Book - Embryology of the Pig 14

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Patten BM. Embryology of the Pig. (1951) The Blakiston Company, Toronto.

Patten 1951: 1 Foreword to the Student | 2 Reproductive Organs - Gametogenesis | 3 Sexual Cycle | 4 Cleavage and Germ Layers | 5 Body Form and Organs | 6 Extra-Embryonic Membranes | 7 Embryos 9-12 mm | 8 Nervous System | 9 Digestive - Respiratory and Body Cavities | 10 Urogenital | 11 Circulatory System | 12 Bone and Skeletal System | 13 Face and Jaws | Bibliography
Online Editor 
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This historic 1951 embryology of the pig textbook by Patten was designed as an introduction to the topic. Currently only the text has been made available online, figures will be added at a later date. My thanks to the Internet Archive for making the original scanned book available.


By the same author: Patten BM. The Early Embryology of the Chick. (1920) Philadelphia: P. Blakiston's Son and Co.

Patten BM. Developmental defects at the foramen ovale. (1938) Am J Pathol. 14(2):135-162. PMID 19970381


Modern Notes

pig

Historic Disclaimer - information about historic embryology pages 
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Pages where the terms "Historic Textbook" and "Historic Embryology" appear on this site, and sections within pages where this disclaimer appears, indicate that the content and scientific understanding are specific to the time of publication. This means that while some scientific descriptions are still accurate, the terminology and interpretation of the developmental mechanisms reflect the understanding at the time of original publication and those of the preceding periods, these terms and interpretations may not reflect our current scientific understanding.     (More? Embryology History | Historic Embryology Papers)

Bibliography

Although this does not purport to be a complete bibliography on the development of the pig, I have tried to make it comprehensive. At least one reference has been included on every phase of the subject concerning which I could find published information. Under each of the main subject headings some of the articles referred to have extensive bibliographies of the literature in their special field. But, with the exception of a few outstanding contributions, no papers have been included which are merely of historical interest. For such articles reference should be made to the exhaustive bibliographies compiled by Minot (1893) and by Keibel (1897). Furthermore, the list is largely restricted to contributions based directly on pig embryos. Exception to this rule has been made in favor of a few general articles which are of especial assistance in acquiring a perspective on some phase of the subject. Also, a number of articles based on other forms have been included when no work appeared to have been done on corresponding phases of development in the pig. It is hoped that such a list of selected references will furnish a starting point for following up any desired line of inquiry without involving one in a discouraging multiplicity of titles.

Texts and Manuals

Arey L. i?., 19^6. Developmental Anatomy. Saunders, Philadelphia, 5th Ed., ix & 616 pp.

Baumgartner, W, J,, 1924, Laboratory Manual of the Foetal Pig, Macmillan, New York, vii & 57 pp.

Boyden, E. A., 1936. A Laboratory Atlas of the 13-mm. Pig Embryo. (Prefaced by younger stages of the chick embryo.) The Wistar Institute Press, Philadelphia, iv & 104 pp.

Hamilton, W. J., Boyd, J. D., and Mossman, H. W., 1945. Human Embryology.

Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore, viii & 366 pp.

Hertwig, O., 1901-07. Handbuch der Vergleichenden und experimentellen Entwicklungslehre der Wirbeltiere. (Edited by Dr. Oskar Hertwig and written by numerous collaborators.) Fischer, Jena.

Huettner, A, F., 1941. Fundamentals of Comparative Embryology of the Vertebrates. Macmillan, New York, xiv & 416 pp,

Jordan, H. E,, and Kindred, J. E., 1948. A Textbook of Embryology. Appleton, New York, 5th Ed., xiv & 613 pp.

Keibel F. Normal Plates of the Development of the Pig Embryo (Sus scrofa domesticus). (1897) Vol. 1 in series by Keibel F. Normal plates of the development of vertebrates (Normentafeln zur Entwicklungsgeschichte der Wirbelthiere) Fisher, Jena., Germany.

Martin P., 1912. Lehrbuch der Anatomic der Haustiere. chickhard & Ebner, Stuttgart. (Bd. 1, Allgemeine und vergleichende Anatomic mit Entwicklungsgeschichte, xii & 811 S.)

Minot C, S., 1893. A Bibliography of Vertebrate Embryology. Memoirs, Boston Soc. Nat. History, Vol. 4, pp. 487-614.

Minot, C, S., 1911. A Laboratory Textbook of Embryology. The Blakiston Company, Philadelphia, 2nd Ed., xii & 402 pp.

Needham J., 1931. Chemical Embryology. Macmillan, New York, xxii & 2021 pp.

Patten, BM. Sommepfield WA. and Paff GH. Functional limitations of the foramen ovale in the human foetal heart. (1929) Anat. Rec. 44(2): 165-

Patten, B. M., 1929. Early Embryology of the Chick. The Blakiston Company, Philadelphia, 3rd Ed., xiii & 228 pp.

Patten, B. M., 1946. Human Embryology. The Blakiston Company, Philadelphia, XV & 776 pp.

Stssori, S., 1921. The Anatomy of the Domestic Animals. Saunders, Philadelphia, 2nd Ed., 930 pp.

Wetss, P.y 1939. Principles of Development. A Text in Experimental Embryology. Holt, New York, xix & 601 pp.

IVieman, H. L., 1930. An Introduction to Vertebrate Embryology. McGraw-Hill, New York, xi & 411 pp,

Windle, W, F., 1940. Physiology of the Fetus. Saunders, Philadelphia, xiii & 249 pp.

Zeitzschmann, 0,, 1923-24. Lehrbuch dcr Entwicklungsgeschichte der Haustiere. R. Schoetz, Berlin, 542 S,

General Articles and Articles of Significance for the Interpretation of Developmental Processes

Alexander, J., 1944. The Gene — A Structure of Colloidal Dimensions. Chapt. 37, pp. 808-819, in - Colloid Chemistry, - Vol. V, edited by Jerome Alexander, Reinhold Publishing Corp., New York.

Allen, W. F., 1918. Advantages of sagittal sections of pig embryos for a medical embryology course. Anat. Rec., Vol. 14, pp. 183-191.

Barth, L. G., 1944. Colloid Chemistry in Embryonic Development. Chapt. 39, pp. 851-859, in “Colloid Chemistry,” Vol. V, edited by Jerome Alexander, Reinhold Publishing Corp., New York.

Chambers, R., 1944. Some Physical Properties of Protoplasm. Chapt. 41, pp. 864-875, in “Colloid Chemistry,” Vol. V, edited by Jerome Alexander, Reinhold Publishing Corp., New York.

Conklin, E, G., 1914. The cellular basis of heredity and development. Pop. Sci. Monthly, Vol. 85, pp. 105-133. '

Hartman, C. G., 1 931 . Development of the egg as seen by the physiologist. Sci. Monthly, Vol, 33, pp, 17-28.

Medley, 0. F., 1926. Quantitative study of growth of certain organs in pig fetus. Bull. Med. Coll. Va., Vol. 23, pp. 19-36.

Holtfreter, J., 1947. Changes of structure and the kinetics of differentiating embryonic cells. Jour. Morph., Vol. 80, pp. 57-92.

Holtfreter, J., 1947. Observations on the migration, aggregation and phagocytosis of embryonic cells. Jour. Morph., Vol. 80, pp. 93-111.

Kingsbury, B. F,, 1926. On the so-called law of anteroposterior development. Anat. Rec., Vol. 33, pp. 73-87.

Lewis, W, H., 1947. Mechanics of invagination. Anat. Rec., Vol. 97, pp. 139-156.

Spemann, H., 1927. Organizers in animal development. Proc. Roy. Soc. London, Ser. B, Vol. 102, pp. 177-187.

Spemann, H., 1938. Embryonic Development and Induction. Yale Univ. Press, New Haven, xii & 401 pp.

The Sex Organs and Gametogenesis

Allen, E., 1923. Ovogenesis during sexual maturity. Am. Jour. Anat., Vol. 31, pp. 439-481.

Allen, E., Kountz, IV. B., and Francis, B. F., 1925. Selective elimination of ova in the adult ovary. Am. Jour. Anat., Vol. 34, pp. 445-468.

Bascom, K. F., 1925. Quantitative studies of the testis. I. Some observations on the cryptorchid testes of sheep and swine. Anat. Rec., Vol. 30, pp. 225-241.

Bascom, K. F., and Ouerud, H. L., 1925. Quantitative studies of the testicle. II. Pattern and total tubule length in the testicles of certain common mammals. Anat. Rec., Vol. 31, pp. 159-169.

Blandau, R. J., 1945. The first maturation division of the rat ovum. Anat. Rec., Vol. 92, pp. 449-457.

Corner, G. W., 1917. Maturation of the ovum in swine. Anat. Rec., Vol. 13, pp. 109 112 .

Comer, G. IV., 1919. On the origin of the corpus luteum of the sow from both granulosa and theca interna. Am. Jour. Anat., Vol. 26, pp. 117-183.

Evans, H. M., and Swezv, 0., 1929. Ovogenesis and the normal follicular cycle in adult mammalia. Mem. LTniv. Cal., Vol. 9, pp. 119-224.

Everett, N. B., 1945. The present status of the germ-cell problem in vertebrates. Biol. Rev., Vol. 20, pp. 45-55.

Gould, H. N., 1923. Observations on the genital organs of a sex intergrade hog. Anat. Rec., Vol. 26, pp, 241-261.

Hargitt, G. T., 1925-30, The formation of the sex glands and germ cells of mammals. Jour. Morph. & Physiol., Vols. 40, 41, 42, 49.

Hartman, C. G., 1926. Polynuclear ova and polyovular follicles in the opossum and other mammals, with special reference to the problem of fecundity. Am. Jour. Anat., Vol. 37, pp. 1-52.

Hill, R. T., Allen, E., and Kramer, T. C., 1935. Cinemicrographic studies of rabbit ovulation. Anat. Rec., Vol. 63, pp. 239-245.

Kellicott, W. E,, 1913. A Textbook of General Embryology. Holt, New York, v & 376 pp.

Kiipfer, M., 1920. Beitrage zur Morphologic der weiblichen Geschlechtsorgane bei den Saugetieren. Ueber das Auftreten gelber Korper am Ovarium des domestizierten Rindes und Schweines. Vierteljahrsschrift d. Naturf. Gesellsch., Zurich, Bd. 65, S. 377-433.

Latta, J, S., and Pederson, E. S,, 1944. The origin of ova and follicle cells from the germinal epithelium of the ovary of the albino rat as demonstrated by selective intravital staining with India ink. Anat. Rec., Vol. 90, pp. 23-35,

Morgan T. H. 1926. The Theory of the (iene. Yale Univ. Press, New Haven, xvi & 343 pp.

