Book - An Atlas of Topographical Anatomy 7

From Embryology

VII. Transverse section of the same body through the neck and shoulders at the level of the seventh cervical vertebra

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Braune W. An atlas of topographical anatomy after plane sections of frozen bodies. (1877) Trans. by Edward Bellamy. Philadelphia: Lindsay and Blakiston.

Plates: 1. Male - Sagittal body | 2. Female - Sagittal body | 3. Obliquely transverse head | 4. Transverse internal ear | 5. Transverse head | 6. Transverse neck | 7. Transverse neck and shoulders | 8. Transverse level first dorsal vertebra | 9. Transverse thorax level of third dorsal vertebra | 10. Transverse level aortic arch and fourth dorsal vertebra | 11. Transverse level of the bulbus aortae and sixth dorsal vertebra | 12. Transverse level of mitral valve and eighth dorsal vertebra | 13. Transverse level of heart apex and ninth dorsal vertebra | 14. Transverse liver stomach spleen at level of eleventh dorsal vertebra | 15. Transverse pancreas and kidneys at level of L1 vertebra | 16. Transverse through transverse colon at level of intervertebral space between L3 L4 vertebra | 17. Transverse pelvis at level of head of thigh bone | 18. Transverse male pelvis | 19. knee and right foot | 20. Transverse thigh | 21. Transverse left thigh | 22. Transverse lower left thigh and knee | 23. Transverse upper and middle left leg | 24. Transverse lower left leg | 25. Male - Frontal thorax | 26. Elbow-joint hand and third finger | 27. Transverse left arm | 28. Transverse left fore-arm | 29. Sagittal female pregnancy | 30. Sagittal female pregnancy | 31. Sagittal female at term
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Pages where the terms "Historic Textbook" and "Historic Embryology" appear on this site, and sections within pages where this disclaimer appears, indicate that the content and scientific understanding are specific to the time of publication. This means that while some scientific descriptions are still accurate, the terminology and interpretation of the developmental mechanisms reflect the understanding at the time of original publication and those of the preceding periods, these terms and interpretations may not reflect our current scientific understanding.     (More? Embryology History | Historic Embryology Papers)


THIS plate and those which immediately precede and succeed it are taken from one and the same body. Here, as is evident, the superior surface is represented.


The section, commencing immediately below the larynx, passes through the under edge of the cricoid cartilage, and involves the lateral lobes of the thyroid body, the under surface of the seventh cervical vertebra, and a portion of the intervertebral fibro-cartilage. It terminates at the level of the articulation between the acromion and clavicle. As can be verified by measurement, the lateral halves are of equal length, and there is considerable symmetry in the arrangement of the individual portions, so that the track of the saw is exactly horizontal, and yet there are many differences on the two sides of the section. On the right side the part between the clavicle and acromion is opened, and a portion of the muscular mass of the serratus magnus crops up from the scapula ; the head of the first rib is also plain. On the left side the section passes beneath the articulation between the clavicle and acromion, and ne'ither the rib nor the angle of scapula can be seen. It will be observed, then, that in normal and faultlessly formed bodies deviations from lateral symmetry may occur, a fact which does not permit representations of sections of one half of the body only being made.


As the section passed through the point of junction of the cervical with the dorsal vertebrae, it represents the area between the back and the neck. In front of the vertebra the section keeps completely within the region of the neck which descends lower down in front than it does behind. The clavicle can be observed in considerable length through the integument.


This relation must be borne in mind in examining deep-seated gun-shot or punctured wounds in this region. Students and beginners especially are liable to look for the highest of the dorsal vertebrae much deeper in the neck than at the lower border of the larynx. Of the bony portion of the vertebral column here seen we have the under surface of the body of the seventh cervical vertebra, and its long spinous process ; this can be readily felt through the integument, and is useful as a commencing point for counting the dorsal vertebrae. To this vertebra belong the sections of the divided articular process. In front lie the articular and transverse processes of the first dorsal vertebra, and on the right side juts out the head of the first rib.


In front of the spinal column on either side of the median line is the longus colli, and close beside it on the transverse process is the scalenus anticus. The latter muscle is separated from the scalenus medius by the transverse section of the brachial plexus, which is formed by the anterior branches of the last cervical and first dorsal nerves ; the posterior branches are not clearly seen in the preparation. On the anterior surface of the anterior scalenus is shown the phrenic nerve.


Between the longus colli and scalenus anticus lies the vertebral artery with its vein, which have been divided on their way to the vertebral canal ; and immediately in front of the vein on the right side is the inferior cervical ganglion of the sympathetic. On the left side the sympathetic lies between the scalenus and the carotid, and a branch of the inferior thyroid artery is to be seen on the inner side.


On the front of the spine is the trachea, which passes obliquely downwards and backwards, and its section shows the rest of the cricoid cartilage. Posteriorly the inferior constrictor of the pharynx indicates the position of the commencement of the oesophagus, and as this canal is empty, its anterior and posterior walls are closely approximated. Plate VIII, which is taken at the level of the first dorsal vertebra, shows that the gullet deviates considerably towards the left side.


