Dnmt1 is required for proximal-distal patterning of the lung endoderm and for restraining alveolar type 2 cell fate
Dev Biol. 2019 Jun 23. pii: S0012-1606(19)30222-2. doi: 10.1016/j.ydbio.2019.06.019. [Epub ahead of print]
Liberti DC1, Zepp JA2, Bartoni CA2, Liberti KH3, Zhou S4, Lu M4, Morley MP2, Morrisey EE5.
Lung endoderm development occurs through a series of finely coordinated transcriptional processes that are regulated by epigenetic mechanisms. However, the role of DNA methylation in regulating lung endoderm development remains poorly understood. We demonstrate that DNA methyltransferase 1 (Dnmt1) is required for early branching morphogenesis of the lungs and for restraining epithelial fate specification. Loss of Dnmt1 leads to an early branching defect, a loss of epithelial polarity and proximal endodermal cell differentiation, and an expansion of the distal endoderm compartment. Dnmt1 deficiency also disrupts epithelial-mesenchymal crosstalk and leads to precocious distal endodermal cell differentiation with premature expression of alveolar type 2 cell restricted genes. These data reveal an important requirement for Dnmt1 mediated DNA methylation in early lung development to promote proper branching morphogenesis, maintain proximal endodermal cell fate, and suppress premature activation of the distal epithelial fate. Copyright © 2019. Published by Elsevier Inc.
PMID: 31242446 DOI: 10.1016/j.ydbio.2019.06.019
Enhancer, transcriptional, and cell fate plasticity precedes intestinal determination during endoderm development
Genes Dev. 2018 Nov 1;32(21-22):1430-1442. doi: 10.1101/gad.318832.118. Epub 2018 Oct 26.
Banerjee KK#1,2, Saxena M#1,2, Kumar N#3, Chen L3, Cavazza A1,2, Toke NH3, O'Neill NK1, Madha S1, Jadhav U1,2, Verzi MP3,4,5, Shivdasani RA1,2,6.
Abstract After acquiring competence for selected cell fates, embryonic primordia may remain plastic for variable periods before tissue identity is irrevocably determined (commitment). We investigated the chromatin basis for these developmental milestones in mouse endoderm, a tissue with recognizable rostro-caudal patterning and transcription factor (TF)-dependent interim plasticity. Foregut-specific enhancers are as accessible and active in early midgut as in foregut endoderm, and intestinal enhancers and identity are established only after ectopic cis-regulatory elements are decommissioned. Depletion of the intestinal TF CDX2 before this cis element transition stabilizes foregut enhancers, reinforces ectopic transcriptional programs, and hence imposes foregut identities on the midgut. Later in development, as the window of chromatin plasticity elapses, CDX2 depletion weakens intestinal, without strengthening foregut, enhancers. Thus, midgut endoderm is primed for heterologous cell fates, and TFs act on a background of shifting chromatin access to determine intestinal at the expense of foregut identity. Similar principles likely govern other fate commitments.
KEYWORDS: chromatin plasticity; developmental competence; developmental plasticity; fate determination; homeodomain transcription factors; lineage commitment; tissue specification PMID: 30366903 PMCID: PMC6217732 [Available on 2019-05-01] DOI: 10.1101/gad.318832.118
Distinct mechanisms for PDGF and FGF signaling in primitive endoderm development
Dev Biol. 2018 Jul 17. pii: S0012-1606(18)30415-9. doi: 10.1016/j.ydbio.2018.07.010. [Epub ahead of print]
Molotkov A1, Soriano P2. Author information
Abstract FGF signaling is known to play a critical role in the specification of primitive endoderm (PrE) and epiblast (Epi) from the inner cell mass (ICM) during mouse preimplantation development, but how FGFs synergize with other growth factor signaling pathways is unknown. Because PDGFRα signaling has also been implicated in the PrE, we investigated the coordinate functions of PDGFRα together with FGFR1 or FGFR2 in PrE development. PrE development was abrogated in Pdgfra; Fgfr1 compound mutants, or significantly reduced in Pdgfra; Fgfr2 or PdgfraPI3K; Fgfr2 compound mutants. We provide evidence that both Fgfr2 and Pdgfra play roles in PrE cell survival while Fgfr1 controls PrE cell specification. Our results suggest a model where FGFR1-engaged ERK1/2 signaling governs PrE specification while PDGFRα- and by analogy possibly FGFR2- engaged PI3K signaling regulates PrE survival and positioning in the embryo. Together, these studies indicate how multiple growth factors and signaling pathways can cooperate in preimplantation development. KEYWORDS: Cell specification; ERK1/2; PI3K; Preimplantation; Survival
Nucleoporin 107, 62 and 153 mediate Kcnq1ot1 imprinted domain regulation in extraembryonic endoderm stem cells
Nat Commun. 2018 Jul 18;9(1):2795. doi: 10.1038/s41467-018-05208-2.
Sachani SS1,2,3,4, Landschoot LS1,2, Zhang L1,2, White CR1,2, MacDonald WA3,4, Golding MC5, Mann MRW6,7.
