Reproductive Cycles

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A personal message from Dr Mark Hill (May 2020)  
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I have decided to take early retirement in September 2020. During the many years online I have received wonderful feedback from many readers, researchers and students interested in human embryology. I especially thank my research collaborators and contributors to the site. The good news is Embryology will remain online and I will continue my association with UNSW Australia. I look forward to updating and including the many exciting new discoveries in Embryology!

Introduction

A simplified cartoon of the menstrual cycle

Sexual reproduction in most species is regulated by regular endocrine changes, or cycles, in the female. These cycles begin postnatally, function for variable times and can then decrease or cease entirely. There are a number of different species-specific female hormonal cycles which can regulate reproduction.

Menstrual Cycle

Menstrual cycle.png

Human reproduction is regulated in females the menstrual cycle, a regular cyclic hormonal change which coordinate changes in the ovary and internal reproductive tract.

This cycle commences at puberty and ends at menopause.


Links: menstrual cycle | ovary | uterus | puberty

Estrous Cycle

Mouse ovarian follicle size.jpg

The estrous cycle (British spelling, oestrous) is the main reproductive cycle of females of other non-primate species vertebrates.


For example: rats, mice, horses, pigs all have this form of reproductive cycle.


Links: estrous cycle | mouse estrous cycle


There are also a variety of different estrous forms:

  • Polyestrous Animals - Estrous cycles throughout the year (cattle, pigs, mouse, rat).
  • Seasonally Polyestrous Animals - Animals that have multiple estrous cycles only during certain periods of the year (horses, sheep, goats, deer, cats).
  • Monestrous Animals - Animals that have one estrous cycle per year (dogs, wolves, foxes, and bear)


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Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2020, May 31) Embryology Reproductive Cycles. Retrieved from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Reproductive_Cycles

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© Dr Mark Hill 2020, UNSW Embryology ISBN: 978 0 7334 2609 4 - UNSW CRICOS Provider Code No. 00098G