Genetics - Chromosome 22

From Embryology

Introduction

22
Nucleus structure cartoon 01.jpg Chromatin Structure.png
Chromosome territories (interphase) Chromosome (Chromatin) structure (mitosis)


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Search term: Chromosome 22

Development Genes

Abnormalities

22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome

Vestibular dysfunction is a manifestation of 22q11.2 deletion syndrome[1]

"The 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) is the second most common cause of developmental delay after Down syndrome. Impaired cognitive development is highly prevalent, but also motor abnormalities such as hypotonia and delays in achieving motor milestones are described. Instability is frequently detected in children, adolescents, and adults and is mostly attributed to their limited motor performance. Until now, vestibular function has not been investigated in these patients, despite the growing evidence that they often have inner ear malformations. The aim of this prospective study was to identify the presence and character of vestibular dysfunction in 22q11.2DS. We investigated 23 subjects with proven 22q11.2DS, older than the age of 12. We performed caloric testing and pendular rotation chair tests with videonystagmography, cervical vestibular-evoked myogenic potential (c-VEMP)-testing, and posturography. Additional otoscopy and audiometry were performed on all subjects. We found a unilateral caloric hypofunction in 55% of patients, a certain absent c-VEMP response in 15% of ears, an inconclusive c-VEMP response in 33% of ears, and abnormal posturography in 68% of patients, of whom 42% displayed a typical vestibular pattern. Remarkably, 90% revealed uni- or bilateral weak caloric responses, independent of caloric symmetry. Vestibular dysfunction is frequent in subjects with 22q11.2DS. This knowledge should be taken into account when assessing motor performance in these patients. Additional larger studies are needed to determine whether this dysfunction implicates a therapeutic potential."
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Human Chromosomes: 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11 | 12 | 13 | 14 | 15 | 16 | 17 | 18 | 19 | 20 | 21 | 22 | X | Y  
Idiogram Chromosome Banding - The term refers to the light and dark pattern, seen after staining with a dye, of individual chromosomes identified in metaphase. It is only in meiosis and mitosis during metaphase that chromosomes can be easily identified, during the normal cell life (interphase) the chromosomes are unravelled and distributed within the nucleus in chromosome territories. A band is that part of a chromosome which is clearly distinguishable from nearby regions by appearing darker or brighter with one or more banding techniques.
Human Idiogram: 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11 | 12 | 13 | 14 | 15 | 16 | 17 | 18 | 19 | 20 | 21 | 22 | X | Y
Genetic abnormality locations: 1-4 | 5-8 | 9-12 | 13-16 | 17-20 | 21-XY | sSMC
Inheritance Pattern images: Genetic Abnormalities | autosomal dominant | autosomal recessive | X-linked dominant (affected father) | X-Linked dominant (affected mother) | X-Linked recessive (affected father) | X-Linked recessive (carrier mother) | mitochondrial inheritance | Codominant inheritance | Genogram symbols | Genetics
Links: Genetics | Abnormal Development - Genetic

Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2019, December 6) Embryology Genetics - Chromosome 22. Retrieved from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Genetics_-_Chromosome_22

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© Dr Mark Hill 2019, UNSW Embryology ISBN: 978 0 7334 2609 4 - UNSW CRICOS Provider Code No. 00098G



Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2019, December 6) Embryology Genetics - Chromosome 22. Retrieved from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Genetics_-_Chromosome_22

What Links Here?
© Dr Mark Hill 2019, UNSW Embryology ISBN: 978 0 7334 2609 4 - UNSW CRICOS Provider Code No. 00098G
  1. Willaert A, Van Eynde C, Verhaert N, Desloovere C, Vander Poorten V, Devriendt K, Swillen A & Hens G. (2019). Vestibular dysfunction is a manifestation of 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. Am. J. Med. Genet. A , 179, 448-454. PMID: 30635960 DOI.