Talk:Goat Development

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Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2021, July 31) Embryology Goat Development. Retrieved from


Activin-A receptor expression patterns in prepubertal goat oocytes and derived embryos

Reprod Domest Anim. 2019 May;54(5):804-807. doi: 10.1111/rda.13416. Epub 2019 Mar 7.

Morató R1, Hammami S1, Paramio MT1, Izquierdo D1.

This study examines the presence of activin IIA and IIB receptors (ActR-IIA and ActR-IIB) by Western blotting and immunocytochemistry in immature and IVM-oocytes, 2 to 8-cells embryos and blastocysts from prepubertal goats. Western blotting revealed that activin receptors are synthesized during oocyte maturation and embryo development. In the immunocytochemistry experiments, no immunostaining for either receptor was detected in oocytes while both receptors were immunolabelled in all the cells of cleaved embryos. In blastocysts, while ActR-IIA expression appeared evenly distributed in the two cell lineages, inner cell mass and trophectoderm, the ActR-IIB immunosignal was restricted mainly to the inner cell mass. Our findings reveal the presence of activin type II receptors (ActR-IIA and ActR-IIB) in in vitro matured prepubertal goat oocytes and blastocyst-stage embryos. The expression of these receptors could be a key factor in understanding differences between competent and incompetent oocytes. © 2019 Blackwell Verlag GmbH. KEYWORDS: IVEP; embryo development; juvenile goat PMID: 30786073

Dynamics of The Expression of Pluripotency and Lineage Specific Genes in The Pre and Peri-Implantation Goat Embryo

Cell J. 2019 Jul;21(2):194-203. doi: 10.22074/cellj.2019.5732. Epub 2019 Feb 20.

HosseinNia P1,2,3, Hajian M1, Jafarpour F1, Hosseini SM1, Tahmoorespur M2, Nasr-Esfahani MH4.

OBJECTIVE: Two critical points of early development are the first and second lineage segregations, which are regulated by a wide spectrum of molecular and cellular factors. Gene regulatory networks, are one of the important components which handle inner cell mass (ICM) and trophectoderm (TE) fates and the pluripotency status across different mammalian species. Considering the importance of goats in agriculture and biotechnology, this study set out to investigate the dynamics of expression of the core pluripotency markers at the mRNA and protein levels. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this experimental study, the expression pattern of three pluripotency markers (Oct4, Nanog and Sox2) and the linage specific markers (Rex1, Gata4 and Cdx2) were quantitatively assessed in in vitro matured (MII) oocytes and embryos at three distinctive stages: 8-16 cell stage, day-7 (D7) blastocysts and D14 blastocysts. Moreover, expression of Nanog, Oct4, Sox2 proteins, and their localization in the goat blastocyst was observed through immunocytochemistry. RESULTS: Relative levels of mRNA transcripts for Nanog and Sox2 in D3 (8-16 cell) embryos were significantly higher than D7 blastocysts and mature oocytes, while Oct4 was only significantly higher than D7 blastocysts. However, the expression pattern of Rex1, as an epiblast linage marker, decreased from the oocyte to the D14 stage. The expression pattern of Gata4 and Cdx2, as extra embryonic linage markers, also showed a similar trend from oocyte to D3 while their expressions were up-regulated in D14 blastocysts. CONCLUSION: Reduction in Nanog, Oct4, Sox2 mRNA transcription and a late increase in extra embryonic linage markers suggests that the developmental program of linage differentiation is retarded in goat embryos compared to previously reported data on mice and humans. This is likely related to late the implantation in goats. Copyright© by Royan Institute. All rights reserved. KEYWORDS: Blastocyst; Embryo; Goat; Oocyte PMID: 30825293


Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH) Dosage Based on Body Weight Enhances Ovulatory Responses and Subsequent Embryo Production in Goats

Asian-Australas J Anim Sci. 2014 Sep;27(9):1270-4. doi: 10.5713/ajas.2013.13786.

Rahman MR1, Rahman MM2, Wan Khadijah WE2, Abdullah RB2.