Genomic imprinting is a phenomenon that restricts transcription to predominantly one parental allele. How this transcriptional duality is regulated is poorly understood. Here we perform an RNA interference screen for epigenetic factors involved in paternal allelic silencing at the Kcnq1ot1 imprinted domain in mouse extraembryonic endoderm stem cells. Multiple factors are identified, including nucleoporin 107 (NUP107). To determine NUP107's role and specificity in Kcnq1ot1 imprinted domain regulation, we deplete Nup107, as well as Nup62, Nup98/96 and Nup153. Nup107, Nup62 and Nup153, but not Nup98/96 depletion, reduce Kcnq1ot1 noncoding RNA volume, displace the Kcnq1ot1 domain from the nuclear periphery, reactivate a subset of normally silent paternal alleles in the domain, alter histone modifications with concomitant changes in KMT2A, EZH2 and EHMT2 occupancy, as well as reduce cohesin interactions at the Kcnq1ot1 imprinting control region. Our results establish an important role for specific nucleoporins in mediating Kcnq1ot1 imprinted domain regulation.
Different murine-derived feeder cells alter the definitive endoderm differentiation of human induced pluripotent stem cells
PLoS One. 2018 Jul 26;13(7):e0201239. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0201239. eCollection 2018.
Shoji M1, Minato H1, Ogaki S2, Seki M3, Suzuki Y3, Kume S2, Kuzuhara T1.
Abstract The crosstalk between cells is important for differentiation of cells. Murine-derived feeder cells, SNL76/7 feeder cells (SNLs) or mouse primary embryonic fibroblast feeder cells (MEFs) are widely used for culturing undifferentiated human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs). It is still unclear whether different culture conditions affect the induction efficiency of definitive endoderm (DE) differentiation from hiPSCs. Here we show that the efficiency of DE differentiation from hiPSCs cultured on MEFs was higher than that of hiPSCs cultured on SNLs. The qPCR, immunofluorescent and flow cytometry analyses revealed that the expression levels of mRNA and/or proteins of the DE marker genes, SOX17, FOXA2 and CXCR4, in DE cells differentiated from hiPSCs cultured on MEFs were significantly higher than those cultured on SNLs. Comprehensive RNA sequencing and molecular network analyses showed the alteration of the gene expression and the signal transduction of hiPSCs cultured on SNLs and MEFs. Interestingly, the expression of non-coding hXIST exon 4 was up-regulated in hiPSCs cultured on MEFs, in comparison to that in hiPSCs cultured on SNLs. By qPCR analysis, the mRNA expression of undifferentiated stem cell markers KLF4, KLF5, OCT3/4, SOX2, NANOG, UTF1, and GRB7 were lower, while that of hXIST exon 4, LEFTY1, and LEFTY2 was higher in hiPSCs cultured on MEFs than in those cultured on SNLs. Taken together, our finding indicated that differences in murine-feeder cells used for maintenance of the undifferentiated state alter the expression of pluripotency-related genes in hiPSCs by the signaling pathways and affect DE differentiation from hiPSCs, suggesting that the feeder cells can potentiate hiPSCs for DE differentiation.
|Adult Cells - derived from Endoderm|
|Adult Cells Embryonic Origin: Endoderm | Mesoderm | Ectoderm|
|Exocrine secretory epithelial cells|
|Endocrine System Development - Hormone-secreting cells|
Cas9-mediated excision of Nematostella brachyury disrupts endoderm development, pharynx formation and oral-aboral patterning
Development. 2017 Aug 15;144(16):2951-2960. doi: 10.1242/dev.145839. Epub 2017 Jul 13.
Servetnick MD1, Steinworth B2, Babonis LS2, Simmons D2, Salinas-Saavedra M2, Martindale MQ2.
Abstract The mesoderm is a key novelty in animal evolution, although we understand little of how the mesoderm arose. brachyury, the founding member of the T-box gene family, is a key gene in chordate mesoderm development. However, the brachyury gene was present in the common ancestor of fungi and animals long before mesoderm appeared. To explore ancestral roles of brachyury prior to the evolution of definitive mesoderm, we excised the gene using CRISPR/Cas9 in the diploblastic cnidarian Nematostella vectensisNvbrachyury is normally expressed in precursors of the pharynx, which separates endoderm from ectoderm. In knockout embryos, the pharynx does not form, embryos fail to elongate, and endoderm organization, ectodermal cell polarity and patterning along the oral-aboral axis are disrupted. Expression of many genes both inside and outside the Nvbrachyury expression domain is affected, including downregulation of Wnt genes at the oral pole. Our results point to an ancient role for brachyury in morphogenesis, cell polarity and the patterning of both ectodermal and endodermal derivatives along the primary body axis. KEYWORDS: Brachyury; Cnidarian; Endoderm; Mesoderm; Nematostella; Pharynx PMID: 28705897 PMCID: PMC5592810 DOI: 10.1242/dev.145839
