|About Discussion Pages|
Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2021, July 24) Embryology Ectoderm. Retrieved from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Talk:Ectoderm
Notch signaling in the division of germ layers in bilaterian embryos
Mech Dev. 2018 Dec;154:122-144. doi: 10.1016/j.mod.2018.06.005. Epub 2018 Jun 22.
Favarolo MB1, López SL2. Author information Abstract Bilaterian embryos are triploblastic organisms which develop three complete germ layers (ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm). While the ectoderm develops mainly from the animal hemisphere, there is diversity in the location from where the endoderm and the mesoderm arise in relation to the animal-vegetal axis, ranging from endoderm being specified between the ectoderm and mesoderm in echinoderms, and the mesoderm being specified between the ectoderm and the endoderm in vertebrates. A common feature is that part of the mesoderm segregates from an ancient bipotential endomesodermal domain. The process of segregation is noisy during the initial steps but it is gradually refined. In this review, we discuss the role of the Notch pathway in the establishment and refinement of boundaries between germ layers in bilaterians, with special focus on its interaction with the Wnt/β-catenin pathway.
KEYWORDS: Ectoderm; Eendomesoderm; Endoderm; Mesoderm; Notch; β-Catenin PMID: 29940277 DOI: 10.1016/j.mod.2018.06.005
Meis transcription factor maintains the neurogenic ectoderm and regulates the anterior-posterior patterning in embryos of a sea urchin, Hemicentrotus pulcherrimus
Dev Biol. 2018 Dec 1;444(1):1-8. doi: 10.1016/j.ydbio.2018.09.018. Epub 2018 Sep 25.
Yaguchi J1, Yamazaki A1, Yaguchi S2. Author information Abstract Precise body axis formation is an essential step in the development of multicellular organisms, for most of which the molecular gradient and/or specifically biased localization of cell-fate determinants in eggs play important roles. In sea urchins, however, any biased proteins and mRNAs have not yet been identified in the egg except for vegetal cortex molecules, suggesting that sea urchin development is mostly regulated by uniformly distributed maternal molecules with contributions to axis formation that are not well characterized. Here, we describe that the maternal Meis transcription factor regulates anterior-posterior axis formation through maintenance of the most anterior territory in embryos of a sea urchin, Hemicentrotus pulcherrimus. Loss-of-function experiments revealed that Meis is intrinsically required for maintenance of the anterior neuroectoderm specifier foxQ2 after hatching and, consequently, the morphant lost anterior neuroectoderm characteristics. In addition, the expression patterns of univin and VEGF, the lateral ectoderm markers, and the mesenchyme-cell pattern shifted toward the anterior side in Meis morphants more than they did in control embryos, indicating that Meis contributes to the precise anteroposterior patterning by regulating the anterior neuroectodermal fate.
KEYWORDS: Body axis; FoxQ2; Maternal factor; Sea urchin; Wnt PMID: 30266259 DOI: 10.1016/j.ydbio.2018.09.018
A molecular atlas of the developing ectoderm defines neural, neural crest, placode, and nonneural progenitor identity in vertebrates
PLoS Biol. 2017 Oct 19;15(10):e2004045. doi: 10.1371/journal.pbio.2004045. eCollection 2017 Oct.
Plouhinec JL1,2,3, Medina-Ruiz S4, Borday C1,2, Bernard E3,5,6, Vert JP3,5,6, Eisen MB4,7, Harland RM4, Monsoro-Burq AH1,2,8. Author information Abstract During vertebrate neurulation, the embryonic ectoderm is patterned into lineage progenitors for neural plate, neural crest, placodes and epidermis. Here, we use Xenopus laevis embryos to analyze the spatial and temporal transcriptome of distinct ectodermal domains in the course of neurulation, during the establishment of cell lineages. In order to define the transcriptome of small groups of cells from a single germ layer and to retain spatial information, dorsal and ventral ectoderm was subdivided along the anterior-posterior and medial-lateral axes by microdissections. Principal component analysis on the transcriptomes of these ectoderm fragments primarily identifies embryonic axes and temporal dynamics. This provides a genetic code to define positional information of any ectoderm sample along the anterior-posterior and dorsal-ventral axes directly from its transcriptome. In parallel, we use nonnegative matrix factorization to predict enhanced gene expression maps onto early and mid-neurula embryos, and specific signatures for each ectoderm area. The clustering of spatial and temporal datasets allowed detection of multiple biologically relevant groups (e.g., Wnt signaling, neural crest development, sensory placode specification, ciliogenesis, germ layer specification). We provide an interactive network interface, EctoMap, for exploring synexpression relationships among genes expressed in the neurula, and suggest several strategies to use this comprehensive dataset to address questions in developmental biology as well as stem cell or cancer research.