Fainter, T. S,, 1922. Studies in mammalian spermatogenesis. J(/Ur. Exp. Zodl., Vols. 35, 37, 39. Jour. Morph. & Physiol., Vol. 43.

Parker, G. H., and Bullard, C., 1913. On the size of litters and the number of nipples in swine. Proc, Am. Acad. Arts & Sciences, Vol. 49, pp. 399-426.

Patten, W., 1925. Life, evolution and heredity. Sci. Monthly, Vol. 21, pp. 122-134.

Pincus, G., and Enzrnann, K. V,, 1937. The growth, maturation and atresia of ovarian eggs in the rabbit. Jour. Morph., Vol. 61, pp. 351-383.

Pltske, E. C., 1940. Studies on the influence of the zona pellucida in atresia. Jour. Morph., Vol. 67, pp 321-349.

Schmaltz-, B., 1911. Die Slrucktur der Ge.schlechtsorgane der ITaussaugetiere. P. Parey, Berlin, xii & 388 S.

Smith, J, T., and Kettcrmgharn, R. C., 1937-38. Rupture of the graafian follicles. Part I. Am. Jour. Obs. & Gyn., Vol. 33, pp. 820-827. Part IT Am. Join. Obs. & Gyn., Vol. 36, pp. 45.3-460.

Stein, K. F., and Allen, E., 1942. Attempts to stimulate proliferaticm of the germinal epithelium of the ovary. Anat. Rec., Vol. 82, pp. 1 -9.

Thanhoffer, L. de, 1934. The structure of the graafian follicle as revealed by microdissection. Zeilschr. f. Anat. u. Entwg., Bd. 102, S. 402-408.

Warwick, B. L., 1925. The eflect of vasectomy on swine. Anat. Rec., Vol. 31, pp. 19-21.

Wihon, E. B., 1925. The Cell in Development and Heredity. Macmillan, New York, 3rd Ed., ix & 1232 pp.

Young, W. C , 1929. A study of the function of the epididymis. I. Is the attainment of full spermatcjzoon maturity attributable to some specific action of the epididymal secretion? Jour. Morph. & Physiol., Vol. 47, pp. 479-495.

Young, W. C., 1929. A study of the function of the epididymis. II. The importance of an aging process in sperm for the length of the period during which fertilizing capacity is retained by sperm isolated in the epididymis of the guinea-pig. Jour. Morph. & Physiol., Vol. 48, pp. 475-491.

Young, W. C., 1931. A study of the function cT the epididymis. III. Functional changes undergone by spermatozoa during their passage through the epididvmis and vas deferens in the guinea-pig. Jour. Exp. Biol., Vol. 8, pp. 151-162.

The Sexual Cycle, Fertilization, Sex Determination

Allen, E., 1926. The ovarian follicular hormone: a study of variation in pig, cow, and human ovaries. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. & Med., Vol. 23, pp. 383-387.

Allen, E,, Danforth, C. H., and Daisy, ErA,, 1939. Sex and Internal Secretions. Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore, 2nd Ed., xxxvi & 1346 pp.

Allen, E., and Daisy, E. A., 1927. Ovarian and placental hormones. Physiol. Reviews, Vol. 7, pp. 600-650.

Ampolsky, Z)., 1928. Cyclic changes in size of muscle fibers of the fallopian tube of the sow. Am. Jour. Anat., Vol. 40, pp. 459-469.

Blandau, R., and Money, W. L., 1944. Observations on the rate of transport of spermatozoa in the female genital tract of the rat. Anat. Rec., Vol. 90, pp. 25.5-260.

Burns, R. K., Jr., 1938. Hormonal control of sex differentiation. Am. Nat., Vol. 72, pp. 207-227.

Comstock, R. E., 1939. A study of the mammalian sperm cell. I. Variations in the glycolytic power of spermatozoa and their relation to motility and its duration. Jour. Exp. Zool., Vol. 81, pp. 147—164.

Corner, G. W., 1915. The corpus luteum of pregnancy as it is in swine. Carnegie Inst., Contrib. to E-mbryoL, Vol. 2, pp. 69-94.

Corner, G. W., 1917. Variations in the amount of phosphatids in the corpus luteum of the sow during pregnancy. Jour. Biol. Chem., Vol. 29, pp. 141-143.

Corner, G. W , 1919. On the origin of the corpus luteum of the sow from both granulosa and theca interna. Am. Jour. Anal., Vol. 26, pp. 117-183.

Cornet, G. W., 1921. Cyclic changes in the ewaries and uterus of swine, and their relations to the mechanism of implantaticm. Carnegie Inst., Contrib. to Embryol., Vol. 13, pp. 117-146.

Corner, G. IT., 1923. Cyclic variation in uterine and tubal contraction waves. Am. Jour. Anat., Vol. 32, pp. 345-351.

Corner, G IT., 1928. Physiolcjgy of the corpus luteum. I. The efTect of \Try early ablation of the corpus lutcnun upon embryos and uterus. Am. Jour. Physiol., Vol. 86, pp. 74-81.

Coiner, G IV., 1942. The Hormones in Human Reproduction. Princeton Univ. Press, Princeton, xix & 265 pp.

Corner, G. IT., and Allen, IT, M., 1929. Physiology of the corpus luteum. II. Production (3f a special uterine reac tion (progestational proliferation) by extracts of the cwpus luteum. Am. Jour. Physiol., Vol. 88, pp. 326-339.

Coinn, G. IT., and Allen, IT. A/., 1929. Physiology of the corpus luteum. III. Normal growth and implantation of embryos after very earlv ablation of the ovaries, under the influence of extracts of the corpus luteum. Am. lour. Physiol., Vol. 88, pp. 340-346.

Cornn, G. IT, and Amsbaugh, A. E., 1917. Oestrus and ovulation in swine. Anat. Rec., Vol. 12, pp. 287-291.

Corner, G. IT., and Snyder, F. F., 1922. Observations on the structure and function of the uterine ciliated epithelium in the pig, with reference to certain clinical hypothesep. Am. Jour. Obs. & Gyn., VcjI. 3, pp. 358-366.

Crew, F. A. E., 1925. Prenatal death in the pig and its effect upon the sex-ratio. Proc. Roy. Soc. Edinburgh, Vol. 46, pp. 9-14.

Hammond, J., 1934. The fertilisation of rabbit ova in relation to time: A method of controlling the litter size, the duration of pregnancy and the weight of the young at birth. Jour. Exp. Biol., Vol. 11, pp. 140-161.

Hartman, C. G., 1929. The homology of menstruation. J. A. M. A., Vol. 92, pp. 19921995.

Hartman, C. G., and Squier, R. R., 1931. The follicle-stimulating effect of pig anterior lobe on the monkey ovary. Anat. Rec., Vol. 50, pp. 267-273.

Keye, J. D., 1923. Periodic variations in spontaneous contractions of uterine muscle in relation to the oestrous cycle and early pregnancy. Bull. Johns Hopkins Hosp., Vol. 34, pp. 60-63.

Lewis, L. L., 1911. The vitality of reproductive cells. Agric. Exp. Sta. Oklahoma, Bull. No. 96.

Lillie F. /?., 1919. Problems of Fertilization. Univ. Chicago Press, xii & 278 pp.

Loeb Z.., 1923. The mechanism of the sexual cycle, with special reference to the corpus luteum. Am. Jour. Anat., Vol. 32, pp. 305-343.

Markee, J. E., Pasqualetti^ R. A., and Hinsey, J. C., 1936. Growth of intraocular endometrial transplants in spinal rabbits. Anat. Rec., Vol. 64, pp. 247-253.

Marshall F, H. A., 1922. The Physiology of Reproduction. Longmans, Green & Co., London, 2nd Ed., xvi & 770 pp.

McKenzie F. F, 1926. The normal oestrous cycle in the sow. Univ. Missouri Coll. Agric. Exp. Sta. Res. Bull., Vol. 86, pp. .S-41.

Papanicolaou G. A., 1923. Oestrus in mammals from a comparative point of view. Am. Jour. Anat., Vol. 32, pp. 285-292.

Parker G. IL, 1931. Passage of sperms and of eggs through oviducts in terrestrial vertebrates. Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. London, Ser. B, Vol. 219, pp. 381-419.

Phillips, R. W., and Andrews, F, j\., 1937. The speed oi travel of ram spermatozoa. Anat. Rec., Vol. 68, pp. 127-132.

Pincus, G., 1936. The Eggs of Mammals. Macmillan, New York, ix & 160 pp.

Schott, R. G., and Phillips, R. W., 1941. Rate of sperm travel and time of ovulation in sheep. Anal. Rec,, Vol. 79, pp. 531-540.

Secktnger, D, L., 1923. Spontaneous contractions of the Fallopian tube of the domestic pig with reference to the oestrous cycle. Bull. Johns Hopkins Hosp., Vol. 34, pp. 236-239.

Snyder, F. F., 1923. Changes in the Fallopian tube during the ovulation cycle and early pregnancy. Bull. Johns Hopkins Hosp., Vol. 34, pp. 121-125.

Soderwall, A, L., and Blandau, R. J., 1941. The duration of the fertilizing capacity of spermatozoa in the female genital tract of the rat. Jour. Exp. Zool , Vol. 88, pp. 55-64.

Stockard, C. /?., 1923. The general morphological and physiological importance of the oestrous problem. Am. Jour. Anat., Vol. 32, pp. 277-283.

Surface, F. M., 1908, Fecundity of swine. Biometrika, Vol. 6, pp. 433-436.

Swingle, W, W., 1926. The determination of sex in animals. Physiol. Rev., Vol. 6, pp. 28-61.

Toothill, M. C., and Toung, W. C.,\93\. The time consumed by spermatozoa in passing through the ductus epididymidis of the guinea-pig as determined by means of India-ink injections. Anat. Rec., Vol. 50, pp. 95-107.

Wilson, K. M., 1926. Histological changes in the vaginal mucosa of the sow in relation to the oestrous cycle. Am. Jour. Anat., Vol. 37, pp. 417-432.

Witschi, E., 1932. Physiology of embryonic sex differentiation. Am. Nat., Vol. 66, pp. 108-117.

Cleavage, Germ Layer Formation and the Structure of Young Embryos

Assheton, R., 1899. The development of the pig during the first ten days. Quart. Jour. Micr. Sci., Vol. 41, pp. 329-359.

Clark, R, T,, 1934. Studies on the physiology of reproduction in the sheep. II. The cleavage stages of the ovum. Anat. Rec., Vol. 60, pp. 135-159.

Conklin, E, G., 1909. The application of expieriment to the study of the organization and early differentiation of the egg. Anat. Rec., Vol. 3, pp. 149-154.

Defrise A. 1933. Some observations on living eggs and blastulae of the albino rat. Anat. Rec., Vol. 57, pp. 239-250.

