Talk:Abnormal Development - Hypertension

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Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2021, November 30) Embryology Abnormal Development - Hypertension. Retrieved from


Trends in comorbidity, acuity, and maternal risk associated with preeclampsia across obstetric volume settings

J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2019 Aug;32(16):2680-2687. doi: 10.1080/14767058.2018.1446077. Epub 2018 Mar 12.

Booker WA1, Ananth CV1,2, Wright JD1, Siddiq Z1, D'Alton ME1, Cleary KL1, Goffman D1, Friedman AM1.

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to characterize morbidity, acuity, and maternal risks associated with preeclampsia across hospitals with varying obstetric volumes.

METHODS: This retrospective cohort analysis used a large administrative data source, the Perspective database, to characterize the risk for preeclampsia from 2006 to 2015. Hospitals were classified as having either low (≤1000), moderate (1001-2000), or high (≥2000) delivery volume. The primary outcomes included preeclampsia, antihypertensive administration, comorbidity, and related severe maternal morbidity. Severe maternal morbidity was estimated using criteria from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Comorbidity was estimated using an obstetric comorbidity index. Univariable comparisons were made with Chi-squared test. Adjusted log linear regression models were fit to assess factors associated with severe morbidity with risk ratios with 95% confidence intervals as the measures of effect. Population weights were applied to create national estimates.

RESULTS: Of 36,985,729 deliveries included, 1,414,484 (3.8%) had a diagnosis of preeclampsia. Of these, 779,511 (2.1%) had mild, 171,109 (0.5%) superimposed, and 463,864 (1.3%) severe preeclampsia. The prevalence of mild, superimposed, and severe preeclampsia each increased over the study period with severe and superimposed preeclampsia as opposed to mild preeclampsia increasing the most proportionately (53.2 and 102.5 versus 10.8%, respectively). The use of antihypertensives used to treat severe range hypertension increased with use of intravenous labetalol increasing 31.5%, 43.2%, and 36.1% at low-, medium-, and high-volume hospitals. Comorbid risk also increased across hospital volume settings as did risk for severe maternal morbidity.

CONCLUSIONS: Preeclampsia is increasing across obstetric care settings with preeclamptic patients demonstrating increasing comorbid risk, increased risk for severe morbidity, and more frequent need for treatment of acute hypertension.

KEYWORDS: Maternal morbidity; obstetric volume; preeclampsia management PMID: 29478359 PMCID


Pharmacogenomics of Hypertension and Preeclampsia: Focus on Gene-Gene Interactions

Front Pharmacol. 2018 Feb 28;9:168. doi: 10.3389/fphar.2018.00168. eCollection 2018.

Luizon MR1,2, Pereira DA2, Sandrim VC3.


Hypertension is a leading cause of cardiovascular mortality, but only about half of patients on antihypertensive therapy achieve blood pressure control. Preeclampsia is defined as pregnancy-induced hypertension and proteinuria, and is associated with increased maternal and perinatal mortality and morbidity. Similarly, a large number of patients with preeclampsia are non-responsive to antihypertensive therapy. Pharmacogenomics may help to guide the personalized treatment for non-responsive hypertensive patients. There is evidence for the association of genetic variants with variable response to the most commonly used antihypertensive drugs. However, further replication is needed to confirm these associations in different populations. The failure to replicate findings from single-locus association studies has prompted the search for novel statistical methods for data analysis, which are required to detect the complex effects from multiple genes to drug response phenotypes. Notably, gene-gene interaction analyses have been applied to pharmacogenetic studies, including antihypertensive drug response. In this perspective article, we present advances of considering the interactions among genetic polymorphisms of different candidate genes within pathways relevant to antihypertensive drug response, and we highlight recent findings related to gene-gene interactions on pharmacogenetics of hypertension and preeclampsia. Finally, we discuss the future directions that are needed to unravel additional genes and variants involved in the responsiveness to antihypertensive drugs. KEYWORDS: antihypertensive therapy; epistasis; gene–gene interactions; hypertension; pathways; pharmacogenomics; preeclampsia PMID: 29541029 PMCID: PMC5835759 DOI: 10.3389/fphar.2018.00168


Maternal and neonatal outcomes in Korean women with type 2 diabetes

Korean J Intern Med. 2017 Jan 26. doi: 10.3904/kjim.2016.105. [Epub ahead of print]

Jang HJ1, Kim HS2, Kim SH3.


