Talk:Human Chorionic Gonadotropin

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Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2021, December 3) Embryology Human Chorionic Gonadotropin. Retrieved from

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Human Chorionic Gonadotropin

<pubmed limit=10>Human+Chorionic+Gonadotropin</pubmed>

--Mark Hill 10:46, 17 November 2012 (EST) Good histology images Blaschitz A, Gauster M, Fuchs D, Lang I, Maschke P, et al. (2011) Vascular Endothelial Expression of Indoleamine 2,3-Dioxygenase 1 Forms a Positive Gradient towards the Feto-Maternal Interface. PLoS ONE 6(7): e21774. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0021774


Human Chorionic Gonadotropin Induces Human Macrophages to Form Intracytoplasmic Vacuoles Mimicking Hofbauer Cells in Human Chorionic Villi

Cells Tissues Organs. 2012 Nov 3. [Epub ahead of print]

Yamaguchi M, Ohba T, Tashiro H, Yamada G, Katabuchi H. Source Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Life Sciences, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto, Japan.


The most characteristic morphological feature of macrophages in the stroma of placental villi, known as Hofbauer cells, is their highly vacuolated appearance. They also show positive immunostaining for human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and express messenger ribonucleic acid of the luteinizing hormone/chorionic gonadotropin receptor with a deletion of exon 9 (LH/CG-R Δ9). Maternal hCG enters fetal plasma through the mesenchyme of the placental villi and promotes male sexual differentiation in early pregnancy; therefore, excess hCG may induce aberrant genital differentiation and hCG must be adjusted at the fetomaternal interface. We hypothesized that hCG is regulated by Hofbauer cells and that their peculiar vacuoles are involved in a cell-specific function. To assess the morphological modification and expression of LH/CG-R Δ9 in human macrophages after hCG exposure, the present study examined phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)-treated THP-1 cells, a human monocyte-macrophage cell line. hCG induced transient vacuole formation in PMA-treated THP-1 cells, morphologically mimicking Hofbauer cells. Immunocytochemistry showed that PMA-treated THP-1 cells incorporated hCG but not luteinizing hormone or follicle-stimulating hormone. Western blotting analyses demonstrated that PMA-treated THP-1 cells expressed an immunoreactive 60-kDa protein, designated as endogenous LH/CG-R Δ9. hCG induced a transient reduction in the LH/CG-R Δ9, which was synchronous with the appearance of cytoplasmic vacuoles. In conclusion, human macrophages regulating hCG via cytoplasmic LH/CG-R Δ9 mimic the morphological characteristics of Hofbauer cells. Their vacuoles may be associated with their cell-specific function to protect the fetus from exposure to excess maternal hCG during pregnancy. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

PMID 23128164

A comparison of human chorionic gonadotropin and luteinizing hormone releasing hormone on the induction of spermiation and amplexus in the American toad (Anaxyrus americanus)

Reprod Biol Endocrinol. 2012 Aug 20;10(1):59. [Epub ahead of print]

Kouba AJ, Delbarco-Trillo J, Vance CK, Milam C, Carr M.


ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Captive breeding programs for endangered amphibian species often utilize exogenous hormones for species that are difficult to breed. The purpose of our study was to compare the efficacy of two different hormones at various concentrations on sperm production, quantity and quality over time in order to optimize assisted breeding. METHODS: Male American toads (Anaxyrus americanus) were divided into three separate treatment groups, with animals in each group rotated through different concentrations of luteinizing hormone releasing hormone analog (LHRH; 0.1, 1.0, 4.0 and 32 micrograms/toad), human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG; 50, 100, 200, and 300 IU), or the control over 24 hours. We evaluated the number of males that respond by producing spermic urine, the sperm concentration, percent motility, and quality of forward progression. We also evaluated the effects of hCG and LHRH on reproductive behavior as assessed by amplexus. Data were analyzed using the Generalized Estimating Equations incorporating repeated measures over time and including the main effects of treatment and time, and the treatment by time interaction. RESULTS: The hormone hCG was significantly more effective at stimulating spermiation in male Anaxyrus americanus than LHRH and showed a dose-dependent response in the number of animals producing sperm. At the most effective hCG dose (300 IU), 100 % of the male toads produced sperm, compared to only 35 % for the best LHRH dose tested (4.0 micrograms). In addition to having a greater number of responders (P < 0.05), the 300 IU hCG treatment group had a much higher average sperm concentration (P < 0.05) than the treatment group receiving 4.0 micrograms LHRH. In contrast, these two treatments did not result in significant differences in sperm motility or quality of forward progressive motility. However, more males went into amplexus when treated with LHRH vs. hCG (90 % vs. 75 %) by nine hours post-administration. CONCLUSION: There is a clear dichotomy between the two hormones' physiological responses on gamete production and stimulation of amplexus. Understanding how these two hormones influence physiology and reproductive behaviors in amphibians will have direct bearing on establishing similar breeding protocols for endangered species.

