Talk:Abnormal Development - Herbal Drugs

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Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2019, August 18) Embryology Abnormal Development - Herbal Drugs. Retrieved from


Maternal and developmental toxicity of the hallucinogenic plant-based beverage ayahuasca in rats

Reprod Toxicol. 2018 Mar 6. pii: S0890-6238(17)30703-7. doi: 10.1016/j.reprotox.2018.03.002. [Epub ahead of print]

da Motta LG1, de Morais JA2, Tavares ACAM1, Vianna LMS3, Mortari MR4, Amorim RFB3, Carvalho RR5, Paumgartten FJR5, Pic-Taylor A2, Caldas ED6.


Rats were treated orally with ayahuasca (AYA) on gestation days (GD) 6-20 at doses corresponding to one-(1X) to eight-fold (8X) the average dose taken by a human adult in a religious ritual, and the pregnancy outcome evaluated on GD21. Rats treated with 4X and 8X doses died during the treatment period (44 and 52%), and those that survived showed kidney injury. Rats surviving the 8X dose showed neuronal loss in hippocampal regions and in the raphe nuclei, and those from the 2X dose neuronal loss in CA1. Delayed intrauterine growth, induced embryo deaths and increased occurrence of foetal anomalies were observed at the 8X dose. At non-lethal doses, AYA enhanced embryolethality and the incidence of foetal soft-tissue and skeleton anomalies. This study suggested that AYA is developmentally toxic and that its daily use by pregnant women may pose risks for the conceptus. KEYWORDS: Ayahuasca; Banisteriopsis caapi; Psychotria viridis; developmental toxicity; gestation losses; serotonin syndrome; teratogenicity PMID: 29522798 DOI: 10.1016/j.reprotox.2018.03.002


Teratogenic Effect of Verbascoside, Main Constituent of Lippia citriodora Leaves, in Mice

Iran J Pharm Res. 2016 Spring;15(2):521-5.

Etemad L1, Zafari R2, Moallem SA3, Vahdati-Mashhadian N4, Skouei Shirvan Z3, Hosseinzadeh H5.


Verbascoside (acteoside), a phenyl propanoid glycoside, comprises 0.5 to 3.5 % dry weight of Lippia citriodora leaves. A wide range of biological activities are attributed to verbascoside including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-bacterial, anti-tumor, anti-fungal, photoprotective as well as chelating effects. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of verbascoside on pregnancy outcome in mice. Timed-pregnant mice received doses of 1g/kg/day verbascoside or the vehicle control during organogenesis, intraperitoneally. Maternal body weights were measured throughout pregnancy. The litters were examined for external malformations and skeletal abnormalities. Then they were stained with Alizarin red S and Alcian blue. Maternal exposure to verbascoside throughout pregnancy did not influence the mean of maternal weight gain. Statistically significant difference was not found in mean number of implantation sites, live and resorbed fetuses between control and experiment groups. Our data demonstrate that the main component of L. citriodora, verbascoside using during organogenesis possesses no risk to fetuses. However, more research projects are needed to confirm these findings and determine the exact effects of verbascoside on human embryo development. KEYWORDS: Aloysia triphylla; Herbal medicine; Lippia citriodora; Teratogen; Verbascoside

PMID 27642323 PMCID: PMC5018280