Postnatal - Infectious Diseases School Exclusion

From Embryology

Introduction

The recommendations for exclusion from school of children with infectious diseases will vary from country to country and is continuously being updated to include new recommendations based upon research and medical changes.

In Australia, the National Health and Medical Research Council had a "Recommended minimum periods of exclusion from school, pre-school and child care centres for cases of and contact with infectious diseases (1997)" that has been revoked and replaced with updated information in a publication Staying Healthy in Child Care (2005).[1]


These recommendations are designed to assist those working with children, but should also be considered in terms of the effects of maternal infections.


Postnatal Links: Introduction | Birth | Neonatal | Neonatal Diagnosis | Milk | Nutrition | Growth Charts | Disease School Exclusion | Vaccination | Puberty | Genital| Postnatal - Vaccination

Some Recent Findings

  • There has been a recent significant increase in the total number of pertussis (whooping cough) notifications in NSW, Australia.

NSW Pertussis Notification Graph (2012-16)

NSW Pertussis Notification Graph (2012-16)

Australian Recommendations

The following modified table and information is provided for educational purposes only, please refer to the original document.[1]

These are NHMRC (2005) recommended minimum periods (due for review in 2010) of exclusion from schools, pre-schools and child care centres based on risk of infection but a child or staff member may need to stay at home longer than the exclusion period to recover from an illness. Different exclusion periods will apply to people whose work involves food handling.

These are NHMRC (2006) the recommended minimum periods of exclusion from schools, pre-schools and child care centres based on risk of infection but a child or staff member may need to stay at home longer than the exclusion period to recover from an illness. Different exclusion periods will apply to people whose work involves food handling.

Please refer to the original document.

Condition Exclusion of Case Exclusion of Contacts
Amoebiasis
(Entamoeba histolytica)
Exclude until there has not been a loose bowel motion for 24 hours Not excluded
Campylobacter Exclude until there has not been a loose bowel motion for 24 hours Not excluded
Candidiasis See ‘Thrush’
Chickenpox
(Varicella)
Exclude until all blisters have dried.This is usually at least 5 days after the rash first appeared in unimmunised children and less in immunised children. Not excluded.
Cytomegalovirus infection
(CMV)
Exclusion is NOT necessary Not excluded
Conjunctivitis Exclude until the discharge from the eyes has stopped unless doctor has diagnosed a non- infectious conjunctivitis. Not excluded
Cryptosporidium infection Exclude until there has not been a loose bowel motion for 24 hours Not excluded
Diarrhoea
(No organism identified)
Exclude until there has not been a loose bowel motion for 24 hours Not excluded
Diphtheria Exclude until medical certificate of recovery is received following at least 2 negative throat swabs, the first swab not less than 24 hours after finishing a course of antibiotics followed by another swab 48 hours later. Exclude contacts that live in the same house until cleared to return by an appropriate health authority.
German measles See ‘Rubella’
Giardiasis Exclude until there has not been a loose bowel motion for 24 hours Not excluded
Glandular fever
(Mononucleosis, EBV infection)
Exclusion is NOT necessary Not excluded
Hand, foot and mouth disease Exclude until all blisters have dried Not excluded
Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) Exclude until the person has received appropriate antibiotic treatment for at least 4 days. Not excluded
Head lice
(Pediculosis)
Exclusion is NOT necessary if effective treatment is commenced prior to the next day at child care (i.e. the child doesn’t need to be sent home immediately if head lice are detected). Not excluded
Hepatitis A Exclude until a medical certificate of recovery is received, but not before seven days after the onset of jaundice. Not excluded
Hepatitis B Exclusion is NOT necessary Not excluded
Hepatitis C Exclusion is NOT necessary Not excluded
Herpes simplex
(cold sores, fever blisters)
Exclusion is not necessary if the person is developmentally capable of maintaining hygiene practices to minimise the risk of transmission. If the person is unable to comply with these practices they should be excluded until the sores are dry. Sores should be covered by a dressing where possible. Not excluded
Human Immunodeficiency Virus
(HIV/AIDS)
Exclusion is NOT necessary. If the person is severely immunocompromised, they will be vulnerable to other people’s illnesses. Not excluded
Hydatid disease Exclusion is NOT necessary Not excluded
Impetigo (school sores) Exclude until appropriate antibiotic treatment has commenced. Any sores on exposed skin should be covered with a watertight dressing. Not excluded
Influenza and influenza-like illnesses Exclude until well Not excluded
Legionnaires’ disease Exclusion is NOT necessary Not excluded
Leprosy Exclude until approval to return has been given by an appropriate health authority Not excluded
Measles Exclude for 4 days after the onset of the rash Immunised and immune contacts are not excluded.