Endoderm Derived Cells
Exocrine secretory epithelial cells
- Salivary gland mucous cell (polysaccharide-rich secretion)
- Salivary gland number 1 (glycoprotein enzyme-rich secretion)
- Von Ebner's gland cell in tongue (washes taste buds)
- Mammary gland cell (milk secretion)
- Lacrimal gland cell (tear secretion)
- Ceruminous glands|Ceruminous gland cell in ear (earwax secretion)
- Eccrine sweat glands|Eccrine sweat gland dark cell (glycoprotein secretion)
- Eccrine sweat glands|Eccrine sweat gland clear cell (small molecule secretion)
- Apocrine sweat glands|Apocrine sweat gland cell (odoriferous secretion, sex-hormone sensitive)
- Gland of Moll cell in eyelid (specialized sweat gland)
- Sebaceous gland cell (lipid-rich sebum secretion)
- Bowman's gland cell in human nose|nose (washes olfactory epithelium)
- Brunner's gland cell in duodenum (enzymes and alkaline mucus)
- Seminal vesicle cell (secretes seminal fluid components, including fructose for swimming Spermatozoon|sperm)
- Prostate gland cell (secretes seminal fluid components)
- Bulbourethral gland cell (mucus secretion)
- Bartholin's gland cell (vaginal lubricant secretion)
- Urethral gland|Gland of Littre cell (mucus secretion)
- Uterus endometrium cell (carbohydrate secretion)
- Insolated goblet cell of respiratory tract|respiratory and Gastrointestinal tract|digestive tracts (mucus secretion)
- Stomach lining mucous cell (mucus secretion)
- Gastric chief cell|Gastric gland zymogenic cell (pepsinogen secretion)
- Parietal cell - Gastric gland oxyntic cell (hydrochloric acid secretion)
- Pancreatic acinar cell (bicarbonate and digestive enzyme secretion
- Paneth cell of small intestine (lysozyme secretion)
- Type II pneumocyte of human lung (surfactant secretion)
- Club cell of lung
- Anterior pituitary cells
- Intermediate pituitary cell, secreting melanocyte-stimulating hormone
- Magnocellular neurosecretory cells
- nonsecreting oxytocin
- secreting vasopressin
- Gut and respiratory tract cells
- secreting serotonin
- secreting endorphin
- secreting somatostatin
- secreting gastrin
- secreting secretin
- nonsecreting cholecystokinin
- secreting insulin
- secreting glucagon
- nonsecreting bombesin
- Thyroid gland cells
- Thyroid epithelial cell
- Parafollicular cell
- Parathyroid gland cells
- Parathyroid chief cell
- Oxyphil cell (parathyroid)|Oxyphil cell
- Adrenal gland cells
- Chromaffin cells
- secreting steroid hormones (mineralocorticoids and gluco corticoids)
- Leydig cell of testes secreting testosterone
- Theca interna cell of ovarian follicle secreting estrogen
- Corpus luteum cell of ruptured ovarian follicle secreting progesterone
- Granulosa lutein cells
- Theca lutein cells
- Juxtaglomerular cell (renin secretion)
- Macula densa cell of kidney
- Peripolar cell of kidney
- Mesangial cell of kidney
- Pancreatic islets (islets of Langerhans)
- Alpha cells (secreting glucagon)
- Beta cells (secreting insulin and amylin)
- Delta cells (secreting somatostatin)
- PP cells (gamma cells) (secreting pancreatic polypeptide)
- Epsilon cells (secreting ghrelin)
Late stage definitive endodermal differentiation can be defined by Daf1 expression
BMC Dev Biol. 2016 May 31;16(1):19. doi: 10.1186/s12861-016-0120-2.
Ogaki S1,2,3, Omori H2, Morooka M2, Shiraki N1, Ishida S3, Kume S4,5.
BACKGROUND: Definitive endoderm (DE) gives rise to the respiratory apparatus and digestive tract. Sox17 and Cxcr4 are useful markers of the DE. Previously, we identified a novel DE marker, Decay accelerating factor 1(Daf1/CD55), by identifying DE specific genes from the expression profile of DE derived from mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) by microarray analysis, and in situ hybridization of early embryos. Daf1 is expressed in a subpopulation of E-cadherin + Cxcr4+ DE cells. The characteristics of the Daf1-expressing cells during DE differentiation has not been examined. RESULTS: In this report, we utilized the ESC differentiation system to examine the characteristics of Daf1-expressing DE cells. We found that Daf1 expression could discriminate late DE from early DE. Early DE cells are Daf1-negative (DE-) and late DE cells are Daf1-positive (DE+). We also found that Daf1+ late DE cells show low proliferative and low cell matrix adhesive characteristics. Furthermore, the purified SOX17(low) early DE cells gave rise to Daf1+ Sox17(high) late DE cells. CONCLUSION: Daf1-expressing late definitive endoderm proliferates slowly and show low adhesive capacity. KEYWORDS: Adhesion; Daf1; Definitive endoderm; In vitro differentiation; Pluripotent stem cell; Proliferation
Role of the gut endoderm in relaying left-right patterning in mice
PLoS Biol. 2012 Mar;10(3):e1001276. Epub 2012 Mar 6. Viotti M, Niu L, Shi SH, Hadjantonakis AK. Source Developmental Biology Program, Sloan-Kettering Institute, New York, New York, United States of America.
