbratneyowen@post.harvard.edu Abstract The vertebrate cranial base is a complex structure composed of bone, cartilage and other connective tissues underlying the brain; it is intimately connected with development of the face and cranial vault. Despite its central importance in craniofacial development, morphogenesis and tissue origins of the cranial base have not been studied in detail in the mouse, an important model organism. We describe here the location and time of appearance of the cartilages of the chondrocranium. We also examine the tissue origins of the mouse cranial base using a neural crest cell lineage cell marker, Wnt1-Cre/R26R, and a mesoderm lineage cell marker, Mesp1-Cre/R26R. The chondrocranium develops between E11 and E16 in the mouse, beginning with development of the caudal (occipital) chondrocranium, followed by chondrogenesis rostrally to form the nasal capsule, and finally fusion of these two parts via the midline central stem and the lateral struts of the vault cartilages. X-Gal staining of transgenic mice from E8.0 to 10 days post-natal showed that neural crest cells contribute to all of the cartilages that form the ethmoid, presphenoid, and basisphenoid bones with the exception of the hypochiasmatic cartilages. The basioccipital bone and non-squamous parts of the temporal bones are mesoderm derived. Therefore the prechordal head is mostly composed of neural crest-derived tissues, as predicted by the New Head Hypothesis. However, the anterior location of the mesoderm-derived hypochiasmatic cartilages, which are closely linked with the extra-ocular muscles, suggests that some tissues associated with the visual apparatus may have evolved independently of the rest of the "New Head".

PMID 18680740

Three-dimensional ontogenetic shape changes in the human cranium during the fetal period

J Anat. 2008 May;212(5):627-35. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-7580.2008.00884.x.

Morimoto N, Ogihara N, Katayama K, Shiota K. Source Laboratory of Physical Anthropology, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Japan. morimoto@aim.uzh.ch <morimoto@aim.uzh.ch> Abstract Knowledge of the pattern of human craniofacial development in the fetal period is important for understanding the mechanisms underlying the emergence of variations in human craniofacial morphology. However, the precise character of the prenatal ontogenetic development of the human cranium has yet to be fully established. This study investigates ontogenetic changes in cranial shape in the fetal period, as exhibited in Japanese fetal specimens housed at Kyoto University. A total of 31 human fetal specimens aged from approximately 8 to 42 weeks of gestation underwent helical computed tomographic scanning, and 68 landmarks were digitized on the internal and external surfaces of the extracted crania. Ontogenetic shape change was then analyzed cross-sectionally and three-dimensionally using a geometric morphometric technique. The results of the present study are generally consistent with previously reported findings. It was found that during the prenatal ontogenetic process, the growth rate of the length of the cranium is greater than that of the width and height, and the growth rate of the length of the posterior cranial base is smaller than that of the anterior cranial base. Furthermore, it was observed that the change in shape of the human viscerocranium is smaller than that of the neurocranium during the fetal period, and that concurrently the basicranium extends by approximately 8 degrees due to the relative elevation of the basilar and lateral parts of occipital bone. These specific growth-related changes are the opposite of those reported for the postnatal period. Our findings therefore indicate that the allometric pattern of the human cranium is not a simple continuous transformation, but changes drastically from before to after birth.

PMID 18430090

2000

MR, CT, and plain film imaging of the developing skull base in fetal specimens

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2000 Oct;21(9):1699-706.

Nemzek WR, Brodie HA, Hecht ST, Chong BW, Babcook CJ, Seibert JA. Source Department of Radiology, University of California, Davis Medical Center, Sacramento 95817, USA. Abstract BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The developing fetal skull base has previously been studied via dissection and low-resolution CT. Most of the central skull base develops from endochondral ossification through an intermediary chondrocranium. We traced the development of the normal fetal skull base by using plain radiography, MR imaging, and CT. METHODS: Twenty-nine formalin-fixed fetal specimens ranging from 9 to 24 weeks' gestational age were examined with mammographic plain radiography, CT, and MR imaging. Skull base development and ossification were assessed. RESULTS: The postsphenoid cartilages enclose the pituitary and fuse to form the basisphenoid, from which the sella turcica and the posterior body of the sphenoid bone originate. The presphenoid cartilages will form the anterior body of the sphenoid bone. Portions of the presphenoid cartilage give rise to the mesethmoid cartilage, which forms the central portion of the anterior skull base. Ossification begins in the occipital bone (12 weeks) and progresses anteriorly. The postsphenoid (14 weeks) and then the presphenoid portion (17 weeks) of the sphenoid bone ossify. Ossification is seen laterally (16 weeks) in the orbitosphenoid, which contributes to the lesser wing of the sphenoid, and the alisphenoid (15 weeks), which forms the greater wing. CONCLUSION: MR imaging can show early progressive ossification of the cartilaginous skull base and its relation to intracranial structures. The study of fetal developmental anatomy may lead to a better understanding of abnormalities of the skull base. PMID 11039353

Historic

1937

The Development of the Vertebrate Skull. G. R. de Beer, M.A., D.Sc., F.L.S. 552 pp., illust., $9.50. McAinsh, Toronto, 1937.

Anyone who has ever attempted even in a general way to compare the skull of man with that of lower mammals or reptiles and to determine the morphology of the different parts will realize the thorny and difficult field into which this book ventures. And it enters this field in no casual way but to a depth of 515 closely printed pages with abundant simple and clear illustrations. ,

The book is divided into three parts. The first deals with some general questions of the nature of cartilage and bone and goes on to review Goethe’s theory that the skull is made up of several fused vertebre. This theory of course has not stood the test of time but out of it arose the recognition of the segmental structure of the posterior end of. the skull.