Corpus Luteum Development

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Introduction

Human ovary with corpus luteum (white ring).

The corpus luteum (Latin, corpus = body, luteum = yellow) develops from the remains of Graffian follicle after ovulation. Functions as an endocrine organ (produce progesterone and oestrogens) supporting pregnancy and preventing menstruation (loss of the endometrial lining). Formed during the luteal phase (secretory phase) of the menstrual cycle by proliferation of both follicular granulosa cells (granulosa lutein cells) and thecal cells (theca lutein cells), which together interact to produce progesterone and oestrogens.

Peak luteal function during the menstrual cycle, determined by maximum luteal area, progesterone concentration and estradiol concentration, is observed about 6 days following ovulation.[1]

If fertilization and pregnancy does not occur, the corpus luteum degenerates to form the corpus albicans.

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Historic Embryology - Genital 
1901 Urinogenital Tract | 1902 The Uro-Genital System | 1904 Ovary and Testis | 1904 Leydig Cells | 1904 Hymen | 1905 Testis vascular | 1909 Prostate | 1912 Prostate | 1912 Urinogenital Organ Development | 1914 External Genitalia | 1914 Female | 1915 Cowper’s and Bartholin’s Glands | 1920 Wolffian tubules | 1921 Urogenital Development | 1921 External Genital | 1927 Female Foetus 15 cm | 1932 Postnatal Ovary | 1935 Prepuce | 1935 Wolffian Duct | 1942 Sex Cords | 1943 Testes Descent | 1953 Germ Cells | Historic Embryology Papers | Historic Disclaimer

Some Recent Findings

  • MiR-29b affects the secretion of PROG and promotes the proliferation of bovine corpus luteum cells[2] "The regulatory role of miRNAs has been explored in ovarian cells, and their effects on gonadal development, apoptosis, ovulation, steroid production and corpus luteum (CL) development have been revealed. In this study, we analyzed the expression of miR-29b at different stages of bovine CL development and predicted the target genes of miR-29b. We confirmed that miR-29b reduces the expression of the oxytocin receptor (OXTR), affects progesterone (PROG) secretion and regulates the function of the CL. RT-PCR showed that the expression of miR-29b was significantly higher in functional CL phases than in the regressed CL phase. Immunohistochemistry showed that OXTR was expressed in both large and small CL cells and was mainly located in the cell membrane and cytoplasm of these cells. We analyzed the expression levels of OXTR and found that transfection with a miR-29b mimic decreased OXTR expression, but transfection with the inhibitor had a limited effect on the expression of the OXTR protein. At the same time, the secretion of PROG was significantly increased in the miR-29b mimic-transfected group. We also analyzed the effect of miR-29b on the apoptosis of CL cells. Finally, we found that miR-29b could promote the proliferation of bovine CL cells. In conclusion, we found that miR-29b reduces the expression of OXTR and can promote PROG secretion and the proliferation of CL cells via OXTR."
More recent papers  
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History

Regnier de Graaf (1641 – 1673) Ludwig Fraenkel (1870 - 1951)
Regnier de Graaf Ludwig Fraenkel
Regnier de Graaf (1641 – 1673) was the first observer in the ovary of a cow as a yellow structure, the yellow colour was caused by accumulation of steroidal hormones. Ludwig Fraenkel (1870 - 1951) first identified the endocrine function of the corpus luteum.[3]

Histology

Ovary corpus luteum.jpg
Corpus luteum.jpg Corpus luteum lutein cells.jpg
Corpus luteum histology Corpus luteum lutein cells

Embryo Virtual Slide

Human Ovary and Corpus Luteum

Human ovary - corpus luteum 01.jpg

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Ovary | Embryo Slides
Corpus Luteum Links: anatomy overview | histology overview | Layers - granulosa and theca | Layers Detail - granulosa and theca | low power label | high power label | low power | high power | corpus albicans | theca and granulosa lutein cells | Granulosa cell | corpus luteum | ovary | menstrual cycle
  Historic Papers: 1969 corpus luteum ultrastructure 1 | 1969 corpus luteum ultrastructure 2

Corpus Albicans

Human ovary with corpus albicans (white arrow).

Ovary histology 003.jpg

Corpus albicans histology

(corpora albicantia) (Latin, corpus = body, albicans = whitish) The histological structure formed by luteolysis of the corpus luteum in the ovary. If implantation does not occur and the hormone hCG is not released the corpus luteum degenerates and the structure is white, not yellow, because of the absence of steroid hormone synthesis/accumulation.


Corpus Luteum Links: anatomy overview | histology overview | Layers - granulosa and theca | Layers Detail - granulosa and theca | low power label | high power label | low power | high power | corpus albicans | theca and granulosa lutein cells | Granulosa cell | corpus luteum | ovary | menstrual cycle
  Historic Papers: 1969 corpus luteum ultrastructure 1 | 1969 corpus luteum ultrastructure 2

Animal Models

References

  1. Baerwald AR, Adams GP & Pierson RA. (2005). Form and function of the corpus luteum during the human menstrual cycle. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol , 25, 498-507. PMID: 15846762 DOI.
  2. Xu MQ, Jiang H, Zhang LQ, Sun XL, Luo D, Fu Y, Gao Y, Yuan B & Zhang JB. (2018). MiR-29b affects the secretion of PROG and promotes the proliferation of bovine corpus luteum cells. PLoS ONE , 13, e0195562. PMID: 29617446 DOI.
  3. Simmer HH. (1971). The first experiments to demonstrate an endocrine function of the corpus luteum. On the occasion of the 100th birthday of Ludwig Fraenkel (1870-1951). Sudhoffs Arch , 55, 392-417. PMID: 4261581

Reviews

Sugino N, Matsuoka A, Taniguchi K & Tamura H. (2008). Angiogenesis in the human corpus luteum. Reprod. Med. Biol. , 7, 91-103. PMID: 29699289 DOI.

Stouffer RL, Bishop CV, Bogan RL, Xu F & Hennebold JD. (2013). Endocrine and local control of the primate corpus luteum. Reprod Biol , 13, 259-71. PMID: 24287034 DOI.

Bachelot A & Binart N. (2005). Corpus luteum development: lessons from genetic models in mice. Curr. Top. Dev. Biol. , 68, 49-84. PMID: 16124996 DOI.

Stouffer RL. (2003). Progesterone as a mediator of gonadotrophin action in the corpus luteum: beyond steroidogenesis. Hum. Reprod. Update , 9, 99-117. PMID: 12751773

Articles

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Historic Embryology - Genital 
1901 Urinogenital Tract | 1902 The Uro-Genital System | 1904 Ovary and Testis | 1904 Leydig Cells | 1904 Hymen | 1905 Testis vascular | 1909 Prostate | 1912 Prostate | 1912 Urinogenital Organ Development | 1914 External Genitalia | 1914 Female | 1915 Cowper’s and Bartholin’s Glands | 1920 Wolffian tubules | 1921 Urogenital Development | 1921 External Genital | 1927 Female Foetus 15 cm | 1932 Postnatal Ovary | 1935 Prepuce | 1935 Wolffian Duct | 1942 Sex Cords | 1943 Testes Descent | 1953 Germ Cells | Historic Embryology Papers | Historic Disclaimer
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Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2019, January 19) Embryology Corpus Luteum Development. Retrieved from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Corpus_Luteum_Development

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© Dr Mark Hill 2019, UNSW Embryology ISBN: 978 0 7334 2609 4 - UNSW CRICOS Provider Code No. 00098G