PMID: 29049289 PMCID: PMC5663519 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.2004045
Pubmed Ectoderm title
1: Randall V, McCue K, Roberts C, Kyriakopoulou V, Beddow S, Barrett AN, Vitelli F, Prescott K, Shaw-Smith C, Devriendt K, Bosman E, Steffes G, Steel KP, Simrick S, Basson MA, Illingworth E, Scambler PJ. Great vessel development requires biallelic expression of Chd7 and Tbx1 in pharyngeal ectoderm in mice. J Clin Invest. 2009 Nov;119(11):3301-10. doi: 10.1172/JCI37561. Epub 2009 Oct 12. PubMed PMID: 19855134; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2769172.
2: Calmont A, Ivins S, Van Bueren KL, Papangeli I, Kyriakopoulou V, Andrews WD, Martin JF, Moon AM, Illingworth EA, Basson MA, Scambler PJ. Tbx1 controls cardiac neural crest cell migration during arch artery development by regulating Gbx2 expression in the pharyngeal ectoderm. Development. 2009 Sep;136(18):3173-83. PubMed PMID: 19700621; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2730371.
3: Olivares GH, Carrasco H, Aroca F, Carvallo L, Segovia F, Larra√≠n J. Syndecan-1 regulates BMP signaling and dorso-ventral patterning of the ectoderm during early Xenopus development. Dev Biol. 2009 May 15;329(2):338-49. Epub 2009 Mar 18. PubMed PMID: 19303002.
4: Malashichev Y, Christ B, Pr√∂ls F. Avian pelvis originates from lateral plate mesoderm and its development requires signals from both ectoderm and paraxial mesoderm. Cell Tissue Res. 2008 Mar;331(3):595-604. Epub 2007 Dec 18. PubMed PMID: 18087724.
5: Li W, Cornell RA. Redundant activities of Tfap2a and Tfap2c are required for neural crest induction and development of other non-neural ectoderm derivatives in zebrafish embryos. Dev Biol. 2007 Apr 1;304(1):338-54. Epub 2006 Dec 23. PubMed PMID: 17258188; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC1904501.
6: Radoja N, Guerrini L, Lo Iacono N, Merlo GR, Costanzo A, Weinberg WC, La Mantia G, Calabr√≤ V, Morasso MI. Homeobox gene Dlx3 is regulated by p63 during ectoderm development: relevance in the pathogenesis of ectodermal dysplasias. Development. 2007 Jan;134(1):13-8. PubMed PMID: 17164413.
7: Malashichev Y, Borkhvardt V, Christ B, Scaal M. Differential regulation of avian pelvic girdle development by the limb field ectoderm. Anat Embryol (Berl). 2005 Oct;210(3):187-97. Epub 2005 Oct 18. PubMed PMID: 16170541.
8: Knight RD, Javidan Y, Zhang T, Nelson S, Schilling TF. AP2-dependent signals from the ectoderm regulate craniofacial development in the zebrafish embryo. Development. 2005 Jul;132(13):3127-38. PubMed PMID: 15944192.
9: Minsuk SB, Andrews ME, Raff RA. From larval bodies to adult body plans: patterning the development of the presumptive adult ectoderm in the sea urchin larva. Dev Genes Evol. 2005 Aug;215(8):383-92. Epub 2005 Apr 15. PubMed PMID: 15834585.
