Book - The brain of the tiger salamander

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Herrick CJ. The Brain of the Tiger Salamander (1948) The University Of Chicago Press, Chicago, Illinois.

Online Editor  
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This historic 1948 book by Herrick describes the development of the lizard, tiger salamander (Ambystoma tigrinum).


root; cellular organisms; Eukaryota; Opisthokonta; Metazoa; Eumetazoa; Bilateria; Coelomata; Deuterostomia; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Gnathostomata; Teleostomi; Euteleostomi; Sarcopterygii; Tetrapoda; Amniota; Sauropsida; Sauria; Lepidosauria

Modern Notes: lizard | neural

Part I. General Description and Interpretation 1. Salamander Brains | 2. Form and Brain Subdivisions | 3. Histological Structure | 4. Regional Analysis | 5. Functional Analysis, Central and Peripheral | 6. Physiological Interpretations | VII. The Origin and Significance of Cerebral Cortex | VIII. General Principles of Morphogenesis Part 2. Survey of Internal Structure 9. Spinal Cord and Bulbo-spinal Junction | 10. Cranial Nerves | 11. Medulla Oblongata | 12. Cerebellum | 13. Isthmus | 14. Interpeduncular Nucleus | 15. Midbrain | 16. Optic and Visual-motor Systems | 17. Diencephalon | 18. Habenula and Connections | 19. Cerebral Hemispheres | 20. Systems of Fibers | 21. Commissures | Bibliography | Illustrations | salamander

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Pages where the terms "Historic Textbook" and "Historic Embryology" appear on this site, and sections within pages where this disclaimer appears, indicate that the content and scientific understanding are specific to the time of publication. This means that while some scientific descriptions are still accurate, the terminology and interpretation of the developmental mechanisms reflect the understanding at the time of original publication and those of the preceding periods, these terms and interpretations may not reflect our current scientific understanding.     (More? Embryology History | Historic Embryology Papers)

The Brain of the Tiger Salamander

Ambystoma tigrinum


By C. Judson Herrick

Professor Emeritus of Neurology The University of Chicago

The University Of Chicago Press Chicago • Illinois


Preface

This work reports the results of a search, extending over fifty years, for the fundamental plan of the vertebrate nervous system as revealed in generalized form in the amphibians. In these small brains we find a simplified arrangement of nerve cells and fibers with a pattern of structural organization, the main features of which are common to all vertebrates. From this primitive and relatively unspecialized web of tissue it is possible to follow the successive steps in progressive elaboration as the series of animals from salamanders to men is passed in review.


This is a record of personal observation, not a compilation of the literature. It is presented in two parts, which differ in content and method of treatment of the data.


The first part gives a general over-all view of the structure without details, followed by physiological interpretation and discussion of some general principles of embryologic and phylogenetic morphogenesis. This part, with the accompanying illustrations, can be read independently of the histological details recorded in the second part.


The second part presents the evidence upon which conclusions are based, drawn from my own previously published descriptions, to which references are given, together with considerable new material. This part is designed for specialists in comparative neurology and as a guide for physiological experiments. The second part supplements the first, to which the reader must make frequent reference.


Grateful acknowledgment is made to many colleagues for generous assistance and criticism, and particularly to Doctors Elizabeth C. Crosby, Davenport Hooker, Olof Larsell, Gerhardt von Bonin, Ernst Scharrer, and W. T. Dempster. In the preparation of the manuscript invaluable help was given by Miss Anna Seaburg.


I am indebted to Dr. Paul G. Roofe for permission to copy one of his pictures, shown here as figure 86A. The American Museum of Natural History, New York, generously furnished the two photographs, taken from life, shown at the bottom of the Frontispiece. These are copyrighted by the Museum. One of them has been previously published by the Macmillan Company in Hegner's Parade of the Animal Kingdom (p. 289). The photograph of the midlarval stage was kindly suppHed by Professor Sherman C. Bishop of the University of Rochester. The upper figure is from G. K. Noble's Biology of the Amphibia, courtesy of the McGraw-Hill Book Company (copyrighted, 1931). Figures 1, 2C, and 86-113 are reproductions of figures previously published by the author in the Journal of Comparative Neurology and used here by courtesy of the Wistar Institute of Anatomy and Biology, publishers of that Journal. The other figures are originals prepared for this work.


Money for the prosecution of the work and for financing its publication was liberally supplied by the Dr. Wallace C. and Clara A. Abbott Memorial Fund of the University of Chicago.

