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Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2019, October 14) Embryology Molecular Development. Retrieved from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Talk:Molecular_Development
Topology of mammalian developmental enhancers and their regulatory landscapes
Nature. 2013 Oct 24;502(7472):499-506. doi: 10.1038/nature12753.
de Laat W1, Duboule D. Author information
How a complex animal can arise from a fertilized egg is one of the oldest and most fascinating questions of biology, the answer to which is encoded in the genome. Body shape and organ development, and their integration into a functional organism all depend on the precise expression of genes in space and time. The orchestration of transcription relies mostly on surrounding control sequences such as enhancers, millions of which form complex regulatory landscapes in the non-coding genome. Recent research shows that high-order chromosome structures make an important contribution to enhancer functionality by triggering their physical interactions with target genes.
Left–right asymmetry: cilia stir up new surprises in the node
developmental genetic regulatory networks
Pattern, growth, and control
Cell. 2011 Mar 18;144(6):955-69.
Lander AD. Source Department of Developmental and Cell Biology, Center for Complex Biological Systems, University of California, Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697-2300, USA. email@example.com
Systems biology seeks not only to discover the machinery of life but to understand how such machinery is used for control, i.e., for regulation that achieves or maintains a desired, useful end. This sort of goal-directed, engineering-centered approach also has deep historical roots in developmental biology. Not surprisingly, developmental biology is currently enjoying an influx of ideas and methods from systems biology. This Review highlights current efforts to elucidate design principles underlying the engineering objectives of robustness, precision, and scaling as they relate to the developmental control of growth and pattern formation. Examples from vertebrate and invertebrate development are used to illustrate general lessons, including the value of integral feedback in achieving set-point control; the usefulness of self-organizing behavior; the importance of recognizing and appropriately handling noise; and the absence of "free lunch." By illuminating such principles, systems biology is helping to create a functional framework within which to make sense of the mechanistic complexity of organismal development. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
I am 2.85 billion nucleotides of DNA, but so is a chimpanzee, and all this DNA encodes only about 20,000-25,000 protein-coding genes.
In development, I am not that different from a mouse or a fly and many of the signals that regulate development are used time and time again.
We have come a long way from just observing development to now wanting to understand how the complex program of development is controlled. Using new research tools and some excellent animal models researchers have discovered common themes and mechanisms that tie all embryonic development together.
Molecular mechanisms of development is an exciting area and requires a variety of different skills. This page introduces only a few examples and should give you a feel for the topic. Note that each section of system notes has a page covering molecular Development in that system.