Green W, W., and Winters, L. Af., 1946. Cleavage and attachment stages of the pig. Jour. Morph., Vol. 78, pp. 305-316.

Heuser, C H., and Streeter, G. L., 1 929. Early stages in the development of pig embryos, from the period of initial cleavage to the time of the appearance of limb-buds. Carnegie Inst., Contrib. to Embryol., Vol. 20, pp. 1-29.

Keibel, F., 1891. Uebcr die Entwicklungsgeschichte des Schweines. Anat. Anz., Bd. 6, S. 193-198.

Keibel, F., 1894. Studien zur Entwicklungsgeschichte des Schweines (Sus scrofa domesticus). I. Morph. Arbeiten, Bd. 3, S. 1-139.

Keibel, F., 1895. Ueber einige Plattenmodelle junger Schwein-embryonen. Verhandlungen d. Anat. Ges., Erganzungsheft Bd. 10, Anat. Anz., S. 199-201. Keibel, F., 1896. Studien zur Entwicklungsgeschichte des Schweines (Sus scrofa domesticus). II. Morph. Arbeiten, Bd. 5, S. 17-168.

Kingsbury, B, F., 1920. I'he developmental origin of the notochord. Science, N. S., Vol. 51, pp. 190-193.

Kingsbury, B. F., 1924a. The developmental significance of the notochord (Chorda dorsalis). Zeitschr. f. Morphologic u. Anthropologic, Vol. 24, pp. 59-74. Kingsbury, B. F,, 1924b. The significance of the so-called law of cephalocaudal differential growth. Anat. Rec., Vol. 27, pp. 305-321.

Kingsbury, B, F., 1926. On the so-called law of antero-posterior development. Anat. Rec., Vol. 33, pp. 73-87.

Lewis, F. T., 1902. The gross anatomy of a 12-mm. pig. Am. Jour. Anat., Vol. 2,

pp. 211-226.

Lewis, W, H,, and Gregory, P. W,, 1929. Cinematographs of living developing rabbiteggs. Science, Vol. 69, pp. 226-229.

Lewis, W. H., and Hartman, C, G., 1933. Early cleavage stages of the egg of the monkey (Macacus rhesus). Carnegie Inst., Contrib. to Embryol., Vol. 24, pp. 187-201. Lewis, W. PL, and Wright, E, S,, 1935. On the early development of the mouse egg.

Carnegie Inst., Contrib. to Embryol., Vol. 25, pp. 113-144.

Macdonald, E., and Long, J, A., 1934. Some features of cleavage in the living egg of the rat. Am. Jour. Anat., Vol. 55, pp. 343-361.

Nicholas, J. S., and Hall, B. V., 1942. Experiments on developing rats. II. The development of isolated blastomeres and fused eggs. Jour. Exp. Zooi., Vol. 90, pp. 441-459.

Patten, B. M,, and Philpott, R., 1921 . The shrinkage of embryos in the processes preparatory to sectioning. Anat. Rec., Vol. 20, pp. 393-413.

Pincus, G,, 1939. The comparative behavior of mammalian eggs in vivo and in vitro. IV. The development of fertilized and artificially activated rabbit eggs. Jour. Exp. Zodl., Vol. 82, pp. 85-131.

Robinson, A,, 1892. Observations upon the development of the segmentation cavity, the archenteron, the germinal layers, and the amnion in mammals. Quart. Jour. Micr. Sci., Vol. 33, pp. 369-455.

Streeter, G. L,, 1926. Development of the raesoblast and notochord in pig embryos.

Carnegie Inst., Contrib. to Embryol., Vol. 19, pp. 73-92.

'J'hyng, F, W,, 1911. The anatomy of a" 7.8-mm. pig embryo. Anat. Rec., Vol. 5, pp. 17-45.

Waldo, C, M., and Wimsatt, W. A., 1945. The effect of colchicine on early cleavage of mouse ova. Anat. Rec., Vol. 93, pp. 363-375.

Wallin, E,, 1917. A teaching model of a 10-mm. pig embryo. Anal. Rec., Vol. 13, pp. 295-297.

Weysse, A, W,, 1894. On the blastodermic vesicle of Sus scrofa domesticus. Proc. Am. Acad. Arts & Sciences, Vol. 30, pp. 283-321,

Williams, L. W., 1908. The later development of the notochord in mammals. Am. Jour. Anat., Vol. 8, pp. 251-284.

Fetal Membranes and the Relations of the Embryos to the Uterus

Abromavich, C. E., 1926. The morphology and distribution of the rosettes on the foetal placenta of the pig. Anat. Rec., Vol. 33, pp. 69-72.

Assheton, R., 1906. The morphology of the ungulate placenta. Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. London, Ser. B, Vol. 198, pp. 143-220.

Brambel, C. E., Jr., 1933. Allantochorionic differentiations of the pig studied morphologically and histochemically. Am. Jour. Anat., Vol. 52, pp 397-459.

Corner, G. W., 1921. Internal migration of the ovum. Bull. Johns Hopkins Hosp., Vol. 32, pp. 78-83.

Fawcett, D. W., Wislocki, G. B., and Waldo, C. M., 1947. The development of mouse ova in the anterior chamber of the eye and in the abdominal cavity. Am. Jour. Anat., Vol. 81, pp. 413-443.

Gellhorn, A., Flexner, L. B., and Pohl, H. A., 1941. I’he transfer of radioactive sodium across the placenta of the sow. Jour. Cell. & Comp. Physiol., Vol. 18, pp. 393400.

Goldstein, S. R., 1926. A note on the vascular relations and areolae in the placenta of the pig. Anat. Rec., Vol. 34, pp. 25-35.

Grosser, 0., 1909. Vergleichende Anatomic und Entwicklungsgeschichte der Eihaute und der Placenta, Braumiiller, Leipzig, xi & 314 S.

Grosser, 0., 1927. Friihentwicklung, Eihautbildung und Placentation des Mcnschen und der Saugetiere. Verlag von J. F. Bergmann, Munchen, viii & 454 pp.

Heuser, C. H., 1927. A study of the implantation of the ovum of the pig from the stage of the bilaminar blastocyst to the completion of the fetal membranes. Carnegie Inst., Contrib. to Embrol., Vol. 19, pp. 229-243.

Hubrecht, A. A. W., 1895. Die Phylogenese des Amnions und die Bedeutung des Trophoblastes. Verh. Koniklijke Akad. van Wetenschappen te Amsterdam, fiir 1895, S. 3-66.

Lell, W. A., Liber, K. E., and Snyder, F. F., 1931. Quantitative study of placental transmission and permeability of fetal membranes at various stages of pregnancy. Am. Jour. Physiol., Vol. 100, pp. 21-31.

Mossman, H. W., and Noer, H. R., 1947. A study of the amnion with the electron microscope. Anat. Rec., Vol. 97, pp. 253-257.

Noer, H. R., 1946. A study of the effect of flow direction on placental transmission, using artificial placentas. Anat. Rec., Vol. 96, pp. 383-389.

Robinson, A., 1904. Lectures on the early stages in the development of mammalian ova and on the formation of the placenta in different groups of mammals. Jour. Anat. & Physiol., Vol. 38, pp. 186-204.

Runner, M, JV,, 1947. Development of mouse eggs in the anterior chamber of the eye. Anat. Rec., Vol. 98, pp. 1-1 7.

Warwick, B. L., 1926. Intra-uterine migration of ova in the sow. Anat. Rec., Vol. 33, pp. 29-33.

Wislocki, G. B.y 1929. On the placentation of primates, with a consideration of the phylogeny of the placenta. Carnegie Inst., Contrib. to Embryol., Vol. 20, pp. 51-80.

Wisloch, G. B., 1935. On the volume of the fetal fluids in sow and cat. Anat. Rec., Vol. 63, pp. 183-192.

Widocki, G. B., and Dempsey, E. W,, 1946. Histochemical reactions of the placenta of the pig. Am. Jour. Anat., Vol. 78, pp. 181-225.

The Nervous System and Sense Organs

Assheton, R., 1892. On the development of the optic nerve of vertebrates and the choroidal fissure of embryonic life. Quart. Jour. Micr. Sci., Vol. 34, pp. 85-103.

Bardeen, C. R., 1903. The growth and histogenesis of the cerebrospinal nerves in mammals. Am. Jour. Anat., Vol. 2, pp. 231-257.

Barnes, W,, 1883-84. On the development of the posterior fissure of the spinal cord and the reduction of the central canal in the pig. Proc. Am. Acad. Arts. & Sciences, Vol. 19, pp. 97-110.

Bedford, E. A., 1904. The early history of the olfactory nerve in swine. Jour. Comp. Ncur., Vol. 14, pp. 390-410.

Bradley, 0. C., 1904. Neuromeres of the rhombencephalon of the pig. Review of Neurology & Psychiatry, Vol. 2, pp. 625-635.

Coghill, G. E., 1926. The growth of functional neurones and its relation to the development of behavior. Proc. Am. Philosoph. Soc., Vol. 65, pp. 51-55.

Detwiler, S. R., 1936. Neuroembryology. An Experimental Study. Macmillan, New York, X & 218 pp.

Dowd, L. W., 1929. The development of the dentate nucleus in the pig. Jour. Comp. Neur., Vol. 48, pp. 471-498.

GrademgOy G., 1887. Die embryonale Anlage des Mittelohrs; die morphologische BedeutiAig der Gehorknochelchen. Mitth. aus dem Embryeflog. Inst. d. Universitat. Wien, 1887, S. 85-232.

Hardesty, /., 1904. On the development and nature of the neuroglia. Am. Jour. Anat., Vol. 3, pp. 229-268.

Hardesty, /., 1905, On the occurrence of the sheath cells and the nature of the axone sheaths in the central nervous system. Am. Jour. Anat., Vol. 4, pp. 329-354.

Held, H., 1909. Die Entwicklung des Nervengewebes bei den Wirbeltieren. J. A. Barth, Leipzig, ix & 378 S.

Herrick, C. J., 1893. The development of the medullated nerve fibres. Jour. Comp. Neur., Vol. 3, pp. 11-16.

Herrick, C. J., 1909. The criteria of homology in the peripheral nervous system. Jour. Comp. Neur., Vol. 19, pp. 203-209.

Herrick, C. J., 1925, Morphogenetic factors in the differentiation of the nervous system. Physiol. Reviews, Vol. 5, pp. 112-130.

Heiiser, C. H., 1913. The development of the cerebral ventricles in the pig. Am. Jour. Anal., Vol. 15, pp. 215-252.

Hoskins, E. R., 1914. On the vascularization of the spinal cord of the pig. Anat. Rec., Vol. 8, pp. 371-391.

Johnston, J. B., 1909. The morphology of the fore-brain vesicle in vertebrates. Jour. Comp. Neur., Vol. 19, pp. 457-539.

