Smooth Muscle Development
|Embryology - 10 Apr 2021 Expand to Translate|
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There are 3 different types of muscle: skeletal, cardiac and smooth. This page describes smooth muscle development, descriptions of cardiac muscle and smooth muscle development can be found in other notes. A specialised type of type of smooth located in glandular epithelium are myoepithelial cells.
- Smooth muscle is mesoderm, and also neural crest, in origin and contributes to many different tissues including the muscular wall of the gastrointestinal tract, respiratory tract, artery walls, bladder wall, uterus, seminiferous tubules and ductus deferens.
- Smooth muscle is non-striated in appearance, lacking the regular organisation of sarcomeres seen in skeletal and cardiac muscle.
- Gastrointestinal tract
- Cardiovascular - Blood vessel and lymphatic vessel walls.
- Renal - Urinary bladder
- Genital - Uterus, Male and female reproductive tracts
- Respiratory tract
- Integumentary - erector pili of skin
- Sensory - ciliary muscle and iris of the eye
- Smooth Muscle Links: Smooth Muscle Development | Smooth Muscle Histology | Blood Vessel | Uterus | Urinary Bladder | Mesoderm
Some Recent Findings
|More recent papers|
This table allows an automated computer search of the external PubMed database using the listed "Search term" text link.
Search term: Smooth Muscle Embryology
<pubmed limit=5>Smooth Muscle Embryology</pubmed>
The gastrointestinal tract consists of two thick outer muscle layers (longitudinal and circular) and a thin muscularis mucosa layer.
- 1857 Meissner was the first to describe a nerve plexus in the submucosa of the bowel wall.
- 1864 Auerbach described the myenteric plexus between the longitudinal and circular muscle layers.
- 1981 LeDouarin describes neural crest contribution to both plexuses.
- Auerbach's Plexus
- functions for peristalsis and gastric mixing.
- Coordinated waves of descending inhibition followed by waves of descending excitation
- + Extrinsic parasympathetic cholinergic nerves (vagal and sacral) excite peristalsis and stimulate
- - Sympathetic noradrenergic nerves inhibit the transit of gut contents
- Meissner's Plexus
- functions for secretion and absorption.
Interstitial cells of Cajal
- Interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs) are peripheral nervous system neuron found in some smooth muscle organs.
- function as pacemaker cells, neuromodulation or mechanosensory roles.
Peritubular Myoid Cell Layer
The contractile cell layer (myoid cell layer) found in all mammalian species located in the testis surrounding the seminiferous tubule. Their contractile activity aids spermatozoa and fluid movement in the tubule. These cells lie in the tunica propria outside the basement membrane and type I collagen layer and beneath a lymphatic layer. The organisation of this layer varies between species several cellular layers in human and some other animals, a single cell layer in rodents (rats, hamsters and mice).
The term term "peritubular cells" is also used to describe the fibroblast cells found associated with capillaries in the kidney glomerulus. These are different cells.
Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells
Vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) progenitors are recruited into the early developing blood vessels. These progenitors have various embryonic origins (see review) including:
- splanchnic mesoderm (e.g. aorta)
- somitic mesoderm (e.g. aorta)
- neural crest (e.g. pharyngeal arch arteries)
- mesothelia (e.g. trunk vasculature)
- Smooth Muscle Histology: Labeled Colon low | Labeled Colon high | Colon x40 | Colon x40 | Ileum x10 | Oesophagus x10 | Seminiferous tubule x40 | Uterus myometrium x10 | Uterus myometrium x40 |
- <pubmed>24442477</pubmed>| PMC4031394
Search Pubmed Central Images: smooth muscle
Search Pubmed: Smooth Muscle Development
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Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2021, April 10) Embryology Smooth Muscle Development. Retrieved from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Smooth_Muscle_Development
- © Dr Mark Hill 2021, UNSW Embryology ISBN: 978 0 7334 2609 4 - UNSW CRICOS Provider Code No. 00098G