Talk:Abnormal Development - Maternal Inflammation
Reduced ventricular proliferation in the foetal cortex following maternal inflammation in the mouse
Brain. 2011 Nov;134(Pt 11):3236-48. Epub 2011 Sep 29.
Stolp HB, Turnquist C, Dziegielewska KM, Saunders NR, Anthony DC, Molnár Z. Source Department of Physiology, Anatomy and Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3QX, UK. email@example.com
It has been well established that maternal inflammation during pregnancy alters neurological function in the offspring, but its impact on cortical development and long-term consequences on the cytoarchitecture is largely unstudied. Here we report that lipopolysaccharide-induced systemic maternal inflammation in C57Bl/6 mice at embryonic Day 13.5 of pregnancy, as early as 8 h after challenge, caused a significant reduction in cell proliferation in the ventricular zone of the developing cerebral cortex, as revealed by quantification of anti-phospho-Histone H3 immunoreactivity and bromodeoxyuridine pulse labelling. The angle of mitotic cleavage, determined from analysis of haematoxylin and eosin staining, cyclin E1 gene expression and the pattern of β-catenin immunoreactivity were also altered by the challenge, which suggests a change from symmetric to asymmetric division in the radial progenitor cells. Modifications of cortical lamination and gene expression patterns were detected at post-natal Day 8 suggesting prolonged consequences of these alterations during embryonic development. Cellular uptake of proteins from the cerebrospinal fluid was observed in brains from lipopolysaccharide-treated animals in radial progenitor cells. However, the foetal blood-brain barrier to plasma proteins remained intact. Together, these results indicate that maternal inflammation can disrupt the ventricular surface and lead to decreased cellular proliferation. Changes in cell density in Layers IV and V at post-natal Day 8 show that these initial changes have prolonged effects on cortical organization. The possible shift in the fate of progeny and the resulting alterations in the relative cell numbers in the cerebral cortex following a maternal inflammatory response shown here will require further investigation to determine the long-term consequences of inflammation on the development of neuronal circuitry and behaviour.
Systemic maternal inflammation and neonatal hyperoxia induces remodeling and left ventricular dysfunction in mice
PLoS One. 2011;6(9):e24544. Epub 2011 Sep 14.
Velten M, Hutchinson KR, Gorr MW, Wold LE, Lucchesi PA, Rogers LK. Source Center for Perinatal Research, The Research Institute at Nationwide Children's Hospital, Department of Pediatrics, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, United States of America. Markus.Velten@NationwideChildrens.org
AIMS: The impact of the neonatal environment on the development of adult cardiovascular disease is poorly understood. Systemic maternal inflammation is linked to growth retardation, preterm birth, and maturation deficits in the developing fetus. Often preterm or small-for-gestational age infants require medical interventions such as oxygen therapy. The long-term pathological consequences of medical interventions on an immature physiology remain unknown. In the present study, we hypothesized that systemic maternal inflammation and neonatal hyperoxia exposure compromise cardiac structure, resulting in LV dysfunction during adulthood. METHODS AND RESULTS: Pregnant C3H/HeN mice were injected on embryonic day 16 (E16) with LPS (80 µg/kg; i.p.) or saline. Offspring were placed in room air (RA) or 85% O(2) for 14 days and subsequently maintained in RA. Cardiac echocardiography, cardiomyocyte contractility, and molecular analyses were performed. Echocardiography revealed persistent lower left ventricular fractional shortening with greater left ventricular end systolic diameter at 8 weeks in LPS/O(2) than in saline/RA mice. Isolated cardiomyocytes from LPS/O(2) mice had slower rates of contraction and relaxation, and a slower return to baseline length than cardiomyocytes isolated from saline/RA controls. α-/β-MHC ratio was increased and Connexin-43 levels decreased in LPS/O(2) mice at 8 weeks. Nox4 was reduced between day 3 and 14 and capillary density was lower at 8 weeks of life in LPS/O(2) mice. CONCLUSION: These results demonstrate that systemic maternal inflammation combined with neonatal hyperoxia exposure induces alterations in cardiac structure and function leading to cardiac failure in adulthood and supports the importance of the intrauterine and neonatal milieu on adult health.