Kallius, E., 1894. Untersuchungen liber die Netzhaut die Saugethiere. Anat. Hefte, Bd. 3, S. 527-582.

Kappers, C. U. A., und Fortuyn, A. B. D., 1921. Vergleichende Anatomie des Nervensystems. (Theil II. Des Kleinhirns, Des Mittlc- und Zwischenhirns und des Vorderhirns. S. 626-1329.) Bohn, Haarlem.

Kaslschenko, N., 1887. Das Schicksal der embryonalen Schlundspalten bei Saugetieren. Arch. f. mikr. Anat., Bd. 30, S. 1-26.

Kessler, L., 1877. Zur Entwicklung des Auges der Wirbelthiere. Vogel, Leipzig 112 S. Kingsbury, B. F., 1922. The fundamental plan of the x ertebrate brain. Jour. Comp. Neur., Vol. 34, pp. 461-491.

Kingsbury, B. F., and Adelmann, H. B., 1924. The morphologual plan of the head Quart. Jour. Micr. Sci., Vol. 68, pp. 239-285.

Kbllicker, A., 1904. Die Entwicklung und Bedeutung des Glaskorpers. Zeitschr. f. wiss. Zool., Bd. 76, S. 1-25.

Krausse, R., 1890. Entwicklungsgeschichte der hautigen Bogengange. Arch, f mikr. Anat., Bd. 35, S. 287-304.

Kuntz, A,, 1909. A contribution to the histogenesis of the sympathetic nervous system. Anat. Rec., Vol. 3, pp. 458-465.

KuntZi 1922. Experimental studies on the histogenesis of the sympathetic nervous system. Jour. Comp, Neur., Vol. 34, pp. 1-36.

Kupffer, K. V., 1905. Die Morphogenie des Centralncrvensystems. Hertwig’s Handbuch, Bd. 2, Teil 3, Kap. VIII, S. 1-394.

Locy, W, A., 1895. Contribution to the structure and development of the vertebiate head. Jour. Morph., Vol. 11, pp, 497-594.

Paterson, A. M., 1891. Development of the sympathetic nervous system in mammals.

Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc, London, Ser. B., Vol. 181, pp. 159-186.

Prentiss, C. JV., 1910. The development of the hypoglossal ganglia of pig embryos.

Jour. Comp. Neur., Vol. 20, pp. 265-282.

Prentiss, C. W,, 1913. On the development of the membrana tectoria with reference to its structure and attachments. Am. Jour. Anat., Vol. 14, pp. 425-460.

Rabl, C., 1899. tJber den Bau und die Entwicklung der Linse. Theil III. Die Linse der Saugethiere. Riickblick und Schluss. Zeitschr. f. wiss. Zool., Bd. 67, S. 1-138.

Rabl, C., 1900. Ober den Bau und die Ehtwicklung der Linse. Wilhelm Englemann, Leipzig, vi & 324 S.

Retzius, G., 1881-1884. Das Gehororgan der Wirbelthiere. Theil II. Das Gehdrorgan der Reptilien, der Vogel und der Saugethiere. Stockholm, viii & 368 S.

Sauer, F. C,, 1935a. Mitosis in the neural tube. Jour. Comp. Neur., Vol. 62, pp. 377-405.

Sau 0 r, F. C., 1935b. The cellular structure of the neural tube. Jour. Comp. Neur., Vol. 63, pp. 13-23.

Sauer, F. C., 1939. Development of beta crystallin in the pig and prenatal weight of the lens. Growth, Vol. 3, pp. 381-386.

Seef elder, R., 1910. Beitrage zur Histogenese und Histologie der Netzhaut, des Pigmentepithels und des Sehnerven. Arch. f. Ophthal., Bd. 73, S. 419-537. Shambaugh, G. E., 1907. A restudy of the minute anatomy of structures in the cochlea, with conclusions bearing on the solution of the problem of tone perception. Am. Jour. Anat., Vol. 7, pp. 245-257.

Shambaugh, G. E., 1926. The development of the membranous labyrinth. Arch. Otolaryng., Vol. 3, pp. 233-236.

Shaner, R, F., 1932. The development of the nuclei and tracts of the midbrain. Jour. Comp. Neur., Vol. 55, pp. 493-511.

Shaner, R. F., 1934a. The development of a medial motor nucleus and an accessory abducens nucleus in the pig. Jour. Anat., Vol. 68, pp. 314-317.

Shaner, R. F., 1934b. The development of the nuclei and tracts related to the acoustic nerve in the pig. Jour. Comp. Neur., Vol. 60, pp. 5-19.

Takahashi, K., 1931. Pri la genezo de la papilo de nerve optica ce Sus scrofa domeslicus. Folia Anatomic a Japonica, Bd. 9, S. 149-167.

Tuckerman, F., 1888. Note on the papilla foliala and other taste areas of the pig. Anat. Anz., Bd. 3, S. 69-73.

Tuttle, A. H., 1884. The relation of the external meatus, tympanum and Eustachian tube to the first visceral cleft. Pnx . Ain. Acad. Arts & Sciences, Vol. 19, pp. 111-132.

Van Campenhout, E., 1935. Origine du ganglion acoustique chez le pore. Arch. Biol., T. 46, pp. 273-286.

Waterman, A. J., 1938. The development of the inner ear rudiment of the rabbit embryo in a foreign environment. Am. Jour. Anat., Vol. 63, pp. 161-219. Weed, L, W., 1917. The development of the cerebrospinal spaces in pig and in man. Carnegie Inst., Contrib. to Embryo!., Vol. 5, No. 14, 116 pp.

Windle, W. F., Fish, M. W., and O Donnell, J, E., 1934. Myelogeny of the cat as related to development of fiber tracts and prenatal behavior patterns. Jour. Comp. Neur., Vol. 59, pp. 139-165.

The Circulatory System

Barclay, A. E., Franklin, K. J., and Prichard, M, M. L., 1944. The Foetal Circulation and Cardiovascular System, and the Changes That Ihey Undergo at Birth. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Ltd., Oxford, xvi & 275 pp.

Barcroft, J., 1946. Researches on Pre-natal Life. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Ltd., Oxford, VoL I, xiii & 292 pp.

Barry, A., 1942. The intrinsic pulsation rates of fragment of the embryonic chick heart. Jour. Exp. Zool., Vol. 91, pp. 119-130.

Begg, A. S., 1920. Absence of the vena cava inferior in a 12-mm. pig embryo, associated with the drainage of the portal system into the cardinal system. Am. Jour. Anat., Vol. 27, pp. 395-403.

Boas, J. E. V., 1887. Ueber die Arterienbogen der Wirbelthiere. Morph. Jahrb., Bd. 13, S. 115-118.

Born, G,, 1888. t)bcr die Bildung dcr Klappan, Ostien und ScheidewSnde im SSugetierherzen. Anat. Anz., Bd. 3, S. 606-612,

Born G., 1889. Beitrage zur Entwicklungsgeschichte dcs Saugcthierherzens. Archf. mikx. Anat., Bd. 33, S. 284-377.

Bremer, J. L., 1902. I. The origin of the pulmonary arteries in ntammals. Am. Jour. Anat., Vol. I, pp. 137-144.

Bremer, J, L., 1909. II. On the origin of the pulmonary arteries in mammals. Anat. Rec., Vol. 3, pp. 334-340.

Butler, E. G., 1927. The relative r61e played by the embryonic veins in the development of the mammalian vena cava posterior. Am. Jour. Anat., Vol. 39, pp. 267-353.

Congdon, E, D., and Wang, H. W , 1926. The mechanical processes concerned in the formation of the differing tvpes of aortic arches of the chick and the pig and in the divergent early development of their pulmonary arches. Am. Jour. Anat., Vol. 37, pp. 499-520.

Davh, D. M., 1910. Studies on the chief veins in early pig embryos and the origin of the vena cava inferior. Am. Jour. Anal., Vol. 10. pp. 461-472.

Doan, C. A., Cunningham, R. S., and Sabin, F R., 1925. Experimental studies on the origin and maturation of avian and mammalian red blood-cells. Carnegie Inst., Contrib. to EmbryoL, Vol. 16, pp. 163-226.

Emmel, V. E., 1914. Concerning certain cytological characteristics of the erythroblasts in the pig embryo and the origin of non-nuclcated erythrocytes by a process of cytoplasmic constriction. Am. Joui. Anat., Vol. 16, pp. 127-206.

Evans, H. M., 1909. On the development of the aortae, cardinal and umbilical veins and other blood-vessels of vertebrate embryos from capillaries. Anat. Rec., Vol. 3, pp. 498-518

Flint, J. M., 1903. The angiology, angiogenesis, and organogenesis of the submaxillary gland. Am. Jour. Anat., Vol. 2, pp. 417-444.

Frazer, J. E., 1917. Formation of Pars Membranacea Septi. Jour. Anat. & Physiol., Vol. 51, pp. 19-29.

Goss, C. M., 1935. Double hearts produced experimentally in rat embryos. Jour. Exp. Zool., Vol. 72, pp. 33-49.

Goss, C. M., 1938. The first contractions of the heart in rat embryos. Anat. Rec., Vol. 70, pp. 505-524.

Goss, C. M., 1942. The physiology of the embryonic mammalian heart before circulation. Am. Jour. Physiol., Vol. 137, pp. 146-152.

Gregg, R, E., 1946. An arterial anomaly in the fetal pig. Anal. Rec., Vol. 95, pp. 53-65.

Henser, C. H., 1923. The branchial vessels and their derivatives in the pig. Carnegie Inst., Contrib. to Embryol., Vol. 15, pp. 121-139.

Hill, E. C., 1907. On the gross development and vascularization of the testis. Am. Jour. Anat., Vol. 6, pp. 439-459.

His, W., 1900. Lecithoblast und Angioblast der Wirbeltiere. Abhandl. der Math, phys. Klasse der Konigl. Sach. Gesellsch. d. Wissenschaften, Bd. 26, S. 173-328.

Hochstetter, F., 1906. Die Entwicklung dcs Blutgefasssystcms. Hertwig’s Handbuch, Bd, 3, Teil 2, S. 21-166.

Hofmann, L. v., 1914. Die Entwicklung der Kopfartcricn bei Sus scrofa domesticus. Morph. Jahrb., Bd. 48, S, 645-671.

Hogue, M. J., 1937. Studies of heart muscle in tissue cultures. Anat. Rec., Vol. 67, pp. 521-535.

Jordan H. E., 1916. The microscopic structure of the yolk-sac of the pig embryo with especial reference to the origin of erythrocytes. Am. Jour. Anat., Vol. 19, pp. 277-303.

Jordan H. E., 1919a. The histogenesis of blood-platelets in the yolk-sac of the pig embryo. Anat. Rec., Vol. 15, pp. 391-406.