Establishment of left-right (LR) asymmetry occurs after gastrulation commences and utilizes a conserved cascade of events. In the mouse, LR symmetry is broken at a midline structure, the node, and involves signal relay to the lateral plate, where it results in asymmetric organ morphogenesis. How information transmits from the node to the distantly situated lateral plate remains unclear. Noting that embryos lacking Sox17 exhibit defects in both gut endoderm formation and LR patterning, we investigated a potential connection between these two processes. We observed an endoderm-specific absence of the critical gap junction component, Connexin43 (Cx43), in Sox17 mutants. Iontophoretic dye injection experiments revealed planar gap junction coupling across the gut endoderm in wild-type but not Sox17 mutant embryos. They also revealed uncoupling of left and right sides of the gut endoderm in an isolated domain of gap junction intercellular communication at the midline, which in principle could function as a barrier to communication between the left and right sides of the embryo. The role for gap junction communication in LR patterning was confirmed by pharmacological inhibition, which molecularly recapitulated the mutant phenotype. Collectively, our data demonstrate that Cx43-mediated communication across gap junctions within the gut endoderm serves as a mechanism for information relay between node and lateral plate in a process that is critical for the establishment of LR asymmetry in mice.
Formation of the murine endoderm lessons from the mouse, frog, fish, and chick
Prog Mol Biol Transl Sci. 2010;96:1-34.
Abstract The mammalian definitive endoderm arises as a simple epithelial sheet. This sheet of cells will eventually produce the innermost tube that comprises the entire digestive tract from the esophagus to the colon as well as the epithelial component of the digestive and respiratory organs including the thymus, thyroid, lung, liver, gallbladder, and pancreas. Thus a wide array of tissue types are derived from the early endodermal sheet, and understanding the morphological and molecular mechanisms used to produce this tissue is integral to understanding the development of all these organs. The goal of this chapter is to summarize what is known about the morphological and molecular mechanisms used to produce this embryonic germ layer. Although this chapter mainly focuses on the mechanisms used to generate the murine endoderm, supportive or suggestive data from other species, including chick, frog (Xenopus laevis), and the Zebrafish (Danio rerio) are also examined.
Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. PMID: 21075338
Vertebrate Endoderm Development and Organ Formation http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2861293/?tool=pubmed
1: Duboc V, Lapraz F, Saudemont A, Bessodes N, Mekpoh F, Haillot E, Quirin M, Lepage T. Nodal and BMP2/4 pattern the mesoderm and endoderm during development of the sea urchin embryo. Development. 2010 Jan;137(2):223-35. PubMed PMID: 20040489.
2: Holtzinger A, Rosenfeld GE, Evans T. Gata4 directs development of cardiac-inducing endoderm from ES cells. Dev Biol. 2010 Jan 1;337(1):63-73. Epub 2009 Oct 20. PubMed PMID: 19850025; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2799892.
3: Zorn AM, Wells JM. Vertebrate endoderm development and organ formation. Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol. 2009;25:221-51. Review. PubMed PMID: 19575677; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2861293.
4: Yang DH, Smith ER, Cai KQ, Xu XX. C-Fos elimination compensates for disabled-2 requirement in mouse extraembryonic endoderm development. Dev Dyn. 2009 Mar;238(3):514-23. PubMed PMID: 19191218; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2743073.
5: Yagi Y, Ito Y, Kuhara S, Tashiro K. Cephalic hedgehog expression is regulated directly by Sox17 in endoderm development of Xenopus laevis. Cytotechnology. 2008 Jun;57(2):151-9. Epub 2008 Feb 12. PubMed PMID: 19003160; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2553669.
6: Soares ML, Torres-Padilla ME, Zernicka-Goetz M. Bone morphogenetic protein 4 signaling regulates development of the anterior visceral endoderm in the mouse embryo. Dev Growth Differ. 2008 Sep;50(7):615-21. PubMed PMID: 18657169.
7: Reichenbach B, Delalande JM, Kolmogorova E, Prier A, Nguyen T, Smith CM, Holzschuh J, Shepherd IT. Endoderm-derived Sonic hedgehog and mesoderm Hand2 expression are required for enteric nervous system development in zebrafish. Dev Biol. 2008 Jun 1;318(1):52-64. Epub 2008 Mar 20. PubMed PMID: 18436202; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2435286.
8: Shin CH, Chung WS, Hong SK, Ober EA, Verkade H, Field HA, Huisken J, Stainier DY. Multiple roles for Med12 in vertebrate endoderm development. Dev Biol. 2008 May 15;317(2):467-79. Epub 2008 Mar 4. PubMed PMID: 18394596; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2435012.
9: Matsushita S, Urase K, Komatsu A, Scotting PJ, Kuroiwa A, Yasugi S. Foregut endoderm is specified early in avian development through signal(s) emanating from Hensen's node or its derivatives. Mech Dev. 2008 May-Jun;125(5-6):377-95. Epub 2008 Feb 20. PubMed PMID: 18374547.
10: Warkman AS, Yatskievych TA, Hardy KM, Krieg PA, Antin PB. Myocardin expression during avian embryonic heart development requires the endoderm but is independent of BMP signaling. Dev Dyn. 2008 Jan;237(1):216-21. PubMed PMID: 18069699.
11: Manfroid I, Delporte F, Baudhuin A, Motte P, Neumann CJ, Voz ML, Martial JA, Peers B. Reciprocal endoderm-mesoderm interactions mediated by fgf24 and fgf10 govern pancreas development. Development. 2007 Nov;134(22):4011-21. Epub 2007 Oct 17. PubMed PMID: 17942484.
