Talk:Musculoskeletal System - Pelvis Development

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Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2019, September 19) Embryology Musculoskeletal System - Pelvis Development. Retrieved from


Position of pelvis in the 3rd month of life predicts further motor development

Gajewska E1, Sobieska M2, Moczko J3.

Hum Mov Sci. 2018 Jun;59:37-45. doi: 10.1016/j.humov.2018.03.007. Epub 2018 Mar 27.

Abstract The aim of the study is to select elements of motor skills assessed at 3 months that provide the best predictive properties for motor development at 9 months. In all children a physiotherapeutic assessment of the quantitative and qualitative development at the age of 3 months was performed in the prone and supine positions, which was presented in previous papers as the quantitative and qualitative assessment sheet of motor development. The neurological examination at the age of 9 months was based on the Denver Development Screening Test II and the evaluation of reflexes, muscle tone (hypotony and hypertony), and symmetry. The particular elements of motor performance assessment were shown to have distinct predictive value for further motor development (as assessed at 9 months), and the pelvis position was the strongest predictive element. Irrespective of the symptomatic and anamnestic factors the inappropriate motor performance may already be detected in the 3rd month of life and is predictive for further motor development. The assessment of the motor performance should be performed in both supine and prone positions. The proper position of pelvis summarizes the proper positioning of the whole spine and ensures proper further motor development. To our knowledge, the presented motor development assessment sheet allows the earliest prediction of motor disturbances. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. PMID: 29602050 DOI: 10.1016/j.humov.2018.03.007


Anatomy, Development, and Function of the Human Pelvis

Anat Rec (Hoboken). 2017 Apr;300(4):628-632. doi: 10.1002/ar.23561.

DeSilva JM1, Rosenberg KR2. Author information Abstract The pelvis is an anatomically complex and functionally informative bone that contributes directly to both human locomotion and obstetrics. Because of the pelvis' important role in obstetrics, it is one of the most sexually dimorphic bony elements of the human body. The complex intersection of pelvic dimorphism, locomotion, and obstetrics has been reenergized by exciting new research, and many papers in this special issue of the pelvis help provide clarity on the relationship between pelvic form (especially female) and locomotor function. Compared to the pelvis of our ape relatives, the human pelvis is uniquely shaped; it is superoinferiorly short and stout, and mediolaterally wide-critical adaptations for bipedalism that are already present in some form very early in the history of the hominin lineage. In this issue, 13 original research papers address the anatomy, development, variation, and function of the modern human pelvis, with implications for understanding the selection pressures that shaped and continue to shape this bone. This rich collection of scholarship moves our understanding of the pelvis forward, while raising dozens of new questions that we hope will serve as inspiration for colleagues and students (both current and future) puzzled by this fascinatingly complex bone. Anat Rec, 300:628-632, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. KEYWORDS: bipedalism; hominin; obstetrics; pelvis evolution PMID: 28297176 DOI: 10.1002/ar.23561

Ontogeny of the Human Pelvis

Anat Rec (Hoboken). 2017 Apr;300(4):643-652. doi: 10.1002/ar.23541.

Verbruggen SW1, Nowlan NC1.

Abstract The human pelvis has evolved over time into a remarkable structure, optimised into an intricate architecture that transfers the entire load of the upper body into the lower limbs, while also facilitating bipedal movement. The pelvic girdle is composed of two hip bones, os coxae, themselves each formed from the gradual fusion of the ischium, ilium and pubis bones. Unlike the development of the classical long bones, a complex timeline of events must occur in order for the pelvis to arise from the embryonic limb buds. An initial blastemal structure forms from the mesenchyme, with chondrification of this mass leading to the first recognisable elements of the pelvis. Primary ossification centres initiate in utero, followed post-natally by secondary ossification at a range of locations, with these processes not complete until adulthood. This cascade of events can vary between individuals, with recent evidence suggesting that fetal activity can affect the normal development of the pelvis. This review surveys the current literature on the ontogeny of the human pelvis. Anat Rec, 300:643-652, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. KEYWORDS: acetabulum; chondrification; development; hip joint; morphogenesis; ossification PMID: 28297183 DOI: 10.1002/ar.23541


A set of 4D pediatric XCAT reference phantoms for multi modality research

Med Phys. 2014 Mar;41(3):033701. doi: 10.1118/1.4864238.

Norris H1, Zhang Y1, Bond J1, Sturgeon GM1, Minhas A2, Tward DJ3, Ratnanather JT3, Miller MI3, Frush D2, Samei E1, Segars WP1. Author information


PURPOSE: The authors previously developed an adult population of 4D extended cardiac-torso (XCAT) phantoms for multimodality imaging research. In this work, the authors develop a reference set of 4D pediatric XCAT phantoms consisting of male and female anatomies at ages of newborn, 1, 5, 10, and 15 years. These models will serve as the foundation from which the authors will create a vast population of pediatric phantoms for optimizing pediatric CT imaging protocols. METHODS: Each phantom was based on a unique set of CT data from a normal patient obtained from the Duke University database. The datasets were selected to best match the reference values for height and weight for the different ages and genders according to ICRP Publication 89. The major organs and structures were segmented from the CT data and used to create an initial pediatric model defined using nonuniform rational B-spline surfaces. The CT data covered the entire torso and part of the head. To complete the body, the authors manually added on the top of the head and the arms and legs using scaled versions of the XCAT adult models or additional models created from cadaver data. A multichannel large deformation diffeomorphic metric mapping algorithm was then used to calculate the transform from a template XCAT phantom (male or female 50th percentile adult) to the target pediatric model. The transform was applied to the template XCAT to fill in any unsegmented structures within the target phantom and to implement the 4D cardiac and respiratory models in the new anatomy. The masses of the organs in each phantom were matched to the reference values given in ICRP Publication 89. The new reference models were checked for anatomical accuracy via visual inspection. RESULTS: The authors created a set of ten pediatric reference phantoms that have the same level of detail and functionality as the original XCAT phantom adults. Each consists of thousands of anatomical structures and includes parameterized models for the cardiac and respiratory motions. Based on patient data, the phantoms capture the anatomic variations of childhood, such as the development of bone in the skull, pelvis, and long bones, and the growth of the vertebrae and organs. The phantoms can be combined with existing simulation packages to generate realistic pediatric imaging data from different modalities. CONCLUSIONS: The development of patient-derived pediatric computational phantoms is useful in providing variable anatomies for simulation. Future work will expand this ten-phantom base to a host of pediatric phantoms representative of the public at large. This can provide a means to evaluate and improve pediatric imaging devices and to optimize CT protocols in terms of image quality and radiation dose.

PMID 24593745