Book - Congenital Cardiac Disease 2

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Abbott ME. Congenital Cardiac Disease (1915) Osler & Mccrae's Modern Medicine 6, 2nd Edition.

Historic Disclaimer - information about historic embryology pages 
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Pages where the terms "Historic Textbook" and "Historic Embryology" appear on this site, and sections within pages where this disclaimer appears, indicate that the content and scientific understanding are specific to the time of publication. This means that while some scientific descriptions are still accurate, the terminology and interpretation of the developmental mechanisms reflect the understanding at the time of original publication and those of the preceding periods, these terms and interpretations may not reflect our current scientific understanding.     (More? Embryology History | Historic Embryology Papers)
1915 Congenital Cardiac: Congenital Cardiac Disease | Heart Development | Literature | Etiology | Cyanosis | Classification | Pericardium | Heart Displacement | Whole Heart | Anomalous Septa | Interauricular Septum | Interventricular Septum | Absence of Cardiac Septa | Aortic Septum | Pulmonary Stenosis and Atresia | Pulmonary Artery Dilatation | Aortic Stenosis or Atresia | Primary Patency and Ductus Arteriosus | Aorta Coarctation | Aorta Hypoplasia | Diagnosis Prognosis and Treatment | Figures | Embryology History | Historic Disclaimer

Literature

The rarity of cardiac defects, the obscurity of their etiology and symptoms, together with the fact that the cases are often of serious clinical import, make the subject of congenital cardiac disease of the highest interest. Since the time of Senac[1] it has attracted the interest of many of the ablest workers in the field of cardiac pathology. There are important special contributions from nearly all the earlier writers upon the heart, including Morgagni, Wm. Hunter,[2] Meckel,[3] Louis/ Farre/ Breschet, Sir James Paget[4] Gintrac/ Chevers[5] and Rokitansky.

[6] [7] [8]

The first comprehensive study of the whole subject with a review of this earlier literature, may be said to be Peacock's,[9] which remains a classic and is still the leading authority in English upon the subject. In Germany the ground has been covered by Lebert-Schrotter[10] (1879), by Rauchfuss[11] (1878), by Vierordt[12] (1898), in a statistical study of great value, and more recently by Thoreli[13] (1903 and 1911), and Herxheimeri[14] (1910). In English there are the excellent general accounts of Humphry,[15] Carpenter,[16] and Keith,[17] and in French the work of Moussous,[18] Gerard,[19] and Theremin,[20] The last is a study of much value comprising 106 observations of cardiac defects with measurements and illustrative plates.


Perhaps the most valuable and certainly the most brilliant original contribution has been Rokitansky's. This is an analysis of 44 cases of complicated septal defects, together with a study of the normal anatomy of the septa, and of their development as observed by Rokitansky himself, in the human embryo and in the chick. Rokitansky explained all cardiac anomalies associated with septal defects as due to arrest in the development of the cardiac or aortic septa, and to their consequent non-union or irregular union. Although the results of his observations have been modified, his work is of inestimable value as giving a clue to many problems, and especially in regard to transposition of the arterial trunks.


Reference has already been made to the recent work of Keith. From a series of personal observations on conus stenosis, and from the study of 270 malformed hearts in the museums of London, he has advanced the view that cardiac defects are nearly always developmental in origin, that pulmonary stenosis is usually due to subinvolution of the bulbus cordis and that transposition results from an irregularity in involution of the same primitive structure.


The bulk of the literature centres about three questions, which may be stated, with the theories promulgated upon them, as follows :

  1. The cause of the defect. Is it developmental or due to intra-uterine disease?
  2. The causation of the cyanosis so often present : Is it due to admixture of venous and arterial currents; to delayed aeration of blood; to both these conditions, or to still obscurer causes associated with changes in tissue metabolism and in the composition of the blood itself?
  3. In the combination so frequently occurring of defect of the interventricular septum with stenosis of the pulmonary artery, is the septal defect secondary, due to the rise of pressure behind the stenosed orifice before closure of the fetal passages had occurred; or is it primary, the deflection of the current of blood through the defect leading to hypoplasia of the pulmonary artery through disuse ? Or are both conditions the result of a common cause, an arrest or deviation or other irregularity in development?

An analysis has been made of the records of 631 cases of congenital cardiac disease which serve here as an illustrative basis. Of these, 205 have been drawn from the Trajisactions of the Pathological Society of London, a few from personal experience, and the remainder from the literature. English and American records have been consulted so far as possible, as these sources are often overlooked in previous statistical studies, which are largely Continental.



