Developmental Mechanism - Dorso-Ventral Axis

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Introduction

Draft Page - notice removed when complete.

Anatomical axes comparison Human-anatomical-planes
Anatomical axes comparison Human-anatomical-planes

Note there is some confusion arising in the terminology when comparing animal developmental axes and those of human anatomical axes.

How do you establish the anatomical axes of the embryo? Another well studied model of axis patterning is the establishment of limb axes, in particular this system historically was studied by grafting and rotating parts of the early developing limb.

Note there is some confusion arising in the terminology when comparing animal developmental axes and those of human anatomical axes.



Axes Formation: left-right axis | dorso-ventral axis | rostro-caudal axis | limb axis | Coronal | Sagittal | Transverse


Mechanism Links: mitosis | cell migration | epithelial invagination | epithelial mesenchymal transition | mesenchymal epithelial transition | epithelial mesenchymal interaction | morphodynamics | tube formation | apoptosis | autophagy | axes formation | time | molecular

Some Recent Findings

Axes
Axes
  • Posterior-anterior gradient of zebrafish hes6 expression in the presomitic mesoderm is established by the combinatorial functions of the downstream enhancer and 3'UTR[1] "In vertebrates, the periodic formation of somites from the presomitic mesoderm (PSM) is driven by the molecular oscillator known as the segmentation clock. The hairy-related gene, hes6/her13.2, functions as a hub by dimerizing with other oscillators of the segmentation clock in zebrafish embryos. Although hes6 exhibits a posterior-anterior expression gradient in the posterior PSM with a peak at the tailbud, the detailed mechanisms underlying this unique expression pattern have not yet been clarified. By establishing several transgenic lines, we found that the transcriptional regulatory region downstream of hes6 in combination with the hes6 3'UTR recapitulates the endogenous gradient of hes6 mRNA expression. This downstream region, which we termed the PT enhancer, possessed several putative binding sites for the T-box and Ets transcription factors that were required for the regulatory activity. Indeed, the T-box transcription factor (Tbx16) and Ets transcription factor (Pea3) bound specifically to the putative binding sites and regulated the enhancer activity in zebrafish embryos. In addition, the 3'UTR of hes6 is required for recapitulation of the endogenous mRNA expression. Furthermore, the PT enhancer with the 3'UTR of hes6 responded to the inhibition of retinoic acid synthesis and fibroblast growth factor signaling in a manner similar to endogenous hes6. The results showed that transcriptional regulation by the T-box and Ets transcription factors, combined with the mRNA stability given by the 3'UTR, is responsible for the unique expression gradient of hes6 mRNA in the posterior PSM of zebrafish embryos."


More recent papers  
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Search term: Dorso-ventral Axis | Axis Formation | Molecular Axis Development | Rostro-caudal Axis | Left-Right Axis

References

  1. Kawamura A, Ovara H, Ooka Y, Kinoshita H, Hoshikawa M, Nakajo K, Yokota D, Fujino Y, Higashijima S, Takada S & Yamasu K. (2016). Posterior-anterior gradient of zebrafish hes6 expression in the presomitic mesoderm is established by the combinatorial functions of the downstream enhancer and 3'UTR. Dev. Biol. , 409, 543-54. PMID: 26596999 DOI.

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Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2019, August 17) Embryology Developmental Mechanism - Dorso-Ventral Axis. Retrieved from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Developmental_Mechanism_-_Dorso-Ventral_Axis

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© Dr Mark Hill 2019, UNSW Embryology ISBN: 978 0 7334 2609 4 - UNSW CRICOS Provider Code No. 00098G