Non-immunised contacts of a case are to be excluded from child care until 14 days after the first day of appearance of rash in the last case, unless immunised within 72 hours of first contact during the infectious period with the first case. All immunocompromised children should be excluded until 14 days after the first day of appearance of rash in the last case.

Meningitis (bacterial) Exclude until well and has received appropriate antibiotics
Meningitis (viral) Exclude until well Not excluded
Meningococcal infection Exclude until appropriate antibiotic treatment has been completed Not excluded
Molluscum contagiosum Exclusion is NOT necessary Not excluded
Mumps Exclude for nine days after onset of swelling. Not excluded
Norovirus Exclude until there has not been a loose bowel motion or vomiting for 48 hours Not excluded
Parvovirus infection
(fifth disease, erythema infectiosum, slapped cheek syndrome)
Exclusion is NOT necessary Not excluded
Pertussis See ‘Whooping Cough’
Respiratory Syncytial virus Exclusion is NOT necessary Not excluded
Ringworm/tinea Exclude until the day after appropriate antifungal treatment has commenced Not excluded
Roseola Exclusion is NOT necessary Not excluded
Ross River virus Exclusion is NOT necessary Not excluded
Rotavirus infection Children are to be excluded from the centre until there has not been a loose bowel motion or vomiting for 24 hours. Not excluded
Rubella (German measles) Exclude until fully recovered or for at least four days after the onset of the rash Not excluded
Salmonella infection Exclude until there has not been a loose bowel motion for 24 hours Not excluded
Scabies Exclude until the day after appropriate treatment has commenced Not excluded
Scarlet fever See ‘Streptococcal sore throat’
School sores See ‘Impetigo’
Shigella infection Exclude until there has not been a loose bowel motion for 24 hours Not excluded
Streptococcal sore throat (including scarlet fever) Exclude until the person has received antibiotic treatment for at least 24 hours and feels well Not excluded
Thrush
(candidiasis)
Exclusion is NOT necessary Not excluded
Toxoplasmosis Exclusion is NOT necessary Not excluded
Tuberculosis (TB) Exclude until medical certificate is produced from an appropriate health authority Not excluded
Typhoid, Paratyphoid Exclude until medical certificate is produced from an appropriate health authority Not excluded unless considered necessary by public health authorities
Varicella See ‘Chickenpox’
Viral gastroenteritis
(viral diarrhoea)
Children are to be excluded from the centre until there has not been a loose bowel motion or vomiting for 24 hours. Not excluded
Warts Exclusion is NOT necessary Not excluded
Whooping cough
(pertussis)
Exclude until five days after starting appropriate antibiotic treatment or for 21 days from the onset of coughing. Contacts that live in the same house as the case and have received less than three doses of pertussis vaccine are to be excluded from the centre until they have had 5 days of an appropriate course of antibiotics. If antibiotics have not been taken, these contacts must be excluded for 21 days after their last exposure to the case while the person was infectious.
Worms Exclusion not necessary if treatment has occurred Not excluded

Infectious Diseases

The following is a general, and not complete, list of some infectious diseases. This will differ between countries.

  • Amoebiasis (Entamoeba histolytica)
  • Campylobacter
  • Chicken pox
  • Conjunctivitis
  • Cytomegalovirus Infection
  • Diarrhoea
  • Diphtheria
  • Glandular fever (mononucleosis)
  • Hand, Foot and Mouth disease
  • Haemophilus type b (Hib)
  • Hepatitis A
  • Hepatitis B
  • Hepatitis C
  • Herpes ("cold sores")
  • Hookworm
  • Human immunodeficiency virus infection (HIV AIDS virus)
  • Impetigo
  • Influenza and influenza like illnesses
  • Leprosy
  • Measles
  • Meningitis (bacterial)
  • Meningococcal infection
  • Molluscum contagiosum
  • Mumps
  • Parvovirus (erythema infectiousum fifth disease)
  • Poliomyelitis
  • Ringworm, scabies, pediculosis (lice), trachoma
  • Rubella (german measles)
  • Salmonella, Shigella
  • Streptococcal infection (including scarlet fever)
  • Tuberculosis
  • Typhoid fever (including paratyphoid fever)
  • Whooping cough
  • Worms (intestinal)

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 Staying Healthy in Child Care - Preventing infectious diseases in child care - Fourth Edition (2005), accessed 9 July 2010 (scheduled for review in 2010) http://www.nhmrc.gov.au/publications/synopses/ch43syn.htm

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Cite this page: Hill, M.A. 2017 Embryology Postnatal - Infectious Diseases School Exclusion. Retrieved November 23, 2017, from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Postnatal_-_Infectious_Diseases_School_Exclusion

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