Mouse maternal systemic inflammation at the zygote stage causes blunted cytokine responsiveness in lipopolysaccharide-challenged adult offspring
BMC Biol. 2011 Jul 19;9:49.
Williams CL, Teeling JL, Perry VH, Fleming TP. Source School of Biological Sciences, University of Southampton, Mailpoint 840, Level D Laboratories & Pathology Block, Southampton General Hospital, Tremona Road, Southampton SO16 6YD, UK.
BACKGROUND: The preimplantation embryo is sensitive to culture conditions in vitro and poor maternal diet in vivo. Such environmental perturbations can have long-lasting detrimental consequences for offspring health and physiology. However, early embryo susceptibility to other aspects of maternal health and their potential long-term influence into adulthood is relatively unexplored. In this study, we established an in vivo mouse model of maternal periconceptional systemic inflammation by intraperitoneal lipopolysaccharide (LPS) administration on the day of zygote formation and investigated the consequences into adulthood. RESULTS: In the short term, maternal LPS challenge induced a transient and typical maternal sickness response (elevated serum proinflammatory cytokines and hypoactive behaviour). Maternal LPS challenge altered preimplantation embryo morphogenesis and cell lineage allocation, resulting in reduced blastocyst inner cell mass (ICM) cell number and a reduced ICM:trophectoderm cell ratio. In the long term, diverse aspects of offspring physiology were affected by maternal LPS treatment. Whilst birthweight, growth and adult blood pressure were unaltered, reduced activity in an open-field behaviour test, increased fat pad:body weight ratio and increased body mass index were observed in male, but not female, offspring. Most importantly, the maternal LPS challenge caused corticosterone-independent blunting of the serum proinflammatory cytokine response to innate immune challenge in both male and female offspring. The suppressed state of innate immunity in challenged offspring was dose-dependent with respect to the maternal LPS concentration administered. CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrate for the first time that the preimplantation embryo in vivo is sensitive to maternal systemic inflammation, with effects on blastocyst cell lineage allocation and consequences for behaviour, adiposity and innate immune response in adult offspring. Critically, we identify a novel mechanism mediated through maternal-embryonic interactions that confers plasticity in the development of the innate immune system, which is potentially important in setting postnatal tolerance to environmental pathogens. Our study extends the concept of developmental programming of health and disease to include maternal health at the time of conception.
Chorioamnionitis and increased galectin-1 expression in PPROM --an anti-inflammatory response in the fetal membranes?
Am J Reprod Immunol. 2008 Oct;60(4):298-311.
Than NG, Kim SS, Abbas A, Han YM, Hotra J, Tarca AL, Erez O, Wildman DE, Kusanovic JP, Pineles B, Montenegro D, Edwin SS, Mazaki-Tovi S, Gotsch F, Espinoza J, Hassan SS, Papp Z, Romero R. Source Perinatology Research Branch, NICHD/NIH/DHHS, Wayne State University/Hutzel Women's Hospital, 3990 John R, Box 4, Detroit, MI 48201, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org Abstract PROBLEM: Galectin-1 can regulate immune responses upon infection and inflammation. We determined galectin-1 expression in the chorioamniotic membranes and its changes during histological chorioamnionitis. METHOD OF STUDY: Chorioamniotic membranes were obtained from women with normal pregnancy (n = 5) and from patients with pre-term pre-labor rupture of the membranes (PPROM) with (n = 8) and without histological chorioamnionitis (n = 8). Galectin-1 mRNA and protein were localized by in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. Galectin-1 mRNA expression was also determined by quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: Galectin-1 mRNA and protein were detected in the amniotic epithelium, chorioamniotic fibroblasts/myofibroblasts and macrophages, chorionic trophoblasts, and decidual stromal cells. In patients with PPROM, galectin-1 mRNA expression in the fetal membranes was higher (2.07-fold, P = 0.002) in those with chorioamnionitis than in those without. Moreover, chorioamionitis was associated with a strong galectin-1 immunostaining in amniotic epithelium, chorioamniotic mesodermal cells, and apoptotic bodies. CONCLUSION: Chorioamnionitis is associated with an increased galectin-1 mRNA expression and strong immunoreactivity of the chorioamniotic membranes; thus, galectin-1 may be involved in the regulation of the inflammatory responses to chorioamniotic infection.