Book - Introduction to Vertebrate Embryology 1935
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Shumway W. Introduction to Vertebrate Embryology. (1935) John Wiley & Sons, New York
Born - 8 May 1891 New Brunswick, Middlesex County, New Jersey, USA
Death - 8 Mar 1956 (aged 64) Manhattan, New York County (Manhattan), New York, USA
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Introduction to Vertebrate Embryology
A Textbook for Colleges and Universities.
Waldo Shumway, Ph.D.
Professor of Zoology, Unversity of Illinois
Third Edition, Revised And Enlarged
With 525 Drawings Combined In 240 Figures
New York John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Lonpon: Chapman & Hall, Limrrep 1935 Printing ¥F. H. Gilson Co. Boston
Copyright, 1927, 1930, 1935, By Waldo Shumway
All Rights Reserved
This book or any part thereof must not be reproduced tin any form without the written permission of the publisher.
Printed in U.S.A.
Composition and Plates - Technical Composition Co. Cambridge
Binding - Stanhope Bindery Boston
To E.S.S. ano F.S.S.
Preface To Third Edition
In preparing this new edition, I have taken the opportunity to recast and rewrite the first half of the text, incorporating such new matcrial, especially in experimental vertebrate embryology, as I have found helpful in my own teaching, correcting errors which had persisted through earlicr editions, and particularly revising the terminology to bring it into line with current American usage.
In recent years I have found that a brief preview of the life histories of the vertebrate types makes an admirable introduction to the study of comparative embryology, familiarizing the students with the essential vocabulary and supplying them with a framework for the more detailed study of development which follows. Such a preview is included as Chapter II. The illustrations of this chapter are not labeled in detail as many of them will be found again with full labeling in later chapters.
Since many of the newer textbooks of general zodlogy give excellent brief accounts of cytology and genetics, the section of this book devoted to these subjects now forms a separate chapter (IV) which may be omitted at the teacher’s discretion. It has been completely rewritten, in which task I have been greatly assisted by the publication of Sharp’s ‘“‘ Cytology,” third edition.
It is impossible, in a text designed for the college rather than the medical school, to ignore the new advances in experimental embryology, especially those directly concerned with vertebrate development. From the wealth of material now available in works of reference (see page 177) I have selected such topics as seemed to have a definite pedagogical value in my own experience. It is hardly to be expected that this selection will meet the needs of all teachers, but it is hoped that it will supply at least a point of departure. With this in mind the material has been segregated into a single chapter (VII) and the reference list made a little more extensive than those in other sections of the book. “Embryology and Genetics’ by Morgan, and “The Ele ments of Experimental Embryology ’’ by Huxley and de Beer have been of material assistance in the organization of this chapter.
Karlier editions employed, to a degree which I now recognize was extreme for undergraduates, embryological terms current in European texts and manuals for advanced students. This made it difficult for the student to carry on collateral reading in other texts. In this revision the number of technical terms employed has been reduced until there are only 220 which are not encountered also in such recent texts as Curtis and Guthrie’s ‘ Gencral Zodlogy,” second edition, and Adams’ “ Introduction to the Vertebrates,” representing matcrial provided in courses prerequisite to embryology. <A glossary, including cross references to common synonyms, has been added. ITreed from the necessity of acquiring a large new vocabulary, the student, it is hoped, will progress more rapidly to a better understanding of the dynamic aspects of development.
The expansion of the text indicated above has made it impossible to extend the treatment of organogeny to an equal degree, and I have been forced to content myself with a general revision of this section and the substitution of new figures wherever better material has been available than heretofore.
In preparing this revision, I have had the able assistance of Dr. Frank B. Adamstone, associated with me in this laboratory since 1928, and Dr. David H. Thompson, who has been good enough to read the new chapter on chromosomes and the genes. Mr. W. F. Hoheisel, my laboratory assistant, classified a great mass of student queries accumulated through the use of a question-box ever since this text first appeared in mimeograph form. His analysis was most revealing as to the topics where students encountered the greatest difficulties, and these have had special attention in the revision. The new drawings, except certain cuts borrowed from other sources and acknowledged in their respective legends, have been prepared by Mrs. Katharine Hill Paul. It is a pleasure to express my thanks to all those fellow teachers who have made me their debtor by suggestions as to how the text might be made more useful in classroom and laboratory.
January 5, 1935.
Preface to First Edition
This book is intended to serve as an introduction to the study of Vertebrate Embryology for undergraduate students in colleges and universities. For this study they have been prepared by completing introductory courses in the principles of biology and the anatomy of the vertebrates. It has been the writer’s aim to correlate embryological principles as discussed in lecture and classroom with the anatomy of vertebrate embryos as studied in the laboratory, in such a manner as to produce a text which should be both practical and teachable.
After a general introduction to the subject, a large part of the text is devoted to the subject of carly embryology, making use of the comparative method which has been found most successful in the experience of many teachers. FEspecial emphasis has been laid on four forms: Amphioxus, because of the beautiful and diagrammatic simplicity with which the early stages may be seriated; the frog, long an object of laboratory study; the chick, always available for laboratory preparation and observation; and man, whenever human material is available. Following this section, which includes the period of germ-layer formation, the embryonic membranes, and the development of body form, a second division of the book deals with the derivation of the separate organs and organ systems from the germ layers. Here, too, the method is essentially comparative. The general plan by which each organ system develops is first sketched in broad outlines, followed by an account of the divergent details in the frog, chick, and man.
