Talk:Abnormal Development - Rotavirus
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Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2019, August 18) Embryology Abnormal Development - Rotavirus. Retrieved from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Talk:Abnormal_Development_-_Rotavirus
Human Neonatal Rotavirus Vaccine (RV3-BB) to Target Rotavirus from Birth
N Engl J Med. 2018 Feb 22;378(8):719-730. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1706804.
Bines JE1, At Thobari J1, Satria CD1, Handley A1, Watts E1, Cowley D1, Nirwati H1, Ackland J1, Standish J1, Justice F1, Byars G1, Lee KJ1, Barnes GL1, Bachtiar NS1, Viska Icanervilia A1, Boniface K1, Bogdanovic-Sakran N1, Pavlic D1, Bishop RF1, Kirkwood CD1, Buttery JP1, Soenarto Y1.
BACKGROUND: A strategy of administering a neonatal rotavirus vaccine at birth to target early prevention of rotavirus gastroenteritis may address some of the barriers to global implementation of a rotavirus vaccine. METHODS: We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in Indonesia to evaluate the efficacy of an oral human neonatal rotavirus vaccine (RV3-BB) in preventing rotavirus gastroenteritis. Healthy newborns received three doses of RV3-BB, administered according to a neonatal schedule (0 to 5 days, 8 weeks, and 14 weeks of age) or an infant schedule (8 weeks, 14 weeks, and 18 weeks of age), or placebo. The primary analysis was conducted in the per-protocol population, which included only participants who received all four doses of vaccine or placebo within the visit windows, with secondary analyses performed in the intention-to-treat population, which included all participants who underwent randomization. RESULTS: Among the 1513 participants in the per-protocol population, severe rotavirus gastroenteritis occurred up to the age of 18 months in 5.6% of the participants in the placebo group (28 of 504 babies), in 1.4% in the neonatal-schedule vaccine group (7 of 498), and in 2.7% in the infant-schedule vaccine group (14 of 511). This resulted in a vaccine efficacy of 75% (95% confidence interval [CI], 44 to 91) in the neonatal-schedule group (P<0.001), 51% (95% CI, 7 to 76) in the infant-schedule group (P=0.03), and 63% (95% CI, 34 to 80) in the neonatal-schedule and infant-schedule groups combined (combined vaccine group) (P<0.001). Similar results were observed in the intention-to-treat analysis (1649 participants); the vaccine efficacy was 68% (95% CI, 35 to 86) in the neonatal-schedule group (P=0.001), 52% (95% CI, 11 to 76) in the infant-schedule group (P=0.02), and 60% (95% CI, 31 to 76) in the combined vaccine group (P<0.001). Vaccine response, as evidenced by serum immune response or shedding of RV3-BB in the stool, occurred in 78 of 83 participants (94%) in the neonatal-schedule group and in 83 of 84 participants (99%) in the infant-schedule group. The incidence of adverse events was similar across the groups. No episodes of intussusception occurred within the 21-day risk period after administration of any dose of vaccine or placebo, and one episode of intussusception occurred 114 days after the third dose of vaccine in the infant-schedule group. CONCLUSIONS: RV3-BB was efficacious in preventing severe rotavirus gastroenteritis when administered according to a neonatal or an infant schedule in Indonesia. (Funded by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation and others; Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry number, ACTRN12612001282875 .). PMID: 29466164 PMCID: PMC5774175 DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa1706804
Safety of a heat-stable rotavirus vaccine among children in Niger: Data from a phase 3, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial
Vaccine. 2018 May 8. pii: S0264-410X(18)30630-3. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2018.05.023. [Epub ahead of print]
Coldiron ME1, Guindo O2, Makarimi R3, Soumana I4, Matar Seck A5, Garba S6, Macher E7, Isanaka S8, Grais RF9. Author information Abstract BACKGROUND: Rotavirus remains a major cause of diarrhea among children under 5 years of age. The efficacy of RotaSIIL, a pentavalent rotavirus vaccine, was shown in an event-driven trial in Niger. We describe the two-year safety follow-up of this trial. METHODS: Follow-up of safety outcomes began upon administration of the first dose of RotaSIIL or placebo. Adverse events were followed until 28 days after the third dose, and serious adverse events were followed until 2 years of age. Suspected cases of intussusception were evaluated at first point of contact and then referred to hospital for surgical evaluation. Causes of death were obtained by chart review and verbal autopsy. Passive surveillance was carried out in health centers. Community health workers carried out active surveillance in villages. Between-group differences were evaluated using the chi-squared test and Fisher's exact test. RESULTS: A total of 4092 children were randomized, and 4086 received at least one dose of RotaSIIL or placebo, constituting the intention-to-treat population, who accrued a total of 7385 child-years of follow-up time. At two years of follow-up, 58 (2.8%) participants who received RotaSIIL and 49 (2.4%) participants who received placebo had died (p = 0.38). Most deaths were due to infectious causes common to the study area. One participant had confirmed intussusception, 542 days after receiving the third dose of RotaSIIL. A total of 395 (19.3%) participants receiving RotaSIIL and 419 (20.5%) participants receiving placebo experienced any serious adverse event (p = 0.36). Most serious adverse events were hospitalizations due to infection (malaria, lower respiratory tract infection and gastroenteritis) or marasmus. Overall, 1474 (72.1%) participants receiving RotaSIIL and 1456 (71.1%) participants receiving placebo had at least one adverse event (p = 0.49) in the follow-up period. CONCLUSIONS: At two years of follow-up, RotaSIIL was found to be safe. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02145000. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved. KEYWORDS: Adverse event; Diarrhea; Gastroenteritis; Intussusception; Niger; Rotavirus infection; Rotavirus vaccines; Safety PMID: 29752026 DOI: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2018.05.023
Discovery of rotavirus: Implications for child health
J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2009 Oct;24 Suppl 3:S81-5. doi: 10.1111/j.1440-1746.2009.06076.x.
For centuries, acute diarrhea has been a major worldwide cause of death in young children, and until 1973, no infectious agents could be identified in about 80% of patients admitted to hospital with severe dehydrating diarrhea. In 1973 Ruth Bishop, Geoffrey Davidson, Ian Holmes, and Brian Ruck identified abundant particles of a 'new' virus (rotavirus) in the cytoplasm of mature epithelial cells lining duodenal villi and in feces, from such children admitted to the Royal Children's Hospital, Melbourne. Rotaviruses have now been shown to cause 40-50% of severe acute diarrhea in young children worldwide in both developing and developed countries, and > 600 000 young children die annually from rotavirus disease, predominantly in South-East Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. Longitudinal surveillance studies following primary infection in young children have shown that rotavirus reinfections are common. However the immune response that develops after primary infection is protective against severe symptoms on reinfection. This observation became the basis for development of live oral rotavirus vaccines. Two safe and effective vaccines are now licensed in 100 countries and in use in 17 countries (including Australia). Rotarix (GSK) is a single attenuated human rotavirus, representative of the most common serotype identified worldwide (G1P). RotaTeq (Merck) is a pentavalent mixture of naturally attenuated bovine/human rotavirus reassortants representing G1, G2, G3, G4, and P(8) serotypes. Preliminary surveillance of the numbers of children requiring hospitalization for severe diarrhea, in USA, Brazil, and Australia, after introduction of these vaccines, encourages the hope that rotavirus infection need no longer be a threat to young children worldwide.
PMID: 19799704 DOI: 10.1111/j.1440-1746.2009.06076.x