Talk:Musculoskeletal System - Appendicular Skeleton Development

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Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2021, June 19) Embryology Musculoskeletal System - Appendicular Skeleton Development. Retrieved from


Suzuki Y, Matsubayashi J, Ji X, Yamada S, Yoneyama A, Imai H, Matsuda T, Aoyama T & Takakuwa T. (2019). Morphogenesis of the femur at different stages of normal human development. PLoS ONE , 14, e0221569. PMID: 31442281 DOI.

Abstract The present study aimed to better characterize the morphogenesis of the femur from the embryonic to the early fetal periods. Sixty-two human fetal specimens (crown-rump length [CRL] range: 11.4-185 mm) from the Kyoto Collection were used for this study. The morphogenesis and internal differentiation process of the femur were analyzed in 3D using phase-contrast X-ray computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. The cartilaginous femur was first observed at Carnegie stage 18. Major anatomical landmarks were formed prior to the initiation of ossification at the center of the diaphysis (CRL, 40 mm), as described by Bardeen. The region with very high signal intensity (phase 5 according to Streeter's classification; i.e., area described as cartilage disintegration) emerged at the center of the diaphysis, which split the region with slightly low signal intensity (phase 4; i.e., cartilage cells of maximum size) in fetuses with a CRL of 40.0 mm. The phase 4 and phase 5 regions became confined to the metaphysis, which might become the epiphyseal cartilage plate. Femur length and ossified shaft length (OSL) showed a strong positive correlation with CRL. The OSL-to-femur length ratio rapidly increased in fetuses with CRL between 40 and 75 mm, which became moderately increased in fetuses with a CRL of ≥75 mm. Cartilage canal invasion occurred earlier at the proximal epiphysis (CRL, 62 mm) than at the distal epiphysis (CRL, 75 mm). Morphometry and Procrustes analysis indicated that changes in the femur shape after ossification were limited, which were mainly detected at the time of initial ossification and shortly after that. In contrast, femoral neck anteversion and torsion of the femoral head continuously changed during the fetal period. Our data could aid in understanding the morphogenesis of the femur and in differentiating normal and abnormal development during the early fetal period. PMID: 31442281 PMCID: PMC6707600 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0221569


Development of human hip joint in the second and the third trimester of pregnancy; a cadaveric study

BMC Dev Biol. 2013 May 7;13(1):19. [Epub ahead of print]

Mas O A, Sibi Ski M, Topol MA, Krajewski K, Grzegorzewski A. Abstract BACKGROUND: The purpose of the study was an evaluation of fetal hip joint morphology during the second and the third trimester of pregnancy. Serial sections were performed on 23 cadaver infants. RESULTS: The mean lunar age was 6.6 months. Femoral shaft length (FSL) and width of the proximal and distal epiphysis were x-rayed to determine fetal age. The neck shaft angle (NSA), the femoral antetorsion angle (FAA), the acetabulum anteversion angle (AAA) and the acetabulum slope angle (ASA) were measured. Hip development ratios were plotted for all cadaveric species and revealed: flat FSL/NSA slope pattern, upward FSL/FAA slope pattern and downward slope pattern for FSL/ASA and FSL/AAA ratios. The changes, observed during the developmental period, were not statistically significant. NSA did not change during the second or the third pregnancy trimester. FAA increased during pregnancy but the changes were not statistically significant. AA, as well as ASA, showed a decreasing trend during the second and the third pregnancy trimester, however, with no correlations to age. CONCLUSION: Despite an increasing depth and growing dimensions of the acetabulum in the uterus, its orientation does not change in any significant way.

PMID 23651510