Part I. General Description and Interpretation

Contents

  1. Salamanders and Their Brains
    1. The salamanders
    2. The scope of this inquiry
    3. The plan of this book
    4. Sources and material
    5. Development of the brain
    6. The evolution of brains
  2. The Form and Subdivisions of the Brain
    1. Gross structure
    2. Ventricles
    3. Meninges, chorioid plexuses, and blood vessels
  3. Histological Structure
    1. General histology
    2. The neuropil
    3. The ventrolateral peduncular neuropil
  4. Regional Analysis
    1. The subdivisions, spinal cord to pallium
    2. The commissures
    3. Conclusion
  5. Functional Analysis, Central and Peripheral
    1. The longitudinal zones
    2. The sensory zone
    3. The motor zone
    4. The intermediate zone
    5. The functional systems
  6. Physiological Interpretations
    1. Apparatus of analysis and synthesis
    2. The stimulus-response formula
    3. Reflex and inhibition
    4. Principles of localization of function
  7. The Origin and Significance of Cerebral Cortex
    1. The problem
    2. Morphogenesis of the cerebral hemispheres
    3. The cortex
    4. Physiology and psychology
  8. General Principles of Morphogenesis
    1. Morphogenic agencies
    2. Morphological landmarks
    3. The future of morphology
  9. Spinal Cord and Bulbo-spinal Junction
    1. The spinal cord and its nerves
    2. The bulbo-spinal junction
  10. Cranial Nerves
    1. Development
    2. Survey of the functional systems
  11. Medulla Oblongata
    1. Sensory zone
    2. Intermediate zone
    3. Motor zone
    4. Fiber tracts of the medulla oblongata
    5. The lemniscus systems
  12. Cerebellum
    1. Brachium conjunctivum
    2. The cerebellar commissures
    3. Proprioceptive functions of the cerebellum
  13. Isthmus
    1. Development
    2. Sensory zone
    3. Intermediate zone
    4. Motor zone
    5. White substance
    6. Isthmic neuropil
    7. Physiological interpretation
  14. Interpeduncular Nucleus
    1. Comparative anatomy
    2. Histological structure
    3. Afferent connections
    4. Efferent connections
    5. Interpretation
    6. Conclusion
  15. Midbrain
    1. Development
    2. Sensory zone
    3. Intermediate zone
    4. Motor zone
  16. Optic and Visual-motor Systems
    1. Optic nerve and tracts
    2. Tectum opticum
    3. Tectooculomotor connections
    4. Visual functions
  17. Diencephalon
    1. General features
    2. Development
    3. Epithalamus
    4. Dorsal thalamus
    5. Ventral thalamus
    6. Hypothalamus
  18. The Habenula and Its Connections
    1. The di-telencephalic junction
    2. Fornix
    3. Stria terminalis
    4. Stria medullaris thalami
    5. Fasciculus retroflexus
  19. The Cerebral Hemispheres
    1. Subdivisions of the hemisphere
    2. The olfactory system
  20. XX. The Systems of Fibers
    1. The basal forebrain bundles
    2. The tegmental fascicles
    3. Fasciculus tegmentalis profundus
  21. The Commissures
    1. General considerations
    2. The dorsal commissures
    3. The ventral commissures
  22. Bibliography
  23. Illustrations
    1. Abbreviations for All Figures


Historic Disclaimer - information about historic embryology pages 
Mark Hill.jpg
Pages where the terms "Historic Textbook" and "Historic Embryology" appear on this site, and sections within pages where this disclaimer appears, indicate that the content and scientific understanding are specific to the time of publication. This means that while some scientific descriptions are still accurate, the terminology and interpretation of the developmental mechanisms reflect the understanding at the time of original publication and those of the preceding periods, these terms and interpretations may not reflect our current scientific understanding.     (More? Embryology History | Historic Embryology Papers)

Part I. General Description and Interpretation 1. Salamander Brains | 2. Form and Brain Subdivisions | 3. Histological Structure | 4. Regional Analysis | 5. Functional Analysis, Central and Peripheral | 6. Physiological Interpretations | VII. The Origin and Significance of Cerebral Cortex | VIII. General Principles of Morphogenesis Part 2. Survey of Internal Structure 9. Spinal Cord and Bulbo-spinal Junction | 10. Cranial Nerves | 11. Medulla Oblongata | 12. Cerebellum | 13. Isthmus | 14. Interpeduncular Nucleus | 15. Midbrain | 16. Optic and Visual-motor Systems | 17. Diencephalon | 18. Habenula and Connections | 19. Cerebral Hemispheres | 20. Systems of Fibers | 21. Commissures | Bibliography | Illustrations | salamander

Reference

Herrick CJ. The Brain of the Tiger Salamander (1948) The University Of Chicago Press, Chicago, Illinois.


Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2019, September 16) Embryology Book - The brain of the tiger salamander. Retrieved from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Book_-_The_brain_of_the_tiger_salamander

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