Between the trachea and oesophagus on either side is seen the recurrent laryngeal nerve, and more externally are the lateral lobes of the thyroid body. Just at this point all the four arteries of the gland are visible, and one can easily appreciate the difficulty of applying a ligature to them. The superior thyroid artery has already entered the anterior portion of the gland, and the inferior thyroid is seen external to it. .On the right side, between the carotid and the deep muscles of the neck, are two large divided vessels which belong to the inferior thyroid artery, which springs from the subclavian, passes for a while upwards in order to curve behind the carotid, and then again downwards so as to reach the thyroid body. The vessel is divided just below the loop, so that both its ascending and descending portions are seen. On the left side the descending portion of the vessel has already given off branches.


It has been before mentioned that in such sections as these there is very great difficulty in representing fasciae, consequently all the finer laminse lying between the different vessels have been omitted. The space, however, in which the carotid, internal jugular vein, and vagus nerve are enclosed is filled up with cellular tissue. The limits of this space, as a whole, are accurately shown, and it can be understood that the sheath of the vessel is formed anteriorly by the middle portion of the fascia of the neck and the omo-hyoid, internally by the envelope of the thyroid, posteriorly by the lamina covering the deep muscles, and externally by the sheath of the sterno-cleido-mastoid. Inside the sheath, externally and somewhat posteriorly, lies the vein, and in front, between the artery and the vein, is the vagus nerve. The descendens noni lies on the front of the sheath. At this point the omo-hyoid begins to cross the great vessels and to become tendinous, as is well seen on the left side.


It is a recognised fact that the operation of tracheotomy should be performed by preference above the thyroid body; between it and the cricoid cartilage. The plate shows how near the surface the trachea lies in this region, and how easy an operation on this body would be on account of the normal condition of the thyroid body and the slight development of its middle portion. As shown on the plate, one might be misled by the relations, and look upon it as advantageous to perform the operation by a single stroke of the knife ; but the practitioner is warned against such a proceeding ; he must divide the tissues cautiously layer by layer, inasmuch as the middle portion of the thyroid body may widely displace the field of operation, whilst haemorrhage from it is very difficult to arrest.


The muscular masses which compose the posterior half of the central part of the plate may be thoroughly analysed, and they are sufficiently distinguishable from the references. It should be here observed that on the left side the section has passed above the serratus magnus, whereas on the right side its upper edge only is involved, and is in such close relation with the levator anguli scapulas that no clear line of demarcation can be shown. On the left side, in the separation between the levator anguli scapulas and the trapezius (cucullaris), and over the upper border of the serratus magnus, lies the transversalis colli artery, which is divided through its curve. Its course is clearly shown from the outer side of the scalenus medius, and its relation to the superficial cervical artery ; up to this point it applies itself posteriorly to the trapezius and levator anguli scapulas, in order to terminate in the region of the angle of the scapula ; on the right side this vessel is seen merely in section. The trapezius forms the largest surface of the section and is divided just at the point of its fan-shaped expansion. The posterior fibres run more transversely to the acromion and acromial end of the clavicle, and are therefore cut parallel to their course; the mass of fibres lying on the anterior border are more perpendicular to the middle portion of the clavicle, and are divided almost transversely. The spinal accessory nerve is shown in this muscle.


Historic Disclaimer - information about historic embryology pages 
Mark Hill.jpg
Pages where the terms "Historic Textbook" and "Historic Embryology" appear on this site, and sections within pages where this disclaimer appears, indicate that the content and scientific understanding are specific to the time of publication. This means that while some scientific descriptions are still accurate, the terminology and interpretation of the developmental mechanisms reflect the understanding at the time of original publication and those of the preceding periods, these terms and interpretations may not reflect our current scientific understanding.     (More? Embryology History | Historic Embryology Papers)
Braune Plates (1877): 1. Male - Sagittal body | 2. Female - Sagittal body | 3. Obliquely transverse head | 4. Transverse internal ear | 5. Transverse head | 6. Transverse neck | 7. Transverse neck and shoulders | 8. Transverse level first dorsal vertebra | 9. Transverse thorax level of third dorsal vertebra | 10. Transverse level aortic arch and fourth dorsal vertebra | 11. Transverse level of the bulbus aortae and sixth dorsal vertebra | 12. Transverse level of mitral valve and eighth dorsal vertebra | 13. Transverse level of heart apex and ninth dorsal vertebra | 14. Transverse liver stomach spleen at level of eleventh dorsal vertebra | 15. Transverse pancreas and kidneys at level of L1 vertebra | 16. Transverse through transverse colon at level of intervertebral space between L3 L4 vertebra | 17. Transverse pelvis at level of head of thigh bone | 18. Transverse male pelvis | 19. knee and right foot | 20. Transverse thigh | 21. Transverse left thigh | 22. Transverse lower left thigh and knee | 23. Transverse upper and middle left leg | 24. Transverse lower left leg | 25. Male - Frontal thorax | 26. Elbow-joint hand and third finger | 27. Transverse left arm | 28. Transverse left fore-arm | 29. Sagittal female pregnancy | 30. Sagittal female pregnancy | 31. Sagittal female at term

Reference

Braune W. An atlas of topographical anatomy after plane sections of frozen bodies. (1877) Trans. by Edward Bellamy. Philadelphia: Lindsay and Blakiston.


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Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2019, December 12) Embryology Book - An Atlas of Topographical Anatomy 7. Retrieved from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Book_-_An_Atlas_of_Topographical_Anatomy_7

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© Dr Mark Hill 2019, UNSW Embryology ISBN: 978 0 7334 2609 4 - UNSW CRICOS Provider Code No. 00098G