10: Hirao A, Aoyama H. Somite development without influence of the surface ectoderm in the chick embryo: the compartments of a somite responsible for distal rib development. Dev Growth Differ. 2004 Aug;46(4):351-62. PubMed PMID: 15367203.
11: Macatee TL, Hammond BP, Arenkiel BR, Francis L, Frank DU, Moon AM. Ablation of specific expression domains reveals discrete functions of ectoderm- and endoderm-derived FGF8 during cardiovascular and pharyngeal development. Development. 2003 Dec;130(25):6361-74. PubMed PMID: 14623825; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC1876660.
12: Jin Q, van Eynde A, Beullens M, Roy N, Thiel G, Stalmans W, Bollen M. The protein phosphatase-1 (PP1) regulator, nuclear inhibitor of PP1 (NIPP1), interacts with the polycomb group protein, embryonic ectoderm development (EED), and functions as a transcriptional repressor. J Biol Chem. 2003 Aug 15;278(33):30677-85. Epub 2003 Jun 3. PubMed PMID: 12788942.
13: Borchers AG, Hufton AL, Eldridge AG, Jackson PK, Harland RM, Baker JC. The E3 ubiquitin ligase GREUL1 anteriorizes ectoderm during Xenopus development. Dev Biol. 2002 Nov 15;251(2):395-408. PubMed PMID: 12435366.
14: Endo Y, Osumi N, Wakamatsu Y. Bimodal functions of Notch-mediated signaling are involved in neural crest formation during avian ectoderm development. Development. 2002 Feb;129(4):863-73. PubMed PMID: 11861470.
15: Pelton TA, Sharma S, Schulz TC, Rathjen J, Rathjen PD. Transient pluripotent cell populations during primitive ectoderm formation: correlation of in vivo and in vitro pluripotent cell development. J Cell Sci. 2002 Jan 15;115(Pt 2):329-39. PubMed PMID: 11839785.
16: Li G, Zhang S, Xiang J. Phenoloxidase, a marker enzyme for differentiation of the neural ectoderm and the epidermal ectoderm during embryonic development of amphioxus Branchiostoma belcheri tsingtaunese. Mech Dev. 2000 Aug;96(1):107-9. PubMed PMID: 10940629.
17: Camus A, Davidson BP, Billiards S, Khoo P, Rivera-P√©rez JA, Wakamiya M, Behringer RR, Tam PP. The morphogenetic role of midline mesendoderm and ectoderm in the development of the forebrain and the midbrain of the mouse embryo. Development. 2000 May;127(9):1799-813. PubMed PMID: 10751169.
18: Gutknecht DR, Koster CH, Tertoolen LG, de Laat SW, Durston AJ. Intracellular acidification of gastrula ectoderm is important for posterior axial development in Xenopus. Development. 1995 Jun;121(6):1911-25. PubMed PMID: 7601004.
19: Hui CC, Slusarski D, Platt KA, Holmgren R, Joyner AL. Expression of three mouse homologs of the Drosophila segment polarity gene cubitus interruptus, Gli, Gli-2, and Gli-3, in ectoderm- and mesoderm-derived tissues suggests multiple roles during postimplantation development. Dev Biol. 1994 Apr;162(2):402-13. PubMed PMID: 8150204.
20: Rinchik EM, Carpenter DA. N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea-induced prenatally lethal mutations define at least two complementation groups within the embryonic ectoderm development (eed) locus in mouse chromosome 7. Mamm Genome. 1993;4(7):349-53. PubMed PMID: 8358168.
21: Raz E, Shilo BZ. Dissection of the faint little ball (flb) phenotype: determination of the development of the Drosophila central nervous system by early interactions in the ectoderm. Development. 1992 Jan;114(1):113-23. PubMed PMID: 1576953.
22: Sharan SK, Holdener-Kenny B, Ruppert S, Schedl A, Kelsey G, Rinchik EM, Magnuson T. The albino-deletion complex of the mouse: molecular mapping of deletion breakpoints that define regions necessary for development of the embryonic and extraembryonic ectoderm. Genetics. 1991 Nov;129(3):825-32. PubMed PMID: 1684331; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC1204749.