The remainder of the book is intended for laboratory use. In the third section is given a succinct account of the anatomy of each of the more commonly studied stages in the development of the frog, chick, and pig, illustrated by figures of whole mounts and sections selected from the splendid collections at the University of Illinois built up by Professor J. S. Kingsley. The writer has followed the sequential or chronological method in this section, as it has been his experience that this method is as successful in the laboratory as is the comparative method in the classroom. It is hoped that from the study of the transparent whole mounts, as well as the transverse, sagittal, and frontal sections, the student may be enabled to visualize the anatomy of embryos in three dimensions. The concluding section of the text deals with methods of preparing embryos for study and of instructions in elementary methods of embryological study. In the writer’s experience it is much easier for the student to grasp the relationship of scrial sections after he has prepared a set of his own.
In view of the fact that this book has been written primarily for the undergraduate, the writer feels that he need offer no apology for the omission of historical reviews, controversial discussions of obscure phenomena, references to original sources, or lists of synonyms. These neither interest nor profit the beginning student. In the concluding division of the introduction may be found a carefully selected list of handbooks, texts, and atlases to which the more ambitious student may be referred, while a list of references for collateral reading follows each chapter. The brevity of the text is intentional. If the student is informed that every word and sentence is an integral part of the story, he will master it in detail rather than attempt to pick out the more salient points, a procedure for which he is hardly prepared as yet. Brief summaries are appended to the chapters in Parts I and II.
To compensate for the brevity of the text, the reader is provided with a profusion of illustrations, prepared by the well-known scientific artist, Mrs. Katharine Hill Paul. To her skill the writer is deeply indebted. Attention may be called to the fact that no abbreviations are employed in the labeling of figures. The beginning student will be apt to study the illustrations more carefully if he is not compelled to search through lengthy legends to interpret them. Professor Ei. B. Wilson and Professor J. S. Kingsley have kindly allowed the writer to have several figures from their writings redrawn in order that these might conform to the general style of this text. Messrs. W. B. Saunders have generously consented to the reproduction of certain figures, from “ Developmental Anatomy” by Professor L. B. Arey, which had been drawn by Mrs. Paul for that text. The writer is indebted also to Professor 8. H. Gage and the Comstock Publishing Company for the use of an electrotype from “ The Microscope.” The source of all illustrations not original in this text is acknowledged in the legends.
It is a pleasure to record here a debt of gratitude to Professor J. H. McGregor and Professor J. 8. Kingsley for their kindness in reading the original manuscript. Professor H. B. Ward has generously placed the resources of the Department of Zodlogy at the writer’s disposal during the preparation of this book. Dr. A. R. Cahn has contributed preparations, suggestions, and — most appreciated of all — uncounted hours in the drudgery of proof-reading and indexing. For assistance in these labors the writer is indebted also to Dr. H. W. Hann and Dr. F. B. Adamstone. If this book serves to help the undergraduate through his first course in embryology, it is due, in no small measure, to the many students who have labored through these pages in mimeographed form and pointed out the difficulties they encountered.
University of Illinois, Urbana.
I. The study of embryology
II. Vertebrate life histories
III. The germ cells and fertilization
A. The gametes
IV. The chromosomes and the genes
A. The chromosomes
B. The genes
V. Cleavage and the germ layers
C. The middle germ layer
VI. Embryonic form and extra-embryonic structures
A. The form of the body
B. The yolk sac
C. Amnion and chorion.
D. The allantois
E. The placenta
VII. Experimental vertebrate embryology
A. The organization of the fertilized egg
B. Organization of the embryo during cleavage
C. Organization of the embryo during germ layer formation
D. Environmental factors in development
VIII. Endodermal derivatives
IX. Mesodermal derivatives
A. The coclom and its mesenteries
B. The nephric organs.
C. The genital organs... 0... eee eee eee eens 205
D. The adrenal organs. 2.0.0... cc cette eee ees 213
E. The vascular system. ... 00... ccc ce cette cence 214
FP. The skeleton... 0.0.0.0... cece ce eet eee eens 229
G. The muscles... 0.0.0... eee cee eet n eee eae 238
X. Ectodermal derivatives......... 0... tenets 244 A. The integument... 2.0.6 244
B. The nervous system... 0.0... cee eee 247
C. The sense organs. . 184.108.40.206... 00 tee eee ees 261
XI. The anatomy of frog embryos
A. The carly embryo (8 mm.)
B. The larva at hatching (6 mm.)
C. The young tadpole (11 mm.)
XII. The anatomy of chick embryos
A. The twenty-four hour stage
B. The thirty-three hour stage
C. The forty-cight hour stage
D. The seventy-two hour stage
XIII. The anatomy of the 10 mm. pig embryo
XIV. Preparation of embryological material
A. Collection and rearing of embryos
B. Preservation of material
C. Whole mounts
D. Serial sections
E. Technical records
F. Outline of technical procedure for chick embryos
XXV. Study of embryological preparations
A. The use of the microscope
B. Embryological drawings
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