12: McLin VA, Rankin SA, Zorn AM. Repression of Wnt/beta-catenin signaling in the anterior endoderm is essential for liver and pancreas development. Development. 2007 Jun;134(12):2207-17. Epub 2007 May 16. PubMed PMID: 17507400.
13: Zorn AM, Wells JM. Molecular basis of vertebrate endoderm development. Int Rev Cytol. 2007;259:49-111. Review. PubMed PMID: 17425939.
14: Pal R, Khanna A. Heart development: the battle between mesoderm and endoderm. Stem Cells Dev. 2007 Feb;16(1):3-5. PubMed PMID: 17348801.
15: Brito JM, Teillet MA, Le Douarin NM. An early role for sonic hedgehog from foregut endoderm in jaw development: ensuring neural crest cell survival. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006 Aug 1;103(31):11607-12. Epub 2006 Jul 25. PubMed PMID: 16868080; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC1544217.
16: Kobayashi D, Jindo T, Naruse K, Takeda H. Development of the endoderm and gut in medaka, Oryzias latipes. Dev Growth Differ. 2006 Jun;48(5):283-95. PubMed PMID: 16759279.
17: Kwon GS, Fraser ST, Eakin GS, Mangano M, Isern J, Sahr KE, Hadjantonakis AK, Baron MH. Tg(Afp-GFP) expression marks primitive and definitive endoderm lineages during mouse development. Dev Dyn. 2006 Sep;235(9):2549-58. PubMed PMID: 16708394; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC1850385.
18: Hiraga Y, Kihara A, Sano T, Igarashi Y. Changes in S1P1 and S1P2 expression during embryonal development and primitive endoderm differentiation of F9 cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2006 Jun 9;344(3):852-8. Epub 2006 Apr 19. PubMed PMID: 16631609.
19: Bohnsack BL, Lai L, Northrop JL, Justice MJ, Hirschi KK. Visceral endoderm function is regulated by quaking and required for vascular development. Genesis. 2006 Feb;44(2):93-104. PubMed PMID: 16470614.
20: Bort R, Signore M, Tremblay K, Martinez Barbera JP, Zaret KS. Hex homeobox gene controls the transition of the endoderm to a pseudostratified, cell emergent epithelium for liver bud development. Dev Biol. 2006 Feb 1;290(1):44-56. Epub 2005 Dec 20. PubMed PMID: 16364283.
21: Doherty JR, Zhu H, Kuliyev E, Mead PE. Determination of the minimal domains of Mix.3/Mixer required for endoderm development. Mech Dev. 2006 Jan;123(1):56-66. Epub 2005 Dec 5. PubMed PMID: 16330190.
22: Murakami R, Okumura T, Uchiyama H. GATA factors as key regulatory molecules in the development of Drosophila endoderm. Dev Growth Differ. 2005 Dec;47(9):581-9. Review. PubMed PMID: 16316403.
23: Graham A, Okabe M, Quinlan R. The role of the endoderm in the development and evolution of the pharyngeal arches. J Anat. 2005 Nov;207(5):479-87. Review. PubMed PMID: 16313389; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC1571564.
24: Dickinson K, Leonard J, Baker JC. Genomic profiling of mixer and Sox17beta targets during Xenopus endoderm development. Dev Dyn. 2006 Feb;235(2):368-81. PubMed PMID: 16278889.
25: Matsuura R, Kogo H, Ogaeri T, Miwa T, Kuwahara M, Kanai Y, Nakagawa T, Kuroiwa A, Fujimoto T, Torihashi S. Crucial transcription factors in endoderm and embryonic gut development are expressed in gut-like structures from mouse ES cells. Stem Cells. 2006 Mar;24(3):624-30. Epub 2005 Oct 6. PubMed PMID: 16210401.
26: Fukuda K, Kikuchi Y. Endoderm development in vertebrates: fate mapping, induction and regional specification. Dev Growth Differ. 2005 Aug;47(6):343-55. Review. PubMed PMID: 16109032.
27: Maduro MF, Kasmir JJ, Zhu J, Rothman JH. The Wnt effector POP-1 and the PAL-1/Caudal homeoprotein collaborate with SKN-1 to activate C. elegans endoderm development. Dev Biol. 2005 Sep 15;285(2):510-23. PubMed PMID: 16084508.
28: Crump JG, Swartz ME, Kimmel CB. An integrin-dependent role of pouch endoderm in hyoid cartilage development. PLoS Biol. 2004 Sep;2(9):E244. Epub 2004 Jul 20. PubMed PMID: 15269787; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC479042.
29: Kubo A, Shinozaki K, Shannon JM, Kouskoff V, Kennedy M, Woo S, Fehling HJ, Keller G. Development of definitive endoderm from embryonic stem cells in culture. Development. 2004 Apr;131(7):1651-62. Epub 2004 Mar 3. PubMed PMID: 14998924.
30: Ober EA, Olofsson B, M√§kinen T, Jin SW, Shoji W, Koh GY, Alitalo K, Stainier DY. Vegfc is required for vascular development and endoderm morphogenesis in zebrafish. EMBO Rep. 2004 Jan;5(1):78-84. PubMed PMID: 14710191; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC1298958.