23: Drysdale TA, Elinson RP. Development of the Xenopus laevis hatching gland and its relationship to surface ectoderm patterning. Development. 1991 Feb;111(2):469-78. PubMed PMID: 1680048.
24: Gardner RL, Barton SC, Surani MA. Use of triple tissue blastocyst reconstitution to study the development of diploid parthenogenetic primitive ectoderm in combination with fertilization-derived trophectoderm and primitive endoderm. Genet Res. 1990 Oct-Dec;56(2-3):209-22. PubMed PMID: 2272512.
25: Fedtsova NG, Barabanov VM. [The distribution of competence for adenohypophysis development in the ectoderm of chick embryos]. Ontogenez. 1990 May-Jun;21(3):254-60. Russian. PubMed PMID: 2168535.
26: Geduspan JS, MacCabe JA. Transfer of dorsoventral information from mesoderm to ectoderm at the onset of limb development. Anat Rec. 1989 May;224(1):79-87. PubMed PMID: 2729617.
27: Niswander L, Yee D, Rinchik EM, Russell LB, Magnuson T. The albino-deletion complex in the mouse defines genes necessary for development of embryonic and extraembryonic ectoderm. Development. 1989 Jan;105(1):175-82. PubMed PMID: 2806116.
28: Winklbauer R. Cell proliferation in the ectoderm of the Xenopus embryo: development of substratum requirements for cytokinesis. Dev Biol. 1986 Nov;118(1):70-81. PubMed PMID: 3770308.
29: Martin P, Lewis J. Normal development of the skeleton in chick limb buds devoid of dorsal ectoderm. Dev Biol. 1986 Nov;118(1):233-46. PubMed PMID: 3770301.
30: Jones EA, Woodland HR. Development of the ectoderm in Xenopus: tissue specification and the role of cell association and division. Cell. 1986 Jan 31;44(2):345-55. PubMed PMID: 3943127.
31: Geduspan JS, MacCabe JA. Evidence for the transmission of dorsoventral information to the ectoderm during the earliest stages of limb development. Prog Clin Biol Res. 1986;226:115-26. PubMed PMID: 3809204.
32: Slack JM. In vitro development of isolated ectoderm from axolotl gastrulae. J Embryol Exp Morphol. 1984 Apr;80:321-30. PubMed PMID: 6747530.
33: Sawyer RH, O'Guin WM, Knapp LW. Avian scale development. X. Dermal induction of tissue-specific keratins in extraembryonic ectoderm. Dev Biol. 1984 Jan;101(1):8-18. PubMed PMID: 6198224.
34: Zakareƒ≠shvili VZ, Mikaƒ≠lov AT. [Water-soluble proteins in early amphibian embryos. III. Immunoelectrophoretic analysis of the antigenic changes in the ectoderm of the early gastrula and neural plate during development]. Ontogenez. 1983 Jul-Aug;14(4):367-73. Russian. PubMed PMID: 6194490.
35: Schook P. Morphogenetic movements during the early development of the chick eye. An ultrastructural and spatial study. C. Obliteration of the lens stalk lumen and separation of the lens vesicle from the surface ectoderm. Acta Morphol Neerl Scand. 1980 Aug;18(3):195-201. PubMed PMID: 7191196.
36: Levak-Svajger B, Svajger A. Course of development of isolated rat embryonic ectoderm as renal homograft. Experientia. 1979 Feb 15;35(2):258-60. PubMed PMID: 421854.
37: van Limborgh J, van Oostrom CG. [Contribution of the ectoderm to the early embryonic development of the head]. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd. 1979 Jan 20;123(3):75-81. Dutch. PubMed PMID: 759973.
38: Diwan SB, Stevens LC. Development of teratomas from the ectoderm of mouse egg cylinders. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1976 Oct;57(4):937-42. PubMed PMID: 1003535.
