Book - An Atlas of Topographical Anatomy 28

From Embryology

XXVIII. Transverse sections through the left fore-arm

Figs. 1-4. Transverse section through the left fore-arm of the same, the upper middle and lower thirds, and wrist -joint.


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Braune W. An atlas of topographical anatomy after plane sections of frozen bodies. (1877) Trans. by Edward Bellamy. Philadelphia: Lindsay and Blakiston.

Plates: 1. Male - Sagittal body | 2. Female - Sagittal body | 3. Obliquely transverse head | 4. Transverse internal ear | 5. Transverse head | 6. Transverse neck | 7. Transverse neck and shoulders | 8. Transverse level first dorsal vertebra | 9. Transverse thorax level of third dorsal vertebra | 10. Transverse level aortic arch and fourth dorsal vertebra | 11. Transverse level of the bulbus aortae and sixth dorsal vertebra | 12. Transverse level of mitral valve and eighth dorsal vertebra | 13. Transverse level of heart apex and ninth dorsal vertebra | 14. Transverse liver stomach spleen at level of eleventh dorsal vertebra | 15. Transverse pancreas and kidneys at level of L1 vertebra | 16. Transverse through transverse colon at level of intervertebral space between L3 L4 vertebra | 17. Transverse pelvis at level of head of thigh bone | 18. Transverse male pelvis | 19. knee and right foot | 20. Transverse thigh | 21. Transverse left thigh | 22. Transverse lower left thigh and knee | 23. Transverse upper and middle left leg | 24. Transverse lower left leg | 25. Male - Frontal thorax | 26. Elbow-joint hand and third finger | 27. Transverse left arm | 28. Transverse left fore-arm | 29. Sagittal female pregnancy | 30. Sagittal female pregnancy | 31. Sagittal female at term
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Pages where the terms "Historic Textbook" and "Historic Embryology" appear on this site, and sections within pages where this disclaimer appears, indicate that the content and scientific understanding are specific to the time of publication. This means that while some scientific descriptions are still accurate, the terminology and interpretation of the developmental mechanisms reflect the understanding at the time of original publication and those of the preceding periods, these terms and interpretations may not reflect our current scientific understanding.     (More? Embryology History | Historic Embryology Papers)


FIG. 1. The section here passes through the upper third of the left forearm, and the ulna and radius exhibit surfaces of almost equal size, only the ulna with its sharp edge lies closer to the surface than the radius, which is embedded in muscle. The ulna can be readily felt throughout the entire length of the forearm, but the head and inferior extremity only of the radius. The edge of the ulna affords an easily distinguishable limit between the flexor and extensor muscles. The flexor carpi radialis forms the muscular limit on the flexor surface. It is placed with its tendinous border on the ulna, and covers over the deep flexor lying beneath it. On the opposite side of the ulna is the origin of the interosseous ligament, and in connection therewith fasciae, which pass directly upwards, and consequently separate both groups of muscles. To the left lie the supinators and extensors, and to the right the pronator teres and flexors. Between both groups of muscles are seen the vessels, the ulnar artery deep down, with the interosseous springing from it, and above it the radial. One needs merely to divide the enveloping fasciae, and to pull the muscle to one side to expose the , radial artery. The deep position of the ulnar at this spot renders its ligature difficult. Of nerves the superficial branch of the radial is found below the supinator longus, the deep branch lying in the supinator brevis. The median is between the pronator teres and flexor sublimis digitorum, the ulnar between the latter and flexor carpi ulnaris.


Peculiar interest is attached to the supinator brevis, the function of which can be readily understood by reference to this section. Passing outwards from the ulna (its upper set of fibres from the epicondyle are not seen), it wraps round the radius so that it must by its contraction roll it outwards. The space between it and the radius is taken up by the tendon of the biceps, which from the nature of its attachment assists in supination.


Fig. 2. In this plate, which, shows a section through the middle of the left forearm, there is considerably greater difficulty in recognising the relations of the individual structures than in the preceding, and this difficulty is not so much from the number of muscles, but from the absence of the fascial septa which limit the individual groups. The interosseous ligament alone forms with the skeleton an absolute limit, and this does not extend throughout the entire breadth of the section. The ulna and radius present their sharp edges to each other, and are bound together by the interosseous ligament ; on the right is the mass of the flexors, and on the left that of the extensors. Both groups of muscles are separated from the radius by a very thin fascial covering, which is attached to the radius and it encloses the radial artery and veins. This vessel is at this level easily found beneath the inner border of the supinator longus. The ulnar artery and nerves are here nearer the surface than in the preceding section, and the surgeon has only to make an incision between the flexor carpi ulnaris and the flexor sublimis digitorum to reach it. The fascial lamina passing from it to the median nerve, and which is prolonged beneath the origin of the pronator teres to the radius, divides the deep layer consisting of the flexor profundus digitorum and flexor longus pollicis from the superficial flexors, in which the flexor sublimis digitorum has penetrated beneath the palmaris longus which has already become tendinous. In like manner, on the opposite side of the interosseous ligament the extensors are divided into a superficial and deep layer ; and the extensor ossis metacarpi pollicis and the extensor secundi internodii are already shown.