Jordan H. 1919b. The histology of the umbilical cord of the pig, with special reference to the vasculogenic and hemopoietic activity of its extensively vascularized connective tissue. Am. Jour. Anat., Vol. 26, pp. 1-27.

Kellogg. H. B,, 1928. The course of the blood flow through the fetal mammalian heart. Am. Jour. Anat., Vol. 42, pp. 443-465.

Kellogg H. B.j 1929. Studies on the fetal circulation of mammals. Am. Jour. Physiol., Vol. 91, pp. 637-648.

Kimball P., 1928. A comparative study of the vas subin testinale in the vertebrates. Am. Jour. Anat., Vol. 42, pp, 371-398.

Kramer y T. C., 1942. The partitioning of the truncus and conus and the formation of the membranous portion of the interventricular septum in the human heart. Am. Jour. Anat., Vol. 71, pp. 343-370.

Lehmann, H., 1905. On the embryonic history of the aortic arches in mammals. Anat. Anz., Bd. 26, S. 406-424.

Lewis, F. T., 1902. The development of the vena cava inferior. Am. Jour. Anat., Vol. 1, pp. 229-244.

Lewis, F. T., 1906. The fifth and sixth aortic arches and the related pharyngeal pouches in the rabbit and pig. Anat. Anz., Bd. 28, S. 506-513.

Lockwood, C. B., 1888. The early development of the pericardium, diaphragm and great veins, Phil. Trans Roy. Soc. London, Ser. B, Vol. 179, pp. 365-384.

McClendon, J. F., 1913. Preparation of material for histology and embryology, with an appendix on the arteries and veins in a thirty-millimeter pig embryo. Anat. Rec., Vol. 7, pp. 51-61,

McClure, C, F, W., 1921. The endothelial problem. Anat. Rec., Vol. 22, pp. 219-237.

McClure, C. F. W., and Huntington, G. S., 1929. The mammalian vena cava posterior. Am. Anat. Mem., No. 15, 56 pp. and 46 plates.

Minot, C. S., 1898. On the veins of the Wolffian bodies in the pig. Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Histi, Vol. 28, pp. 265-274.

Morrill, C. V., 1916. On the development of the atrial septum and the valvular apparatus in the right atrium of the pig embryo with a note on the fenestration on the anterior cardinal veins. Am. Jour. Anat., VoL 20, pp. 351-374.

Odgers, P, N. B., 1938. The development of the pars membranacea septi in the human heart. Jour. Anat., Vol. 72, pp. 247-259.

Paff, G, H., 1936. Transplantation of sino-atrium to conus in the embryonic heart in vitro. Am. Jour. Physiol., Vol. 117, pp. 313-317.

Parker, G. H., and Togier, C. H., 1898. The thoracic derivatives of the posterior cardinal veins of swine. Bull. Museum of Comp. Zool., Harvard, Vol. 31, pp. 133-144.

Patten, B, M., 1930. The changes in circulation following birth. Am. Heart Journal, Vol. 6, pp. 192-205.

Patten, B. M., 1931. The closure of the foramen ovale. Am. Jour. Anat., Vol. 48, pp. 19-44.

Patten, B. M., 1939. Microcinematographic and electrocardiographic studies of the first heart beats and the beginning of the circulation in living embryos. Proc. Inst, of Med. of Chicago, Vol. 12, pp. 366-380,

Patten B, M., and Kramer, T, C., 1933. The initiation of contracfion in the embryonic chick heart. Am. Jour. Anat., Vol. 53, pp. 349-375.

Patten, BM. Sommepfield WA. and Paff GH. Functional limitations of the foramen ovale in the human foetal heart. (1929) Anat. Rec. 44(2): 165-

Patten, B. M., Sommerfield, W. A., and Paff, G. H., 1929. Functional limitations of the foramen ovale in the human foetal heart. Anat. Rec., Vol. 44, pp. 165-178.

Pohlman, A. G., 1909. The course of the blood through the heart of the fetal mammal, with a note on the reptilian and amphibian circulations. Anat. Rec., Vol. 3. pp. 75-109.

Rathke, H., 1843. Ueber die Entwicklung der Arterien welche bei den Saugethieren von dem Bogen der Aorta ausgehen. Arch. f. Anat, u. Physiol., Jg. 1843, S. 276-302.

Reagan, F., 1912. The fifth aortic arch of mammalian embryos and the nature of the last pharyngeal evagination. Am. Jour. Anat., Vol. 12, pp. 493-514.

Reagan, F. P., 1917. Experimental studies on the origin of vascular endothelium and of erythrocytes. Am. Jour. Anat., Vol. 21, pp. 39-175.

Reagan, F. P., 1919. On the later development of the azygos veins of swine. Anat. Rec., Vol. 17, pp. 111-126.

Reagan, F. P., 1927. The supposed homology of vena azygos and vena cava inferior considered in the light of new facts concerning their development. Anat. Rec., Vol. 35, pp. 129-148.

Reagan, F, P., 1929. A century of study upon the development of the eutherian vena cava inferior. The Quarterly Review of Biology, Vol. 4, pp. 179-212.

Reinke, E. E., 1910. Note on the presence of the fifth aortic arch in a 6-mm. pig embryo. Anat. Rec., Vol. 4, pp. 453-459.

Robinson, A., 1903. The early stages of the development of the pericardium. Jour. Anat. & Physiol., Vol. 37, pp. 1-17.

Sabin, F. R., 1915. On the fate of the posterior cardinal veins and their relation to the development of the vena cava and azygos in pig embryos. Carnegie Inst., Contrib. to Embryol,, Vol. 3, pp. 5-32.

Sabin, F. R., 1917. Origin and development of the primitive vessels of the chick and the pig. Carnegie Inst., Contrib. to Embryol., Vol. 6, pp. 61-124.

Schafer, 7* P-, 1914. The behavior of elastic tissue in the post-fetal occlusion and obliteration of the ductus arteriosus (Botalli) in Sus scrofa. Jour. Exp. Med., Vol. 19, pp. 129-143.

Shaner, R. F., 1928. The development of the muscular architecture of the ventricles of the pig’s heart, with a review of the adult heart and a note on two abnormal mammalian hearts. Anat. Rec., Vol. 39, pp. 1-36.

Shaner, R. F., 1929. The development of the atrioventricular node, bundle of His, and sino-atrial node in the calf, with a description of a third embryonic nodelike structure. Anat. Rec., Vol. 44, pp. 85-99.

Smith, H. W., 1909. On the development of the superficial veins of the body wall in the pig. Am. Jour. Anat., Vol. 9, pp. 439-462.

Stienon, L., 1926. Recherches sur Foriginc du noeud sinusal dans le coeur dcs mammilares. Archives de Biologic, T. 36, pp. 523-539.

Stockard, C, J?., 1915. An experimental analysis of the origin of blood and vascular endothelium. Amcr. Anat. Mem., No. 7, 174 pp.

Thienes, C. //., 1925. Venous system associated with the liver of a 6-mm. pig embryo. Anat. Rec., Vol. 31, pp. 149-158.

Whitehead, W. H,, 1942. A working model of the crossing caval blood streams in the fetal right atrium. Anat. Rec., Vol. 82, pp. 277-280.

Windle, W, F., 1940. Circulation of blood through the fetal heart and lungs and changes occurring with respiration at birth. Quart. Bull., Northwestern Univ. Med. School, Vol. 14, pp. 31-36.

Witte, L., 1919. Histogenesis of the heart muscle of the pig in relation to the appearance and development of the intercalated discs. Am. Jour. Anat., Vol. 25, pp. 333-347.

Woollard, H. L., 1922. The development of the principal arterial stems in the forelimb of the pig. Carnegie Inst., Contrib. to Embryol., Vol. 14, pp. 139-154.

Toshida, T., 1932. On the development of the heart primordia. II. Observations upon the development of the interatrial septum of the pig. Okayama-Igakkai-Zasshi, Vol. 44, pp. 438-460.

Young, A, H., and Robinson, A., 1898. The development and morphology of the vascular system in mammals. The posterior end of the aortae and the iliac arteries. Jour. Anat. & Physiol., Vol. 32, pp. 605-607.

Lymphatic Vessels and Organs

Badertscher, J. A., 1915. The development of the thymus in the pig. I. Morphogenesis. Am. Jour. Anat., Vol. 17, pp. 317-338. II. Histogenesis. Am. Jour. Anat., Vol. 17, pp. 437-494.

Battjer, W. A., 1908. The origin of the mesenteric sac and thoracic duct in the embryo pig Am. Jour. Anat., Vol. 8, pp. 303-310.

Bell, E. T., 1905. The development of the thymus. Am. Jour. Anat., Vol. 5, pp. 29-61.

Cash, J. R., 1917. On the development of the lymphatics in the heart of the embryo pig. Anat. Rec., Vol. 13, pp. 451-464.

Cash, J, R., 1921. On the development of the lymphatics in the stomach of the embryo pig. Carnegie Inst., Contrib. to Embryol., Vol. 13, pp. 1-15.

Clark, A. H., 1912. On the fate of the jugular lymph sacs and the development of the lymph clyannels in the neck of the pig. Am. Jour. Anat., Vol. 14, pp. 47-62.

Cunningham, R, S., 1916. On the development of the lymphatics of the lung in the embryo pig. Carnegie Inst., Contrib. to Embryol., Vol. 4, pp. 45-68.

Fischelis, P., 1885. Beitrage zur Kenntnis der Entwiqklungsgeschichte der Gl. thyreoidea und Gl. thymus. Arch, f. mikr. Anat., Bd, 25, S. 405-440.

Fox, H., 1908. The pharyngeal pouches and their derivatives in the mammalia. Am. Jour. Anat., Vol. 8, pp. 187-250.

Heuer, G. J,, 1909. The development of the lymphatics in the small intestine of the pig. Am, Jour, Anat., Vol. 9, pp. 93-118.

Holyoke, E, A., 1936. The role of the primitive mesothelium in the development of the mammalian spleen. Anat. Rec., Vol. 65, pp. 333-349.

Huntington, G, S., 1910a. The phylogenetic relations of the lymphatic and blood vascular systems in the vertebrates. Anat. Rec,, Vol, 4, pp. 1-14,

Huntingon, G. S,, 1910b. The genetic principles of the development of the systemic lymphatic vessels in the mammalian embryo. Anat. Rec., Vol. 4, pp. 399-424.

Kampmeiei, 0. F, 1912. The development of the thoracic duct in the pig. Am. Jour. Anat., Vol. 13, pp. 401-476.

Kastschenko N., 1887. Das Schicksal der embryonalen Schlunspalten bci Saugetieren. Arch, f. mikr. Anat., Bd. 30, S. 1-26.

Levin, P. M., 1930. The development of the tonsil of the domestic pig. Anat. Rec., Vol. 45, pp. 189-201.