PMID 22905699

hCG, the wonder of today's science

Reprod Biol Endocrinol. 2012 Mar 28;10:24.

Cole LA. Source USA hCG Reference Service, Albuquerque NM 87104, USA.


ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: hCG is a wonder. Firstly, because hCG is such an extreme molecule. hCG is the most acidic glycoprotein containing the highest proportion of sugars. Secondly, hCG exists in 5 common forms. Finally, it has so many functions ranging from control of human pregnancy to human cancer. This review examines these molecules in detail. CONTENT: These 5 molecules, hCG, sulfated hCG, hyperglycosylated hCG, hCG free beta and hyperglycosylated free beta are produced by placental syncytiotrophoblast cells and pituitary gonadotrope cells (group 1), and by placental cytotrophoblast cells and human malignancies (group 2). Group 1 molecules are both hormones that act on the hCG/LH receptor. These molecules are central to human menstrual cycle and human pregnancy. Group 2 molecules are autocrines, that act by antagonizing a TGF beta receptor. These molecules are critical to all advanced malignancies. CONCLUSIONS: The hCG groups are molecules critical to both the molecules of pregnancy or human life, and to the advancement of cancer, or human death.

PMID 22455390

Reproduction. 2012 May 9. [Epub ahead of print] Pharmacokinetics of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) after intramuscular administration in goats (Capra hircus). Holtz W, Saleh M, Shahin M, Wuttke W, Gauly M. Source W Holtz, Animal Science, University of Göttingen, Goettingen, 37075 , Germany. Abstract The present investigation addresses the pharmacokinetics of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), intramuscularly (im) administered to goats. Nine pluriparous does of the Boer goat breed, 2 to 6 years of age and weighing 45 to 60 kg, were administered 500 IU hCG (2 mL Chorulon®) deep into the thigh musculature 18 h after superovulatory FSH-treatment. Blood samples were drawn from the jugular vein at 2 h intervals for the first 24 h, at 6 h intervals until 42 h and at 12 h intervals until 114 h after administration. After centrifugation, plasma hCG concentrations were determined by electro-chemiluminescence immunoassay. Pharmacokinetical parameters were as follows: lag time: 0.4 (SEM 0.1) h; absorption rate constant: 0.34 (SEM 0.002) h; absorption half life: 2.7 (SEM 0.5) h; elimination rate constant: 0.02 (SEM 0.002) h; biological half life: 39.4 (SEM 5.1) h; apparent volume of distribution: 16.9 (SEM 4.3) L. The plasma hCG profile was characterized by an absorption phase of 11.6 (SEM 1.8) h and an elimination phase of 70.0 (SEM 9.8) h, with considerable individual variation in bioavailability and pharmacokinetical parameters. Biological half life was negatively correlated (P < 0.05) with peak concentration (r = - 0.76), absorption rate constant (r = - 0.78) and elimination rate constant (r = - 0.87). The results indicate that after rapid absorption hCG remains in the circulation for an extended period. This has to be taken into account when assessing the stimulatory response to hCG treatment on an ovarian level.

PMID 22573828

Serum biomarkers for predicting pregnancy outcome in women undergoing IVF: human chorionic gonadotropin, progesterone, and inhibin A level at 11 days post-ET

Clin Exp Reprod Med. 2012 Mar;39(1):28-32. Epub 2012 Mar 31.

Kim JH, Shin MS, Yi G, Jee BC, Lee JR, Suh CS, Kim SH. Source Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam, Korea. Abstract OBJECTIVE: This study was performed to assess the prognostic value of serum hCG, progesterone, and inhibin A levels measured at 11 days post-ET for predicting pregnancy outcome in women participating in IVF. METHODS: Between May 2005 and April 2008, sera were obtained from 70 infertile women who underwent IVF-ET at 11 days post-ET and stored. HCG, progesterone, and inhibin A levels were measured by commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits. The predictive accuracy of hCG, progesterone, and inhibin A levels for establishment of intrauterine pregnancy and ongoing pregnancy was calculated by receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis. RESULTS: For the prediction of intrauterine and ongoing pregnancy, serum hCG was better than progesterone and inhibin A. The predictive performance of progesterone and inhibin A was similar. The serum progesterone and inhibin A levels were significantly correlated each other (r=0.915, p=0.010). CONCLUSION: A single measurement of the serum hCG level is sufficient to predict pregnancy outcome in IVF-ET patients.

PMID 22563548