31: Berger TM, Hirsch E, Djonov V, Schittny JC. Loss of beta1-integrin-deficient cells during the development of endoderm-derived epithelia. Anat Embryol (Berl). 2003 Dec;207(4-5):283-8. Epub 2003 Nov 25. PubMed PMID: 14648219.
32: Macatee TL, Hammond BP, Arenkiel BR, Francis L, Frank DU, Moon AM. Ablation of specific expression domains reveals discrete functions of ectoderm- and endoderm-derived FGF8 during cardiovascular and pharyngeal development. Development. 2003 Dec;130(25):6361-74. PubMed PMID: 14623825; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC1876660.
33: Hinman VF, Nguyen AT, Davidson EH. Expression and function of a starfish Otx ortholog, AmOtx: a conserved role for Otx proteins in endoderm development that predates divergence of the eleutherozoa. Mech Dev. 2003 Oct;120(10):1165-76. PubMed PMID: 14568105.
34: Finley KR, Tennessen J, Shawlot W. The mouse secreted frizzled-related protein 5 gene is expressed in the anterior visceral endoderm and foregut endoderm during early post-implantation development. Gene Expr Patterns. 2003 Oct;3(5):681-4. PubMed PMID: 12972006.
35: Tam PP, Kanai-Azuma M, Kanai Y. Early endoderm development in vertebrates: lineage differentiation and morphogenetic function. Curr Opin Genet Dev. 2003 Aug;13(4):393-400. Review. PubMed PMID: 12888013.
36: Goldin SN, Papaioannou VE. Paracrine action of FGF4 during periimplantation development maintains trophectoderm and primitive endoderm. Genesis. 2003 May;36(1):40-7. PubMed PMID: 12748966.
37: Pera EM, Martinez SL, Flanagan JJ, Brechner M, Wessely O, De Robertis EM. Darmin is a novel secreted protein expressed during endoderm development in Xenopus. Gene Expr Patterns. 2003 May;3(2):147-52. PubMed PMID: 12711541.
38: Clements D, Cameleyre I, Woodland HR. Redundant early and overlapping larval roles of Xsox17 subgroup genes in Xenopus endoderm development. Mech Dev. 2003 Mar;120(3):337-48. PubMed PMID: 12591603.
39: Ober EA, Field HA, Stainier DY. From endoderm formation to liver and pancreas development in zebrafish. Mech Dev. 2003 Jan;120(1):5-18. Review. PubMed PMID: 12490292.
40: Shivdasani RA. Molecular regulation of vertebrate early endoderm development. Dev Biol. 2002 Sep 15;249(2):191-203. Review. PubMed PMID: 12221001.
41: Dathan N, Parlato R, Rosica A, De Felice M, Di Lauro R. Distribution of the titf2/foxe1 gene product is consistent with an important role in the development of foregut endoderm, palate, and hair. Dev Dyn. 2002 Aug;224(4):450-6. PubMed PMID: 12203737.
42: de Santa Barbara P, Roberts DJ. Tail gut endoderm and gut/genitourinary/tail development: a new tissue-specific role for Hoxa13. Development. 2002 Feb;129(3):551-61. PubMed PMID: 11830557; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2435615.
43: Matsushita S, Ishii Y, Scotting PJ, Kuroiwa A, Yasugi S. Pre-gut endoderm of chick embryos is regionalized by 1.5 days of development. Dev Dyn. 2002 Jan;223(1):33-47. PubMed PMID: 11803568.
44: Bahary N, Zon LI. Development. Endothelium--chicken soup for the endoderm. Science. 2001 Oct 19;294(5542):530-1. Epub 2001 Sep 27. PubMed PMID: 11577202.
45: Andrews GK, Lee DK, Ravindra R, Lichtlen P, Sirito M, Sawadogo M, Schaffner W. The transcription factors MTF-1 and USF1 cooperate to regulate mouse metallothionein-I expression in response to the essential metal zinc in visceral endoderm cells during early development. EMBO J. 2001 Mar 1;20(5):1114-22. PubMed PMID: 11230134; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC145491.
46: Livingston B, David ES, Thurm C. Gene expression in the endoderm during sea urchin development. Zygote. 2000;8 Suppl 1:S35-6. Review. PubMed PMID: 11191300.
47: Kimura C, Yoshinaga K, Tian E, Suzuki M, Aizawa S, Matsuo I. Visceral endoderm mediates forebrain development by suppressing posteriorizing signals. Dev Biol. 2000 Sep 15;225(2):304-21. PubMed PMID: 10985852.
48: Bogue CW, Ganea GR, Sturm E, Ianucci R, Jacobs HC. Hex expression suggests a role in the development and function of organs derived from foregut endoderm. Dev Dyn. 2000 Sep;219(1):84-9. PubMed PMID: 10974674.
49: Vesque C, Ellis S, Lee A, Szabo M, Thomas P, Beddington R, Placzek M. Development of chick axial mesoderm: specification of prechordal mesoderm by anterior endoderm-derived TGFbeta family signalling. Development. 2000 Jul;127(13):2795-809. PubMed PMID: 10851126.
50: Lough J, Sugi Y. Endoderm and heart development. Dev Dyn. 2000 Apr;217(4):327-42. Review. PubMed PMID: 10767078.
