Embryology History - Frank Lillie
Frank R. Lillie
Frank Rattray Lillie (1870 – 1947) was an American zoologist and embryologist. Lillie was appointed an Assistant Professor at the University of Chicago in 1900, Chairman of the Department of Zoology in 1910, and later Dean of the Division of Biological Sciences in 1931. His key textbook The Development of the Chick - An Introduction to Embryology was first published in 1908, 2nd edition in 1919 and 3rd edition in 1952.
Born in Toronto, Ontario, Canada, Lillie moved to the United States in 1891 to study for a summer at the Marine Biological Laboratory (MBL) in Woods Hole, Massachusetts, eventually rising to become its director in 1908. His efforts developed the MBL into a full-time institution.
Review - Lillie’s Development of the Chicken (1952)
Lillie’s Development of the Chicken Introduction to Embryology. 3rd Edition, revised by Howarp L. Hamilton. (Pp. 574; 283 figs.; 14 plates; $8.50.) New York: H. Holt & Co. 1952.
The writing of the present edition was begun in 1945 at the request of Dr Frank R. Lillie himself with Dr B. H. Willier acting as advisory editor. It was Dr Lillie’s hope that he might live to see the new edition in print but this was not to be. The general outline of previous editions has been preserved. Part 1, which consists of six chapters, is devoted to an account of the early embryology up to and including the 3rd day. The account of the development of the embryo is given on a general basis and in addition a detailed account is given of specially selected stages.
Part 2 of the book consists of nine chapters and is an account of the development of the embryo from the 4th day to hatching; the various systems and external form are described as separate entities. A few chapters, such as the one dealing with the external form of the embryo and the embryonic membranes, and the one describing the body cavities, mesenteries and septum transversum, have remained relatively unchanged. Chapter 4, ‘From laying to the formation of the first somite’, chapter 8; ‘The nervous system’, and chapter 13, ‘The urogenital system’, are more or less completely rewritten. A new chapter, the fifteenth, describing the development of the integument, has been added. The other chapters have been extensively revised.
The new accounts are based on recent literature, but the author has tried to follow Dr Lillie’s example of going to the chick itself to check questionable points. To this end some original work is included in the text, but it is to be regretted that the author has not indicated more clearly which parts of the text result from this original work. The only clear indications consist of an opinion on the processes concerned with the formation of endoderm (p. 101) and two footnotes, one dealing with the coelomic cavity (p. 149) and one with the tail bud (p. 176). A further footnote refers to a communication from Rawles on the patency of the ductus arteriosus in the newly-hatched chick (p. 462).
This book is very well written and its format is attractive. The book reaches a happy compromise which makes it a most readable introduction to embryology while yet remaining an invaluable reference work for the research worker.
There is little to criticize in this work which has evidently been prepared with great care, but future editions might be improved by a rearrangement of the bibliography. The references should be listed at the end of the chapter they concern and not in an appendix of 32 pages at the end of the book. Also the magnification of drawings and photographs of early embryos should be given. Figs. 153 and 155 would be improved by being photographs rather than drawings of sagittal sections through an embryo. In fig. 222 the drawings are too small and too faint.
Apart from these minor faults the present work is a credit to the author and had Dr Lillie lived he would have been proud to have his name associated with it. It will continue to perpetuate Dr Lillie’s influence on the development of embryology.
|Review - Lillie’s Development of the Chicken - an Introduction to Embryology 3rd Edn. (1952)|
|Lillie’s Development of the Chicken Introduction to Embryology. 3rd Edition, revised by Howarp L. Hamilton. (Pp. 574; 283 figs.; 14 plates; $8.50.) New York: H. Holt & Co. 1952.
Lillie FR. Sex-determination and sex-differentiation in mammals. (1917) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 3: 464-70. PMID 16576241
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Blakeslee AF. Lillie FR. Wilson EB. Harper RA. and Morgan TH. THE BIOLOGICAL SIGNIFICANCE AND CONTROL OF SEX. Science. 1907 Mar 8;25(636):366-84. doi: 10.1126/science.25.636.366. PMID: 17791034
Lillie FR. ON THE TEACHING OF THE ELEMENTS OF EMBRYOLOGY. Science. 1909 Jun 11;29(754):932-4. doi: 10.1126/science.29.754.932-a. PMID: 17795295
Lillie FR. THE MECHANISM OF FERTILIZATION. Science. 1913 Oct 10;38(980):524-8. doi: 10.1126/science.38.980.524. PMID: 17813658
Lillie FR. THE THEORY OF THE FREE-MARTIN. Science. 1916 Apr 28;43(1113):611-3. doi: 10.1126/science.43.1113.611. PMID: 17756274
Lillie FR. Sex-Determination and Sex-Differentiation in Mammals. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1917 Jul;3(7):464-70. doi: 10.1073/pnas.3.7.464. PMID: 16576241
Lillie FR. TANDLER AND KELLER ON THE FREEMARTIN. Science. 1919 Aug 22;50(1286):183-4. doi: 10.1126/science.50.1286.183. PMID: 17807593
Lillie FR, Bascom KF. AN EARLY STAGE OF THE FREE-MARTIN AND THE PARALLEL HISTORY OF THE INTERSTITIAL CELLS. Science. 1922 Jun 9;55(1432):624-5. doi: 10.1126/science.55.1432.624. PMID: 17840019
Crew H. and Lillie FR. WILLIAM A. LOCY--1857-1924. Science. 1924 Nov 28;60(1561):491-3. doi: 10.1126/science.60.1561.491. PMID: 17811976
Lillie FR. THE GENE AND THE ONTOGENETIC PROCESS. Science. 1927 Oct 21;66(1712):361-8. doi: 10.1126/science.66.1712.361. PMID: 17810230
Lillie FR. Embryonic segregation and its role in the life history. Wilhelm Roux Arch Entwickl Mech Org. 1929 Jun;118(1):499-533. doi: 10.1007/BF02108881. PMID: 28354192
Lillie FR. BILATERAL GYNANDROMORPHISM AND LATERAL HEMIHYPERTROPHY IN BIRDS. Science. 1931 Oct 16;74(1920):387-90. doi: 10.1126/science.74.1920.387. PMID: 17792271
Lillie FR. and Juhn M. THE ORIGIN OF THE AFTER-FEATHER IN FOWL: A PROCESS OF TWINNING. Science. 1937 Jul 9;86(2219):38-9. doi: 10.1126/science.86.2219.38-a. PMID: 17813220
Lillie FR. and Wang H. Physiology of Development of the Feather: IV. The Diurnal Curve of Growth in Brown Leghorn Fowl. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1940 Jan 15;26(1):67-85. doi: 10.1073/pnas.26.1.67. PMID: 16577967
Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2020, July 14) Embryology Embryology History - Frank Lillie. Retrieved from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Embryology_History_-_Frank_Lillie
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