If the flexor surface be compared with the extensor with reference to the mass of its muscles, it is seen at once that the flexor considerably predominates over the extensor, and farther that the main trunks of the vessels lie on the flexor surface. If the surgeon has a choice of flap in amputation of the forearm in this region, provided there is nothing to the contrary, he should form his flap chiefly from the flexor surface, as much on account of the quantity of soft parts as for the nourishment afforded the stump by the vessels. The formation of flaps from the extensor aspect is much more difficult of performance on account of the closeness of the bones to the surface.


Fig. 3 is a section of the left forearm in its lower third. The radius has become considerably thicker in section. Its surface is covered by the broad pronator quadratus, which from its attachment to the ulna, rolls the radius over to the position of pronation. Beneath it is the interosseous ligament, and on both sides of it the interosseous vessels. The proximity of the radio-carpal joint is evident from the presence of the tendons of the muscles. The flexors and extensors even to the flexor carpi ulnaris have become tendinous, consequently the radial artery lies free, covered only by skin and fascia, hence affording the readiest means of feeling the pulse, and is here very easily ligatured. The ulnar artery, on the contrary, is still covered over by the tendinous border of the flexor carpi ulnaris, which must be drawn aside in order to reach it. On the extensor aspect are the long muscles of the thumb, and passing upwards from below the radial extensors of the carpus. At their points of crossing, bursae are developed to prevent their rubbing against one another. Over-use of these muscles, such as with mowers, may cause inflammation of these bursae and form a tumour over this locality (tenosynovitis). The number of muscles again on the flexor surface exceeds that of the extensor surface in this section. The mass of the muscles has, however, so much diminished that in amputation of the forearm in this region the flap a la manchette is preferable, as the plate sufficiently explains.


Fig. 4. In this plate the section passes through the carpus. The tendons only of the muscles are now shown with their bursal tissue, the presence of which is indicated by the numerous black lines around the divided tendons, the only muscular tissue cut being that of the ball of the little finger. Only a small portion of the radius, the root of its styloid process, is shown.


The bones of the carpus seen, are the semilunar, scaphoid, and cuneiform, and the articulation between it and the pisiform, the surface of which is seen anteriorly, has been opened.


The three bones of the first row represent a surface, the individual portions of which are moveable, and which articulates with the radius, and with the ulna by means of the inter-articular fibro-cartilage. The section of these three bones, as here represented, has not the form of an ellipse, but resembles a parallelogram, with its angles rounded off. The articular surfaces of these bones approximate to the spherical form, being received into an oval hollow, somewhat in the same manner as the head of the humerus into the glenoid cavity of the scapula.


Historic Disclaimer - information about historic embryology pages 
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Pages where the terms "Historic Textbook" and "Historic Embryology" appear on this site, and sections within pages where this disclaimer appears, indicate that the content and scientific understanding are specific to the time of publication. This means that while some scientific descriptions are still accurate, the terminology and interpretation of the developmental mechanisms reflect the understanding at the time of original publication and those of the preceding periods, these terms and interpretations may not reflect our current scientific understanding.     (More? Embryology History | Historic Embryology Papers)
Braune Plates (1877): 1. Male - Sagittal body | 2. Female - Sagittal body | 3. Obliquely transverse head | 4. Transverse internal ear | 5. Transverse head | 6. Transverse neck | 7. Transverse neck and shoulders | 8. Transverse level first dorsal vertebra | 9. Transverse thorax level of third dorsal vertebra | 10. Transverse level aortic arch and fourth dorsal vertebra | 11. Transverse level of the bulbus aortae and sixth dorsal vertebra | 12. Transverse level of mitral valve and eighth dorsal vertebra | 13. Transverse level of heart apex and ninth dorsal vertebra | 14. Transverse liver stomach spleen at level of eleventh dorsal vertebra | 15. Transverse pancreas and kidneys at level of L1 vertebra | 16. Transverse through transverse colon at level of intervertebral space between L3 L4 vertebra | 17. Transverse pelvis at level of head of thigh bone | 18. Transverse male pelvis | 19. knee and right foot | 20. Transverse thigh | 21. Transverse left thigh | 22. Transverse lower left thigh and knee | 23. Transverse upper and middle left leg | 24. Transverse lower left leg | 25. Male - Frontal thorax | 26. Elbow-joint hand and third finger | 27. Transverse left arm | 28. Transverse left fore-arm | 29. Sagittal female pregnancy | 30. Sagittal female pregnancy | 31. Sagittal female at term

Reference

Braune W. An atlas of topographical anatomy after plane sections of frozen bodies. (1877) Trans. by Edward Bellamy. Philadelphia: Lindsay and Blakiston.


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Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2019, December 13) Embryology Book - An Atlas of Topographical Anatomy 28. Retrieved from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Book_-_An_Atlas_of_Topographical_Anatomy_28

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© Dr Mark Hill 2019, UNSW Embryology ISBN: 978 0 7334 2609 4 - UNSW CRICOS Provider Code No. 00098G