51: Shoichet SA, Malik TH, Rothman JH, Shivdasani RA. Action of the Caenorhabditis elegans GATA factor END-1 in Xenopus suggests that similar mechanisms initiate endoderm development in ecdysozoa and vertebrates. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000 Apr 11;97(8):4076-81. PubMed PMID: 10760276; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC18153.
52: Grapin-Botton A, Melton DA. Endoderm development: from patterning to organogenesis. Trends Genet. 2000 Mar;16(3):124-30. Review. PubMed PMID: 10689353.
53: Gerhart J. Pieter Nieuwkoop's contributions to the understanding of meso-endoderm induction and neural induction in chordate development. Int J Dev Biol. 1999;43(7):605-13. PubMed PMID: 10668970.
54: Cleaver O, Seufert DW, Krieg PA. Endoderm patterning by the notochord: development of the hypochord in Xenopus. Development. 2000 Feb;127(4):869-79. PubMed PMID: 10648245.
55: Wells JM, Melton DA. Vertebrate endoderm development. Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol. 1999;15:393-410. Review. PubMed PMID: 10611967.
56: Reiter JF, Alexander J, Rodaway A, Yelon D, Patient R, Holder N, Stainier DY. Gata5 is required for the development of the heart and endoderm in zebrafish. Genes Dev. 1999 Nov 15;13(22):2983-95. PubMed PMID: 10580005; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC317161.
57: Dale L. Vertebrate development: Multiple phases to endoderm formation. Curr Biol. 1999 Nov 4;9(21):R812-5. PubMed PMID: 10556077.
58: Ristoratore F, Spagnuolo A, Aniello F, Branno M, Fabbrini F, Di Lauro R. Expression and functional analysis of Cititf1, an ascidian NK-2 class gene, suggest its role in endoderm development. Development. 1999 Nov;126(22):5149-59. PubMed PMID: 10529431.
59: Casey ES, Tada M, Fairclough L, Wylie CC, Heasman J, Smith JC. Bix4 is activated directly by VegT and mediates endoderm formation in Xenopus development. Development. 1999 Oct;126(19):4193-200. PubMed PMID: 10477288.
60: Weaver M, Yingling JM, Dunn NR, Bellusci S, Hogan BL. Bmp signaling regulates proximal-distal differentiation of endoderm in mouse lung development. Development. 1999 Sep;126(18):4005-15. PubMed PMID: 10457010.
61: Bielinska M, Narita N, Wilson DB. Distinct roles for visceral endoderm during embryonic mouse development. Int J Dev Biol. 1999 May;43(3):183-205. Review. PubMed PMID: 10410899.
62: Jung J, Zheng M, Goldfarb M, Zaret KS. Initiation of mammalian liver development from endoderm by fibroblast growth factors. Science. 1999 Jun 18;284(5422):1998-2003. PubMed PMID: 10373120.
63: Zhu X, Sasse J, Lough J. Evidence that FGF receptor signaling is necessary for endoderm-regulated development of precardiac mesoderm. Mech Ageing Dev. 1999 Apr 1;108(1):77-85. PubMed PMID: 10366041.
64: Fuss B, Hoch M. Drosophila endoderm development requires a novel homeobox gene which is a target of Wingless and Dpp signalling. Mech Dev. 1998 Dec;79(1-2):83-97. PubMed PMID: 10349623.
65: Warga RM, N√ºsslein-Volhard C. Origin and development of the zebrafish endoderm. Development. 1999 Feb;126(4):827-38. PubMed PMID: 9895329.
66: Henry GL, Melton DA. Mixer, a homeobox gene required for endoderm development. Science. 1998 Jul 3;281(5373):91-6. PubMed PMID: 9651252.
67: Kim SK, Hebrok M, Melton DA. Notochord to endoderm signaling is required for pancreas development. Development. 1997 Nov;124(21):4243-52. PubMed PMID: 9334273.
68: Hiemisch H, Sch√ºtz G, Kaestner KH. Transcriptional regulation in endoderm development: characterization of an enhancer controlling Hnf3g expression by transgenesis and targeted mutagenesis. EMBO J. 1997 Jul 1;16(13):3995-4006. PubMed PMID: 9233809; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC1170023.
69: Nishida H, Kumano G. Analysis of the temporal expression of endoderm-specific alkaline phosphatase during development of the ascidian Halocynthia roretzi. Dev Growth Differ. 1997 Apr;39(2):199-205. PubMed PMID: 9108333.
70: Rehorn KP, Thelen H, Michelson AM, Reuter R. A molecular aspect of hematopoiesis and endoderm development common to vertebrates and Drosophila. Development. 1996 Dec;122(12):4023-31. PubMed PMID: 9012522.
71: Rasweiler JJ 4th, Badwaik NK. Unusual aspects of inner cell mass formation, endoderm differentiation, Reichert's membrane development, and amniogenesis in the lesser bulldog bat, Noctilio albiventris. Anat Rec. 1996 Oct;246(2):293-304. PubMed PMID: 8888970.
72: Duluc I, Freund JN, Leberquier C, Kedinger M. Fetal endoderm primarily holds the temporal and positional information required for mammalian intestinal development. J Cell Biol. 1994 Jul;126(1):211-21. PubMed PMID: 8027179; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2120088.