BACKGROUND/AIMS: The purpose of this study was to compare maternal and neonatal outcomes in Korean women with type 2 diabetes and nondiabetic controls.

METHODS: We performed a retrospective survey of 200 pregnancies in women with type 2 diabetes (n = 100) and nondiabetic controls (n = 100) who delivered from 2003 to 2010 at Cheil General Hospital & Women's Healthcare Center, Korea. We compared maternal characteristics as well as maternal and neonatal outcomes between groups matched by age, pre-pregnancy weight, body mass index, parity, and gestational age at delivery.

RESULTS: The number of infants that were small for gestational age and the rate of major congenital malformations were not significantly different. However, women with type 2 diabetes showed a slightly higher risk for primary caesarean section (35.0% vs. 18.0%, p = 0.006) as well as pre-eclampsia (10.0% vs. 2.0%, p = 0.017), infections during pregnancy (26.0% vs. 2.0%, p < 0.001), neonatal weight (3,370 ± 552.0 vs. 3,196 ± 543.3, p = 0.025), large for gestational age (22.0% vs. 9.0%, p = 0.011), and macrosomia (15.0% vs. 5.0%, p = 0.018) compared to nondiabetic controls.

CONCLUSIONS: Maternal and neonatal outcomes for women with type 2 diabetes were worse than those for nondiabetic controls. Diabetic women have a higher risk for primary caesarean section, pre-eclampsia, infections during pregnancy, large neonatal birth weight, large for gestational age, and macrosomia.

KEYWORDS: Diabetes mellitus, type 2; Pregnancy outcome

PMID 28122420 DOI: 10.3904/kjim.2016.105

The INSR rs2059806 single nucleotide polymorphism, a genetic risk factor for vascular and metabolic disease, associates with pre-eclampsia

Reprod Biomed Online. 2017 Jan 11. pii: S1472-6483(17)30001-9. doi: 10.1016/j.rbmo.2017.01.001. [Epub ahead of print]

Andraweera PH1, Gatford KL2, Dekker GA3, Leemaqz S2, Jayasekara RW4, Dissanayake VH4, McCowan L5, Roberts CT2.


Pre-eclampsia is a risk factor for later life vascular and metabolic diseases. This study postulates that this reflects a common genetic cause, and investigates whether the INSR rs2059806 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) (a risk factor for essential hypertension, type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome) is also associated with pre-eclampsia. The association of INSR rs2059806 with pre-eclampsia was tested in two cohorts - a Caucasian case control group (123 pre-eclamptic mother-father-baby trios and 1185 mother-father-baby trios from uncomplicated pregnancies) and an independent cohort of Sinhalese women (175 women with pre-eclampsia and 171 women with uncomplicated pregnancies). In the Caucasian cohort, the prevalence of the INSR rs2059806 AA genotype was greater among pre-eclamptic women compared with the uncomplicated pregnancies (12.7% versus 4.7%, OR[95%CI] = 3.1[1.6-5.8], P = 0.0003). In the Sinhalese cohort, maternal INSR rs2059806 AA genotype was greater among pre-eclamptic women who delivered small for gestational age infants compared with the uncomplicated pregnancies (10.8% versus 4.2%, OR[95%CI] = 2.8[1.0-7.4], P = 0.03). Thus, it was found that the INSR rs2059806 SNP is also associated with pre-eclampsia phenotypes in two independent cohorts suggesting that genetic susceptibility may be implicated in the link between pre-eclampsia and subsequent vascular and metabolic diseases.

Copyright © 2017 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

KEYWORDS: INSR; Pre-eclampsia; SNP; Single nucleotide polymorphism; rs2059806 PMID 28117222 DOI: 10.1016/j.rbmo.2017.01.001