McClure, C. F. W., 1915a. On the provisional arrangement of the embryonic lymphatic system. An arrangement by means of which a centripetal flow of lymph toward the venous circulation is controlled and regulated in an orderly and regular manner, from the time lymph begins to collec t in the intercellular spaces until it is forwarded to the venous circulation. Anat. Rec., Vol. 9, pp. 281-296.

McClure, C. F. 1915b. I'he development of the lymphatic system in the light of the more recent investigations in the field of vasculogenesis. Anat. Rec., Vol. 9, pp. 563-579.

Rand, R., 1917. On the relation of the head chorda to the pharyngeal epithelium in the pig embryo: a contribution to the development c:)l the bursa pharyngea and the tonsilla pharyngea. Anat. Rec., Vol. 13, pp. 465-491.

Reichert, F. L,, 1921. On the fate of the primary lymph-sacs in the abdominal region of the pig, and the development of the lymph-channels in the abdominal and pelvic regions. Carnegie Iirst., Contrib. to Embryol., Vol 13, pp. 17-39.

Sabin, F. R., 1902. On the origin of the lymphatic system from the veins and the development of the lymph hearts and thoracic duct in the pig. Am. lour. Anat., Vol. l, pp. 367-389

Sabin, F, R,, 1904. On the development of the superficial lymphatics in the skin of the pig. Am. Jour. Anat., Vol. 3, pp. 183-195.

Sabin, F. R., 1905. The development of the lymphatic nodes in the pig and their relation to the lymph hearts. Am. Jour. Anat., Vol. 4, pp. 355-389.

Sabin, F. R., 1912. On the origin of the abdominal lymphatics m mammals frc:)m the vena cava and the renal veins. Anat. Rec., Vol. 6, pp. 335-342.

Sabin, F. /?., 1916. The origin and development of the Ivmphatic system. Johns Hopkins Hosp. Rep., Vol. 17, pp. 347-440.

Theil, G, A., and Downey, //., 1921. The development of the mammalian spleen, with special reference to its hematopoietic activity. Am. Jour. Anat., Vol. 28, pp. 279-339.

Zottermann, A,, 1911. Die Schweinthymus als eine Thymus ectoentodermalis. Anat. Anz., Bd. 38, S. 514-530.

The Digestive and Respiratory Systems, and the Body Cavities and Mesenteries

Boyden, E. A., 1926. The accessory gall bladder. An embryological and comparative study of aberrant biliary vesicles occurring in man and the domestic animals. Am. Jour. Anat., Vol. 38, pp. 177-231.

Bremer, J. L,, 1932. Accessory bronchi in embryos; their occurrence and probable fate. Anat. Rec., Vol. 54, pp. 361-374.

Chamberlain, R. V., 1909. On the mode of disappearance of the villi from the colon of mammals. Anat. Rec., Vol. 3, pp. 282-283.


Clements, L. P., 1 938. Embryonic development of the respiratory portion of the pig’s lung. Anal. Rec., Vol. 70, pp. 575-595.

Corner, G. W., 1914. The structural unit and growth of the pancreas of the pig. Am. Jour. Anat., Vol. 16, pp. 207-236.

Felix, W., 1892. Zur Leber- und Pankreasentwicklung. Arch. f. Anat. u. Phys., Anat. Abt., f. 1892, S. 281-323.

Flint, J. M., 1902. The development of the reticulated basement membranes in the submaxillary gland. Am. Jour. Anat., Vol. 2, pp. 1-11.

Flint, J, M., 1903. The angiology, angiogenesis, and organogenesis of the submaxillary gland. Am. Jour. Anat., Vol. 2, pp. 417-444.

Flint, J. M., 1906. The development of the lungs. Am. Jour. Anat., Vol. 6, pp. 1-138. Horn, A. IT., and Baldwin, K. W., 1941. A histological study of the development of the lung with particular reference to the nature of alveoli. Anat. Rec., Vol. 81, pf). 363-379.

Harnrnar, G. A , 1893. Einige Plattenmodelle zur Beleuchtung der friiheren embryonalen Leberentwic kelung. Arch. f. Anat. u. Phvs., Anat. Abt., f. 1893, S. 123-156.

Hammar, G. A., 1897a. LTber einige Hauptzuge der ersten embryonalen Leberentwickelung. Anat. Anz,, Bd. 13, S. 233 -247.

Hammar, G. A., 1897b. Einiges iieber die Duphcitat der vertralen Pancreasanlage. Anat. Anz., Bd. 13, S. 247-249.

}ler::Jeld, P., 1889. Ueber das Jacobson'sche Organ des Menschen und der Saugethiere. Zoolog. Jahrb. (Abt. f. Anat. u. Ontogenie), Bd. 3, S. 551-574.

Huber, G. C., 1912. On the relation of the chorda dorsalis to the anlagc of the pharyngeal bursa or mc'.dian pharyngeal recess. Anat. Rec., Vol. 6, pp. 373-404. Johnson, F, P., 1919. The development of the lobule of the pig’s liver. Am. Jour. Anat., Vol. 25, pp. 299-331.

Lewis, F. T., 1911. 7Te bi-lobed form of the ventral pancreas in mammals. Am. Jour. Anat., Vol. 12, pp. 389-400.

Lewis, F. T., and Thyng, F. IT., 1908. The regular occurrence of intestinal diverticula in embryos of the pig, rabbit and man. Am. Jour. Anat., Vol. 7, pp. 505-519. Linehack, P, E., 1916. The development of tlie spiral coil in the large intestine of the pig. Am. ijour. Anat., Vol. 20, pp. 483-503.

Mall, F. jP., 1891. Development of the lesser peritoneal cavity in birds and mammals. Jour, Morph,, Vol. 5, pp. 165-179.

Mall, F. P., 1906. A study of the structural unit of the liver. Am. Jour. Anat., Vol, 5, pp. 227-308.

Max, C., 1931. Das Wachstum der Leberzellen und die Entwicklung der Leberlappchen beim Schweine. Anat. Anz., Bd. 72, S. 219-227.

Ravn, E., 1889. Ueber die Bildung der Scheidewand zwishen Brust- und Bauchhdhle in Saugetier-embryonen. Arch. f. Anat. u. Phys., Anat. Abt., S. 123-154.

Ravn, E., 1899. Ueber die Entwicklung des Septum transversum. Anat. Anz., Bd. 15, S. 528-534.

Reuter, C., 1896. Ueber die Entwicklung der Kaumuscuiatur beim Schwein. Anat. Hcfte f. 1896-97, S. 239-262.

Robinson, A., 1903. The early stages of the development of the pericardium. Jour. Anat. & Physiol., Vol. 37, pp. 1-17,

Swaen, A., 1896 and 1897. Recherches sur le developpement du foie, du tube digestive, de rarriere cavit6, du p6ritoine et du mesentere. Jour, de TAnat. et de la Physiol., Part I, T. 32, pp. 1-84; Part II, 1, T. 33, pp. 32-99; Paftt II, 2, T. 33, pp. 222-258; Part II, 3, T. 33, pp. 525-585.

Thyng, F. W,, 1908. Models of the pancreas in embryos of the pig, rabbit, cat and man. Am. Jour. Anat., Vol. 7, pp. 489-503.

Uskow, JV., 1883. Ueber die Entwickelung des Zwerchfells, des Pericardiums und des Coeloms. Arch. f. niikr. Anat., Bd. 22, S. 143-218.

Whitehead, W. H., Windle, W. F , and Becker, R, F,, 1942. Changes in lung structure during aspiration of amniotic fluid and during air-breathing at birth. Anal. Rec., Vol. 83, pp. 255-265.

Windle, W. F., Becker, R. F., Barth, E. E., and Schulz, M. D., 1939. Proof of fetal swallowing, gastrointestinal peristalsis and defecation in amnio. Proc. Am. Physiol. Soc. — Am. Jour. Physiol., Vol. 126, pp. P429-P430.

Wlassow, 1895. Zur Entwicklung des Pankreas beim Schwein. Morph. Arbeiten, Bd. 4, S. 67-76.


The Urogenital System

Allen, B. M,, 1904. The embryonic development of the ovary and testis of the mammals. Am. Jour. Anat., Vol. 3, pp. 89-154.

Angle, E, J,, 1918. Development of the Wolffian body in bus scrofa domesticus. Trans. Am. Micr. Soc., Vol. 37, pp. 215-238.

Balfour, F. M., 1876. On the origin and history of the urogenital organs of vertebrates.

Jour. Anat. & Physiol., Vol. 10, pp. 17-48.

Bascom, K. F,, and Osterud, H. L., 1927. Quantitative studies of the testis. III. A numerical treatment of the development of the pig testis. Anat. Rec., Vol. 37, pp. 63-82.

Bremer, J, L., 1916. The interrelations of the mesonephros, kidney, and placenta in different classes of animals. Am. Jour. Anat., Vol. 19, pp. 179-209.

Brody, H,, and Bailey, P. L., Jr,, 1939. Unilateral renal agenesia in a fetal pig. Anat. Rec., Vol. 74, pp. 159-163.

Corner, G. W,, 1920. A case of true lateral hermaphroditism in a pig with functional ovary. Carnegie Inst., Contrib. to Embryo!., Vol. 11, pp. 137-142.

Felix, W., und Buhler, A., 1906. Die Entwicklung der Harn- und Geschlechts organe.

Hertwig’s Handbuch, Bd. 3, Teil I, K. II.

Flexner, L. B,, and Gersh, /., 1937. The correlation of oxygen consumption, function and structure in the developing rnetanephros of the pig. Carnegie Inst., Contrib. to Embryo!., Vol. 26, pp. 121-127.

Gersh, 1937. The correlation of strucmre and function in the developing mesonephros and rnetanephros. Carnegie Inst,, Contrib. to Embryo!., Vol. 26, pp. 33-58. Gruenwald, P,, 1942. The development of the sex cords in the gonads of man and mammals. Am. Jour. Anat., Vol. 70, pp. 359-397.

Hamburger, 0., 1890. Ueber die Entwicklung der Saugethierniere. Arch. f. Anat. u.

Phys., Anat. Abt., f. 1890, SuppL, S. 15-51.

Henneberg, B,, 1922, Anatomic und Entwicklung der Ausseren Genitalorganc dcs Schwcines und vergleichcnd-anatomische Bemerkungen. I. Weibliches Schwein. Zeitschr. f. Anat. u. Entwg., Bd. 63, S. 431-494.

Henneberg, 1925. Anatomic und Entwicklung der Ausseren Genital organe des Schweines und vergleichend-anatomische Bemerkungen. II. Mannliches Schwein. Zeitschr. f. Anat. u. Entwg., Bd. 75, S. 265-318.

Hennebergj B.y 1926. Beitrag zur ontogcnetischen Entwicklung des Scrotums und der Labia maiora. Zeitschr. f. Anat. u. Entwg., Bd. 81, S. 198-219.