An experiment was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of porcine follicle stimulating hormone (pFSH) dosage based on body weight (BW) on ovarian responses of crossbred does. Thirty donor does were divided into 3 groups getting pFSH dosages of 3, 5, and 8 mg pFSH per kg BW, respectively, and were named as pFSH-3, pFSH-5 and pFSH-8, respectively. Estrus was synchronized by inserting a controlled internal drug release (CIDR) device and a single injection of prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α). The pFSH treatments were administered twice a day through 6 decreasing dosages (25, 25, 15, 15, 10, and 10% of total pFSH amount; decreasing daily). Ovarian responses were evaluated on Day 7 after CIDR removal. After CIDR removal, estrus was observed 3 times in a day and pFSH treatments were initiated at 2 days before the CIDR removal. All does in pFSH-5 and pFSH-8 showed estrus signs while half of the does in pFSH-3 showed estrus signs. No differences (p>0.05) were observed on the corpus luteum and total ovarian stimulation among the treatment groups, while total and transferable embryos were higher (p<0.05) in pFSH-5 (7.00 and 6.71) than pFSH-3 (3.00 and 2.80) and pFSH-8 (2.00 and 1.50), respectively. In conclusion, 5 mg pFSH per kg BW dosage gave a higher number of embryos than 3 and 8 mg pFSH per kg BW dosages. The results indicated that the dosage of pFSH based on BW is an important consideration for superovulation in goats. KEYWORDS: Body Weight; Goat; Superovulation; pFSH Dosage

PMID 25178370

Microarray analysis of gene expression in parthenotes and in vitro-derived goat embryos

Theriogenology. 2014 Apr 1;81(6):854-60. doi: 10.1016/j.theriogenology.2014.01.002. Epub 2014 Jan 11.

Singh R1, Kumar K1, Mahapatra PS1, Kumar M1, Agarwal P1, Bhure SK1, Malakar D1, Bhanja SK1, Bag S2.


The present work was carried out to investigate the global gene expression profile to search differentially expressed candidate transcripts between parthenogenetic and in vitro-fertilized (IVF) caprine morula. For this study, total RNA was isolated from diploid parthenogenetic and IVF embryos, and complementary DNA was synthesized. Microarray and relative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis were performed to check global gene expression profile and validation, respectively. According to the microarray analysis, the total number of upregulated (UR) and downregulated (DR) genes was 613 and 220, respectively in diploid parthenogenetic morula as compared with IVF morula. The number of genes showing about two-, two- to five-, five- to 10-, 10- to 20-, and above 20-fold UR and DR genes was 147, 229, 122, 59, and 56 and 94, 73, 18, 13, and 22, respectively. Five UR genes validated (PTEN, PHF3, CTNNB1, SELK, and NPDC1) and all of them were significantly higher in parthenotes, which was in accordance with microarray results, whereas the expression of DR (AURKC and KLF15) genes were downregulated in parthenotes as observed in microarray results but the difference was not significant (P < 0.05). In conclusion, our findings demonstrate differential expression of a large number of genes in parthenotes compared with IVF embryos, which may be the reason for aberrant parthenogenetic embryo development in caprine species. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. KEYWORDS: Gene expression; Goat embryo; IVF; Microarray analysis; Parthenogenesis

PMID 24507961

Historic - Amoroso

1: Amoroso EC, Griffiths WF, Hamilton WJ. The early development of the goat (Capra hircus). J Anat. 1942 Jul;76(Pt 4):377-406.5. PubMed PMID: 17104907; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC1252677.

Amoroso EC. Griffiths WFB. and Hamilton WJ. The early development of the goat (Capra hircus). (1942) J Anat. 76(4): 377–406.5. PMC1252677

2: Amoroso EC, Barclay AE, Franklin KJ, Prichard MM. The bifurcation of the posterior caval channel in the eutherian foetal heart. J Anat. 1942 Apr;76(Pt 3):240-7. PubMed PMID: 17104894; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC1252687.

Amoroso EC, Barclay AE, Franklin KJ, Prichard MM. The bifurcation of the posterior caval channel in the eutherian foetal heart. J Anat. 1942 Apr;76(Pt 3):240-7. PMID 17104894

3: Amoroso EC, Franklin KJ, Prichard MM. Observations on the cardio-vascular system and lungs of an African elephant foetus. J Anat. 1941 Oct;76(Pt 1):100-11. PubMed PMID: 17104876; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC1252718.

Amoroso EC, Franklin KJ, Prichard MM. Observations on the cardio-vascular system and lungs of an African elephant foetus. J Anat. 1941 Oct;76(Pt 1):100-11. PMID 17104876

4: Lawn AM, Chiquoine AD, Amoroso EC. The development of the placenta in the sheep and goat: an electron microscope study. J Anat. 1969 Nov;105(Pt 3):557-78. PubMed PMID: 5387511; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC1232191.

5: AMOROSO EC, BELL FR, ROSENBERG H. The relationship of the vasomotor and respiratory regions in the medulla oblongata of the sheep. J Physiol. 1954 Oct 28;126(1):86-95. PubMed PMID: 13212731; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC1365643.

6: AMOROSO EC, BELL FR, ROSENBERG H. The localization of respiratory regions in the ovine rhombencephalon. J Physiol. 1951 Mar;113(1):2p-3p. PubMed PMID: 14825241.