73: Gardner RL, Barton SC, Surani MA. Use of triple tissue blastocyst reconstitution to study the development of diploid parthenogenetic primitive ectoderm in combination with fertilization-derived trophectoderm and primitive endoderm. Genet Res. 1990 Oct-Dec;56(2-3):209-22. PubMed PMID: 2272512.
74: Ezzell RM, Chafel MM, Matsudaira PT. Differential localization of villin and fimbrin during development of the mouse visceral endoderm and intestinal epithelium. Development. 1989 Jun;106(2):407-19. PubMed PMID: 2686960.
75: Chen DL. An extensive increase of junctional communication capacity in endoderm development of the Xenopus embryo. Shi Yan Sheng Wu Xue Bao. 1989 Mar;22(1):43-55. PubMed PMID: 2763765.
76: Richa J, Damsky CH, Buck CA, Knowles BB, Solter D. Cell surface glycoproteins mediate compaction, trophoblast attachment, and endoderm formation during early mouse development. Dev Biol. 1985 Apr;108(2):513-21. PubMed PMID: 4076542.
77: Leung CC, Lee C, Cheewatrakoolpong B, Hilton D. Abnormal embryonic development induced by antibodies to rat visceral yolk-sac endoderm: isolation of the antigen and localization to microvillar membrane. Dev Biol. 1985 Feb;107(2):432-41. PubMed PMID: 3972164.
78: Gardner RL. An in situ cell marker for clonal analysis of development of the extraembryonic endoderm in the mouse. J Embryol Exp Morphol. 1984 Apr;80:251-88. PubMed PMID: 6205114.
79: Leung CC. Antiserum to rat visceral yolk sac endoderm induced abnormal embryonic development. Pediatr Res. 1983 May;17(5):313-8. PubMed PMID: 6343995.
80: Brustis JJ, Galante M, Peyret D. [Development of the adenylate cyclase activity of the embryonic chorda-mesoderm and endoderm during the migration of primordial germ cells in Xenopus laevis (anuran amphibian)]. C R Seances Acad Sci III. 1982 Sep 20;295(2):89-92. French. PubMed PMID: 6816405.
81: Fukuda S. The development of hepatogenic potency in the endoderm of quail embryos. J Embryol Exp Morphol. 1979 Aug;52:49-62. PubMed PMID: 521753.
82: Wakely J, England MA. Development of the chick embryo endoderm studied by S.E.M. Anat Embryol (Berl). 1978 Jun 2;153(2):167-78. PubMed PMID: 677469.
83: Maufroid JP, Capuron A. [Induction of the mesoderm and primordial germ cells by the endoderm of Pleurodeles waltlii (Amphibia, Urodele): development during gastrulation]. C R Acad Sci Hebd Seances Acad Sci D. 1977 May 2;284(17):1713-6. French. PubMed PMID: 406093.
84: Enders AC, Wimsatt WA, King BF. Cytological development of yolk sac endoderm and protein-absorptive mesothelium in the little brown bat, Myotis lucifugus. Am J Anat. 1976 May;146(1):1-30. PubMed PMID: 945685.
85: King BF. Differentiation of parietal endoderm cells of the guinea pig yolk sac, with particular reference to the development of endoplasmic reticulum. Dev Biol. 1971 Dec;26(4):547-59. PubMed PMID: 5134612.
86: Fontaine J, Le Dougarin N. [Attempt at in vitro analysis of the inhibitor effect exerted by the somitic mesenchyme on the development of the hepatic endoderm]. C R Seances Soc Biol Fil. 1971;165(9):1972-5. French. PubMed PMID: 4263135.
87: Le Li√®vre C, Le Douarin N. [Development of differentiation capacities of chick embryo thyroid endoderm after the determination stage]. C R Acad Sci Hebd Seances Acad Sci D. 1968 Dec 16;267(25):2174-7. French. PubMed PMID: 4973827.
88: EDE DA. AN INHERITED ABNORMALITY AFFECTING THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE YOLK PLASMODIUM AND ENDODERM IN DERMESTES MACULATUS (COLEOPTERA). J Embryol Exp Morphol. 1964 Sep;12:551-62. PubMed PMID: 14207039.
89: LUTZ H, REYROLLES J. [Development of the endoderm in bird eggs.]. C R Hebd Seances Acad Sci. 1952 Mar 31;234(14):1480-2. Undetermined Language. PubMed PMID:
- Molotkov A & Soriano P. (2018). Distinct mechanisms for PDGF and FGF signaling in primitive endoderm development. Dev. Biol. , , . PMID: 30026121 DOI.
- Sachani SS, Landschoot LS, Zhang L, White CR, MacDonald WA, Golding MC & Mann MRW. (2018). Nucleoporin 107, 62 and 153 mediate Kcnq1ot1 imprinted domain regulation in extraembryonic endoderm stem cells. Nat Commun , 9, 2795. PMID: 30022050 DOI.
- Shoji M, Minato H, Ogaki S, Seki M, Suzuki Y, Kume S & Kuzuhara T. (2018). Different murine-derived feeder cells alter the definitive endoderm differentiation of human induced pluripotent stem cells. PLoS ONE , 13, e0201239. PMID: 30048506 DOI.