Hilly E. C.y 1905. On the first appearance of the renal artery and the relative development of kidneys and Wolffian bodies in pig embryos. Bull. Johns Hopkins Hosp., Vol. 16, pp. 60-64.

Hilly E. C,y 1906. On the gross development and vascularization of the testis. Am. Jour. Anat., Vol. 6, pp. 439-459.

Huber y G. C., 1905. On the development and shape of uriniferous tubules of certain of the higher mammals. Am. Jour. Anat., Supplement to Vol. 4, pp. 1-98. Kambmeiery O, F.y 1926. The rnetanephros or so-called permanent kidney in part provisional and vestigial. Anat. Rec., Vol. 33, pp. 115-120.

Kingburjiy B. F. 1913. The morphogenesis of the mammalian ovary: Felis domestica. Am. Jour. Anat., Vol. 15, pp. 345-387.

Kitaharay T., 19-23. Uber die Entstehung der Zwischenzellen der Keimdru.sen des Menschen und der Saugetiere und fiber deren physiologische Bedeutung. Arch, f. Entwcklngsmechn. d. Organ., Bd. 52, S. 550-615. *

Klaafsch, //., 1890. Ueber den Descensus testiculorum. Morph Jahrb., Bd. 16, S. 587-646.

Lewisy F. T.y 1920. The course of the Wolffian tubules in mammalian embryos. Am. Jour Anat., Vol. 26, pp. 423-435.

Lockwoody C. B.y 1888. Development and transition of the testis, normal and abnormal. Jour. Anat. & Physiol., Part I, Vol. 21, pp. 635-664. Part II, Vol. 22, pp. 38-77. Part III, Vol. 22, pp. 461-478. Part IV, Vol. 22, pp. 505-541.

MacCalluniy J. B.y 1902. Notes on the Wolffian body of higher mammals. Am. Jour. Anat., Vol. 1, pp. 245-260.

Pricfy D.y 1947. An analysis of the factors influencing growth and development of the mammalian reproductive tract. Physiol. ZooL, Vol. 20, pp. 213-247.

Schreiner, K. E., 1902. Ueber die Entwicklung der Amniotenniere. Zeitschr. f. wiss. ZooL, Bd. 71, S. 1-188.

Selye, H., 1943. Factors influencing development of scrotum. Anat. Rec., Vol. 85, pp. 377-385.

Weinberg, E., 1929. A note on the origin and histogenesis of the mesonephric duct in mammals. Anat. Rec., Vol. 41, pp. 373-386.

Whitehead, R. H., 1904, The embryonic development of the interstitial cells of Leydig. Am. Jour. Anat., Vol. 3, pp. 167-182.

The Ductless Glands

Bader tscher, J. A., 1918, The fate of the ultimobranchial bodies in the pig (Sus scrofa). Am. Jour. Anat., Vol. 23, pp. 89-131.

Born, G.y 1883. Ueber die Derivate der embryonalen Schlundbogcn und Schlundspalten bei SSugethieren. Arch. f. mikr. Anat., Bd. 22, S. 271-318.

Emmariy E. W., 1936. A study of the histogenesis of the thymus in vitro. Anat. Rec., Vol. 66, pp. 59-73.

FischeltSy P.y 1885. Beitr%e zur Kennlnis der Entwicklungsgeschichte der Gl. thyreoidea und Gl. thymus. Arch. f. mikr. Anat., Bd. 25, S. 405--440.

Flinty J. M,y 1900. The bloodvessels, angiogenesis, reticulum and histology of the adrenal. Johns Hopkins Hosp. Rep., Vol. 9, pp. 153-229.

FoXy H,y 1908. The pharyngeal pouches and their derivatives in the mammalia. Am. Jour. Anat., Vol. 8, pp. 187-250.

Gilberty M. S,, 1935. Some factors influencing the early development of the mammalian hypophysis. Anat. Rec., Vol. 62, pp. 337-359.

Godwin, M. C., 1939. The mammalian thymus. IV. The development in the dog. Am. Jour. Anat., Vol. 64, pp. 165-201.

Holt, E.y 1921. Absence of the pars buccalis of the hypophysis in a 40-mm. pig. Anat. Rec., Vol. 22, pp. 207-215.

Jacoby, Af., 1895. Studien zur Entwicklungsgeschichte der Halsorgane der Saugethiere und des Menschen. Histor. Krit. Beobachtungen iiber die Entwicklung der Kiemendarm-derivate. Gustav Schade, Berlin, 70 S.

KastschenkOyN.y 1887. Das Schicksal der embryonalen Schlundspalten bci Saugelhieren (zur Entwicklungsgeschichte des mittleren und ausseren Ohres, der Thyreoidea und des Thymus. Carotidenanlage). Arch. f. mikr Anat., Bd. 30, S. 1-26.

Minervini, R., 1904. Des Capsules surrenalcs. Developpement, structure, fonctions. Jour, de TAnat. et de la Phys., T. 40, pp. 449-492 and pp. 634-667.

Mitsukuriy K., 1882. On the development of the suprarenal in mammalia. Quart. Jour. Micr. Sci., Vol. 22, pp. 17-29.

Moody, R, 0., 1910. Some features of the histogenesis of the thyreoid gland in the pig. Anat. Rec., Vol. 4, pp. 429-452.

Nelson, W. 0., 1933. Studies on the anterior hypophysis. I. The development of the hypophysis in the pig (Sus scrofa). II. The cytological differentiation in the anterior hypophysis of the foetal pig. Am. Jour. Anat., Vol. 52, pp. 307-332.

Poll, H., 1906. Die vergleichende Entwicklungsgeschichte der Nebennierensystemc der Wirbeltiere. Hertwig’s Handbuch, Bd. 3, Teil 1, K. II, 2.

Rumph, P., and Smith, P, E,, 1926. The first occurrence of secretory products and of a specific structural differentiation in the thyroid and anterior pituitary during the development of the pig foetus. Anat. Rec., Vol. 33, pp. 289-298.

Shanklin, W. M., 1944. Histogenesis of the pig neurohypophysis. Am. Jour. Anat., Vol. 74, pp. 327-353.

Smith, P. E., and Dortzbach, C., 1929. The first appearance in the anterior pituitary of the developing pig foetus of detectable amounts of the hormones stimulating ovarian maturity and general body growth. Anat. Rec., Vol. 43, pp. 277297.

Snyder, F, F,, 1928. The presence of melanophore-expanding and uterus-stimulating substance in the pituitary body of early pig embryos. Am. Jour. Anat,, Vol. 41, pp. 399-409.

Soulii, A. H., 1903. Recherches sur le developpement des capsules surr6nales chez les vert6bres sup6rieurs. Jour, de I’Anat. et de la Physiol., T. 39, pp. 197-293.

Stieda, L., 1881. Untersuchungen uber die Entwicklung der Glandula thymus, Glandula thyreoidea und Glandula carotica. Engelmann, Leipzig, 38 S.

Warren 1917. The development of the pineal region in mammalia. Jour. Comp, Neur., Vol. 28, pp. 75-135.

Weyrnann, M. F. 1922. The beginning and development of function in the suprarenal medulla of pig embryos. Anat. Rec., Vol. 24, pp. 299-313.

Whitehead, R. H., 1903. The histogenesis of the adrenal in the pig. Jour. Am. Anat., Vol. 2, pp. 349-360.

Connective Tissues, Skeletal, and Muscular Systems

Asai, T., 1914. Beitrage zur Histologic und Histogenese der quergestreiften Muskulatur der Saugetierc. Arch, f mikr. Anat., Bd. 86, S. 8-68.

Augier, M. A., 1923. Notocorde et epithelium pharyngien chez sus scrofa dornesticus. Comptes Rendus de La Assoc des Anal., T. 18, pp. 57-65.

Bardeen, C. R., 1900. The development of the musculature of the body wall in the pig, including its histogenesis and its relation to the myotomes and to the skeletal and nervous apparatus. Johns Hopkins Hosp. Rep., Vol. 9, pp. 367-399.

de Beer, G. R., 1937. The Development of the Vertebrate Skull. Clarendon Press, Oxford, xxiii & 552 pp.

Butcher, E. O., 1933. The development of striated muscle and tendon from the caudal myotomes in the albino rat, and the significance of rnyotomic-cell arrangement. Am. Jour. Anat., Vol. 53, pp. 177-189.

Carey, E. J., 1921. Studies in the dynamics of histogenesis. VT. Resistances to skeletal growth as stimuli to chondrogenesis and osteogenesis. Am. Jour. Anat., Vol. 29, pp. 93-115.

Carey, E. J., 1922d. Studies in the dynamics of histogenesis. Intermittent traction and contraction of differential growth, as a stimulus to myogenesis. XI. The dynamics of the pectoralis major muscle tendon. Anat. Rec., Vol. 24, pp. 89-96.

Carey, E. J., 1922b. Direct observations on the transformation of the mesenchyme in the thigh of the pig embryo (Sus scrofa), with especial reference to the genesis of the thigh muscles, of the knee- and hip-joints, and of the primary bone of the femur. Jour. Morph., Vol. 37, pp. 1-77.

Glucksmann, A., 1939. Studies on bone mechanics in vitro. II. The r61e of tension and pressure in chondrogenesis. Anat. Rec., Vol. 73, pp. 39-55.

Godlewskt, E., 1902. Die Entwicklung des Skelet- und Herzmuskelgewebes der Saugethiere. Arch. f. rnikr. Anat. u. Entwg., Bd. 60, S. 111-156.

Hanson, F. B., 1*91 9a. The ontogeny and phylogeny of the sternum. Am. Jour. Anat., Vol. 26, pp. 41-115.

Hanson, F. B., 1919b. The development of the sternum in Sus scrofa. Anat. Rec., Vol. 17, pp. 1-23.

Hanson, F. B., 1920. The development of the shoulder-girdle of Sus scrofa. Anat. Rec., Vol. 18. pp. 1-21.

Huber, E., 1931. Evolution of Facial Musculature and Facial Expression. The Johns Hopkins Press, Baltimore, xii & 184 pp.

Ingalls, T, H,, 1941. Epiphyseal growth: Normal sequence of events at the epiphyseal plate. Endocrinology, Vol. 29, pp. 710-719.

Isaacs, R., 1919. The structure and mechanics of developing connective tissue. Anat. Rec., Vol. 17, pp. 243-270.

Kibrick, E, A., Becks, H, Marx, W., and Evans, H, M., 1941. The effect of different dose levels of growth hormone on the tibia of young hypophysectomized female rats. Growth, Vol. 4, pp. 437-447.

Kingsbury, B. F., 1920, The developmental origin of the notochord. Science, Vol. 51, pp. 190-193.