39: Searls RL. Effect of dorsal and ventral limb ectoderm on the development of the limb of the embryonic chick. J Embryol Exp Morphol. 1976 Apr;35(2):369-81. PubMed PMID: 939944.
40: Smith AA, Searls RL, Hilfer SR. Differential accumulation of extracellular materials beneath the ectoderm during development of the embryonic chick limb and flank regions. Dev Biol. 1975 Sep;46(1):222-6. PubMed PMID: 1158025.
41: Errick JE, Saunders JW Jr. Effects of an "inside-out" limb-bud ectoderm on development of the avian limb. Dev Biol. 1974 Dec;41(2):338-51. PubMed PMID: 4452413.
42: Stark RJ, Searls RL. The establishment of the cartilage pattern in the embryonic chick wing, and evidence for a role of the dorsal and ventral ectoderm in normal wing development. Dev Biol. 1974 May;38(1):51-63. PubMed PMID: 4826293.
43: Jorquera B, Goicoechea O. [Limbs development upon heterotypical mesoderm-ectoderm recombination in chick embryo (author's transl)]. Arch Biol Med Exp (Santiago). 1973 Dec;9(1,2,3):38-43. Spanish. PubMed PMID: 4802254.
44: Warner AE. The electrical properties of the ectoderm in the amphibian embryo during induction and early development of the nervous system. J Physiol. 1973 Nov;235(1):267-86. PubMed PMID: 4778140; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC1350742.
45: Wolsky A, De Issekutz Wolsky M. Induction and competence in morphogenesis: amphibian lens development from non-lens ectoderm, influenced by mercaptoethanol. Oncology. 1968;22(4):290-301. PubMed PMID: 5707495.
46: Amprino R, Bonetti DA. Experimental observations in the development of ectoderm-free mesoderm of the limb bud in chick embryos. Nature. 1967 May 20;214(5090):826-7. PubMed PMID: 6051871.
47: SIMNETT JD. THE DEVELOPMENT OF EMBRYOS DERIVED FROM THE TRANSPLANTATION OF NEURAL ECTODERM CELL NUCLEI IN XENOPUS LAEVIS. Dev Biol. 1964 Dec;10:467-86. PubMed PMID: 14227359.
48: DENIS H. [EFFECTS OF ACTINOMYCIN ON EMBRYONAL DEVELOPMENT. I. MORPHOLOGICAL STUDY: SUPPRESSION BY ACTINOMYCIN OF THE COMPETENCE OF THE ECTODERM AND THE INDUCTIVE CAPACITY OF THE BLASTOPORAL LIP.]. Dev Biol. 1964 Jun;89:435-57. French. PubMed PMID: 14187148.
49: BELL E, GASSELING MT, SAUNDERS JW Jr, ZWILLING E. On the role of ectoderm in limb development. Dev Biol. 1962 Feb;4:177-96. PubMed PMID: 13866799.
50: PIATT J, KUSNER DB. Forelimb development in Amblystoma punctatum following x-irradiation of either ectoderm or mesoderm. J Exp Zool. 1960 Dec;145:251-61. PubMed PMID: 13735377.
51: CHANTURISHVILI PS. The role of ectoderm in the development of the crystalline lens. Trans Opthal Soc U K. 1958;78:411-36; discussion 436-8. PubMed PMID: 13635751.
52: ZEMTSOVA ZD. [Histological peculiarities of extraembryonal ectoderm in early stages of development of a chick embryo.]. Arkh Anat Gistol Embriol. 1956 Oct-Dec;33(4):61-8. Russian. PubMed PMID: 13412478.
53: SHCHEGOLEV G. [Nervosism and development of the ectoderm in vertebrates.]. Zh Obshch Biol. 1953 Sep-Oct;14(5):388-93. Undetermined Language. PubMed PMID: 13123472.
54: MOORE JA. Studies in the development of frog hybrids; competence of the gastrula ectoderm of Rana pipiens female crossed with Rana sylvatica male hybrids. J Exp Zool. 1947 Aug;105(3):349-70. PubMed PMID: 20255212.