  1. Traite de la structure du coeur, de son action et de ses maladies, Paris, 1749,
  2. Medical Observations and Enquiries, London, 1784, vol. vi, p. 291.
  3. De Cordis conditionibus abnormibus. Dissertation, Halle, 1802.
  4. On Malformations of the Human Heart, London, 1814.
  5. Defekte der Scheidewdnde des Herzens, Vienna, 1875.
  6. Edinburgh Medical and Surgical Journal, 1831, vol. xxxvi, p. 263.
  7. Recherches sur la maladie bleue, Paris, 1824.
  8. London Medical Gazette, series of articles, 1845 to 1851.
  9. Malformations of the Human Heart, 1858 and 1866.
  10. Article in Ziemssen's Handbuch der spec. Path, et Ther., Leipsic, 1879, Band vi.
  11. In Gerhardt's Handb. d. Kinder krankheiten, 1878, iv, part i.
  12. NothnageVs Spec. Path. u. Therapie, Bd. xv, 1898. Tli. 1., Abt. 11.
  13. Lubarsch and Ostertag' s Ergebnisse, 1 Abth., 1903, p. 585, and 11 Abth., 1910, p. 268.
  14. Schwalbe's Missbildungen, iii Th., iii Lief, 2 Abth., 1910.
  15. Allbult's System of Medicine, vol. iv.
  16. Brit. Jour. Child. Dis., 1909, vol. vi, pp. 337, 385, 433.
  17. Lancet, 1909, vol. ii, 359, 433, 519.
  18. Encyclop. Scient. des aide-memoires, Paris.
  19. Rev. de med., 1900, pp. 645 and 837; also Jour, de I'Anat., 1900, pp. 1 and 323.
  20. Etudes sur les affections congenitales du coeur, Paris, 1895.

Historic Disclaimer - information about historic embryology pages 
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Pages where the terms "Historic Textbook" and "Historic Embryology" appear on this site, and sections within pages where this disclaimer appears, indicate that the content and scientific understanding are specific to the time of publication. This means that while some scientific descriptions are still accurate, the terminology and interpretation of the developmental mechanisms reflect the understanding at the time of original publication and those of the preceding periods, these terms and interpretations may not reflect our current scientific understanding.     (More? Embryology History | Historic Embryology Papers)


Embryology - 19 Jul 2019    Facebook link Pinterest link Twitter link  Expand to Translate  
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العربية | català | 中文 | 中國傳統的 | français | Deutsche | עִברִית | हिंदी | bahasa Indonesia | italiano | 日本語 | 한국어 | မြန်မာ | Pilipino | Polskie | português | ਪੰਜਾਬੀ ਦੇ | Română | русский | Español | Swahili | Svensk | ไทย | Türkçe | اردو | ייִדיש | Tiếng Việt    These external translations are automated and may not be accurate. (More? About Translations)

Abbott ME. Congenital Cardiac Disease (1915) Osler & Mccrae's Modern Medicine 6, 2nd Edition.

Historic Disclaimer - information about historic embryology pages 
Mark Hill.jpg
Pages where the terms "Historic Textbook" and "Historic Embryology" appear on this site, and sections within pages where this disclaimer appears, indicate that the content and scientific understanding are specific to the time of publication. This means that while some scientific descriptions are still accurate, the terminology and interpretation of the developmental mechanisms reflect the understanding at the time of original publication and those of the preceding periods, these terms and interpretations may not reflect our current scientific understanding.     (More? Embryology History | Historic Embryology Papers)
1915 Congenital Cardiac: Congenital Cardiac Disease | Heart Development | Literature | Etiology | Cyanosis | Classification | Pericardium | Heart Displacement | Whole Heart | Anomalous Septa | Interauricular Septum | Interventricular Septum | Absence of Cardiac Septa | Aortic Septum | Pulmonary Stenosis and Atresia | Pulmonary Artery Dilatation | Aortic Stenosis or Atresia | Primary Patency and Ductus Arteriosus | Aorta Coarctation | Aorta Hypoplasia | Diagnosis Prognosis and Treatment | Figures | Embryology History | Historic Disclaimer


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Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2019, July 19) Embryology Book - Congenital Cardiac Disease 2. Retrieved from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Book_-_Congenital_Cardiac_Disease_2

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© Dr Mark Hill 2019, UNSW Embryology ISBN: 978 0 7334 2609 4 - UNSW CRICOS Provider Code No. 00098G