Lacroix, F., 1945. On the origin of the diaphysis. Anat. Rec., Vol. 92, pp. 433-439.

McGill, C., 1907-08. The histogenesis of smooth muscle in the alimentary canal and respiratory tract of the pig. Internat. Monatschr. f. Anat. u. Physiol., Bd. 24, S. 209-245.

McGill, C., 1910. The early histogenesis of striated muscle in the oesophagus of the pig and the dogfish. Anat. Rec., Vol. 4, pp. 23-47.

Mead, C. S,, 1909. The chondrocranium of an embryo pig, Sus scrofa. A contribution to the morphology of the mammalian skull. Am. Jour. Anat., Vol. 9, pp. 167-210.

Murray, P. D. F., 1936. Bones. A Study of the Development and Structure of the Vertebrate Skeleton. Cambridge Univ. Press, London, x & 203 pp.

JVauck, E. T., 1926. Entwicklung des Schultergelenkes beim Schwein; Wachsplattenmodelle (als Ergazung zum Vortrag fiber das Coracoideum der Sauger). Verhandl. Anat. Ges., Bd. 35, S. 260-261.

Parker, W. K., 1874. On the structure and development of the skull of the pig. Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. London, Ser. B, Vol. 164, pp. 289-336.

Ruth, E. B., 1932. A study of the development of the mammalian pelvis. Anat. Rec., Vol. 53, pp. 201-225.

Sawin, P. B., 1945. Morphogenetic studies of the rabbit. 1. Regional specificity of hereditary factors affecting homoeotic variations in the axial skeleton. Jour, Exp. Zool., Vol. 100, pp. 301-329.

Sawtn, P. B., 1946. Morphogenetic studies of the rabbit. III. Skeletal variations resulting from the interaction of gene determined growth forces. Anat. Rec., Vol. 96, pp. 183-200.

Shields, R. T., 1923. On the development of tendon sheaths. Carnegie Inst., Contrib. to Embryo!., Vol. 15, pp. 53-61.

Silberberg, M., and Silberberg, R., 1946. Fufther investigations on the effect of the male sex hormone on endochondral ossification. Anat. Rec., Vol. 95, pp. 97-117.

Stearns, M. L., 1940. Studies on the development of connective tissue in transparent chambers in the rabbit’s ear. Part I, Am. Jour. Anat., Vol. 66, pp. 133-176; Part II, Am. Jour. Anat., Vol. 67, pp. 55-97.

Warkany, J., and Nelson, R. C., 1942. Skeletal abnormalities induced in rats by maternal nutritional deficiency. Arch. Path., Vol. 34, pp. 375-384.

Weed, I. G., 1936. Cytological studies of developing muscle with special reference to myofibrils, mitochondria, Golgi material and nuclei. Zeitschr. f. Zellforsch. u. mikr. Anat., Bd. 25, S. 516-540.

Williams, L. W., 1908. The later development of the notochord in mammals. Am. Jour. Anat., Vol. 8, pp. 251-284.,

Teeth, Hair, and Hoofs

Adlof, P., 1901. Zur Entwickelungsgeschichtc des Zahnsystems von Sus scrofa domest. Anat. Anz., Bd, 19, S. 481-490.

Beams, H. W., and King, R. L., 1933. The Golgi apparatus in the developing tooth, with special reference to polarity. Anat. Rec., Vol. 57, pp. 29-39.

Bevelander, G., 1941. The development and structure of the fiber system of dentin. Anat. Rec., Vol, 81, pp. 79-97.

Bevelander, G., and Johnson P. L., 1945. The histochemical localization of alkaline phosphatase in the developing tooth. Jour. Cell. & Comp. Physiol., Vol. 26, pp. 25-33.

Bevel andei G. and Johnson P. T., 1946. The histochemical localization of glycogen in the developing tooth. Jour. Cell. & Comp. Physiol,, Vol. 28, pp, 129-137.

Bild T., 1902. Die Entwickelungsgeschithte des Zahnsystems bei Sus domesticus und das Verhaltnis der Lippenfurchenanlage zur Zahnleiste. Anat. Anz., Bd, 20, S. 401-410.

Chase, S, W., 1932. Histogenesis of the enamel. Jour. Am. Dental Assn., Vol. 19, pp. 1275-1289.

Glasstone, S., 1935. The development of tooth germs in vitro. Jour. Anat., Vol. 70,

pp. 260-266.

Ilampp, E. G., 1940. Mineral distribution in the developing tooth. Anat. Rec., Vol. 77, pp. 273-291.

Held, //., 1926. Uber die Bildung des Schmelzgewebes. Zeitschr. f. mikr. Anat. P'orsch., Bd. 5, S. 668-687.

Ihrsch, M., 1921. Der Liickzahn von Sus domesticus, ein Beitrag zur Entwicklungsgeschichte des Gebisses von Sus domesticus und zur Kenntnis des Wesens der Dentitionen. Anat. Anz., Bd. 54, S. 321-330.

Jasswom, G., 1924. Uber die Histogencse der Dentingrundsubstanz der Saugetiere. Arch. f. mikr. Anat., Bd. 102, S. 291-310.

Morse, A , and Creep, R. 0 , 1947. Alkaline glycerophosphatase in the developing teeth of the rat. Its localization and activity characteristics as influenced by pH of the substiate and length of incubation time. Anat. Rec., Vol. 99, pp. 379-395.

Rein, G , 1882. Untersuchungen iiber embryonale Entwicklungsge.schichte der Milchdriise. Arch. f. mikr. Anat., Bd. 20, S. 431-501 und Bd. 21, S. 678-694

Saundeis, J, B, de C, M., Nuckolls, J., and Ftisbie, H. F., 1942. Amelogenesis. A histologic study of the development, formation and calcification of the enamel in the molar tooth of the rat. Jour. Am, Coll. Dentists, Vol. 9, pp. 107-136.

Schmidt, V,, 1925. Studien fiber die Histogencse der Haut und ihrer Anhangsgebilde bei Saugetieren und beim Menschen. I. Die Histogencse des Hufes bei Schweineembryonen. Zeitschr, f. mikr. Anat. Forsch., Bd. 3, S. 500-557.

Schour, /., and Steadman, S. R., 1935. The growth pattern and daily rhythm of the incisor of the rat. Anat. Rec., Vol. 63, pp. 325-333.

Schultze, O., 1892. Ueber die erste Anlagc des Milchdrfisenapparates. Anat. Anz., Bd. 7, S. 265-270.

Thoms, H., 1896. Untersuchungen fiber Bau, Wachsthum und Entwicklung des Hufes der Artiodactylen, insbesondere des Sus scrofa. Deutsche Thieraerzliche Wochenschr., Jahrgang. 4, S. 379-383.

Z^itzschmann, 0., 1924. Die Entwicklung des Systems der ausseren Haut. (b) Die Haare. (Schwein.) Lehrbuch der Entwicklungsgcschichte der Haustierc, S. 186-194.

Twins, Double Monsters, Anomalies

Baumgartner, W, J,, 1928. A double monster pig — Cephalothoracopagus monosymmetros. Anat. Rec., Vol. 37, pp. 303-316.

Berge, S,, 1941. The inheritance of paralysed hind legs, scrotal hernia and atresia ani in pigs. Jour. Heredity, Vol. 32, pp. 271-274.


Bishopy Af., 1921. The nervous system of a two-headed pig embryo. Jour. Comp. Neur., Vol. 32, pp. 379-428.

Bishops M., 1923. The arterial system of a two-headed pig embfyo. Anat. Rec., Vol. 26, pp. 205-222.

Carey, E,, 1917. The anatomy of a double pig, Syncephalus thoracopagus, with especial consideration of the genetic significance of the circulatory apparatus. Anat. Rec., Vol. 12, pp. 177-192.

Chidester, F. /?., 1914. Cyclopia in mammals. Anal. Rec., Vol. 8, pp. 355-366.

Cornel, G, W., 1921. Abnormalities of the mammalian embryo occurring before implantation. Carnegie Inst., Contrib. to Embryol., Vol. 13, pp. 61-66.

Corner, G. W., 1922. The morphological theory of monochorionic twins as illustrated by a series of supposed early twin embryos of the pig. Bull. Johns Hopkins Hosp., Vol. 33, pp. 389-392.

Corner, G. W., 1923. The problem of embryonic pathology of mammals with observations upon intra-uterine mortality in the pig. Am. Jour. Anat., Vol. 31, pp. 523-545.

Denison, H., 1908. Notes on pathological changes found in the embryo pig and its membranes. Anat. Rec., Vol. 2, pp. 253-256.

Dutta, S. K., 1930. Notes on the cyclopian eye and other deformities of the head in a pig. (Sus cristatus Wagn.) Allahabad Univ. Studies, Sci. Sec., Vol. 7, pp. 53-103.

Fitzpatrick, F, L,, 1928. The dissection of an abnormally developed foetal pig, with notes on the possible origins of such “freaks.” Proc. Iowa Acad. Sci., Vol. 35, pp. 319-325.

Hughes, W., 1927. Sex-intergrades in foetal pigs. Biol. Bull., Vol. 52, pp. 121-136.

Jordan, H. E., Davis, J. S., and Blackford, S. D., 1923. The operation of a factor of spatial relationship in mammalian development, as illustrated by a case of quadruplex larynx and triplicate mandible in a duplicate pig monster. Anat. Rec., Vol. 26, pp. 311-318.

Kingsbury, B, F., 1909. Report of a case of hermaphroditism (H. Verus lateralis) in Sus scrofa. Anat. Rec., pp. 278-281.

Nordby, J. E., 1929. Congenitad skin, ear, and skull defects in a pig. Anat. Rec., Vol. 42, pp. 267-280.

Poklman, A, G., 1919. Double ureters in human and pig embryos. Anat. Rec., Vol. 15, pp. 369-373.

Schwalbe, E., 1906-1913. Die Morphologic dcr Missbildungen des Menschen und der Tiere. Fischer, Jena, Vol. 1, xvi & 230 pp., Vol. 2, xx & 410 pp., Vol. 3, Abt. 1, 270 pp., Abt. 2, 858 pp., Anhang, 266 pp.

Streeter, G. L., 1924. Single-ovum twins in the pig. Am. Jour. Anat., Vol. 34, pp. 183-194.

Thuringer, J, M,, 1919. The anatomy of a diccphalic pig (Monosomus diprosopus). Anat. Rec., Vol. 15, pp. 359-367.

JVarkany, J., and Roth, C, B., 1948. Congenital malformations induced in rats by maternal vitamin A deficiency. II. Effect of varying the preparatory diet upon the yield of abnormal young. Jour. Nutrition, Vol. 35, pp* 1-11.

Williams, S. R., and Rauch, R. W., 1917. The anatomy of a double pig (Syncephalus thoracopagus). Anat. Rec., Vol. 13, pp. 273-280.


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