Book - An Atlas of Topographical Anatomy 26

From Embryology

XXVI. Vertical section through the right elbow-joint and hand

Fig. 1. Vertical section through the right elbow-joint ; female. Fig. 2. Vertical section through the hand and third finger of the same body.


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Braune W. An atlas of topographical anatomy after plane sections of frozen bodies. (1877) Trans. by Edward Bellamy. Philadelphia: Lindsay and Blakiston.

Plates: 1. Male - Sagittal body | 2. Female - Sagittal body | 3. Obliquely transverse head | 4. Transverse internal ear | 5. Transverse head | 6. Transverse neck | 7. Transverse neck and shoulders | 8. Transverse level first dorsal vertebra | 9. Transverse thorax level of third dorsal vertebra | 10. Transverse level aortic arch and fourth dorsal vertebra | 11. Transverse level of the bulbus aortae and sixth dorsal vertebra | 12. Transverse level of mitral valve and eighth dorsal vertebra | 13. Transverse level of heart apex and ninth dorsal vertebra | 14. Transverse liver stomach spleen at level of eleventh dorsal vertebra | 15. Transverse pancreas and kidneys at level of L1 vertebra | 16. Transverse through transverse colon at level of intervertebral space between L3 L4 vertebra | 17. Transverse pelvis at level of head of thigh bone | 18. Transverse male pelvis | 19. knee and right foot | 20. Transverse thigh | 21. Transverse left thigh | 22. Transverse lower left thigh and knee | 23. Transverse upper and middle left leg | 24. Transverse lower left leg | 25. Male - Frontal thorax | 26. Elbow-joint hand and third finger | 27. Transverse left arm | 28. Transverse left fore-arm | 29. Sagittal female pregnancy | 30. Sagittal female pregnancy | 31. Sagittal female at term
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Pages where the terms "Historic Textbook" and "Historic Embryology" appear on this site, and sections within pages where this disclaimer appears, indicate that the content and scientific understanding are specific to the time of publication. This means that while some scientific descriptions are still accurate, the terminology and interpretation of the developmental mechanisms reflect the understanding at the time of original publication and those of the preceding periods, these terms and interpretations may not reflect our current scientific understanding.     (More? Embryology History | Historic Embryology Papers)


THE longitudinal section shown in this plate is taken through the elbow-joint and hand of a young normal female subject, with no previous injection of the vessels.


There was neither artificial injection of the articulation nor any predetermined position thereof. It was frozen and sawn through in its normal condition.


Figure 1. In this plate is shown the sagittal section of the right elbow-joint, taken somewhat obliquely, and seen from the radial aspect. The saw has passed nearly through its centre, and removed a small portion of the radial surface of the ulna. As the forearm is slightly bent, and in semipronation, the radius is met with in its long axis, a small portion of the ulnar aspect of its head only remaining. Farther down its shaft is divided obliquely, and the medullary cavity partially opened. In consequence of pronation the radius does not lie parallel with the ulna but crosses it, and is directed with its inferior extremity forwards.


The expansion of the cavity of the elbow-joint is worthy of notice in flexion and extension of the humerus. The folding-in of the capsular ligament in the posterior supra- trochlear fossa corresponds with the slight degree of flexion, and if this flexion be further increased, this folding-in would become eradicated and take place on the anterior aspect. The cavities above the trochlea are alternately filled at the end of flexion and extension, the capsule, however, being drawn away beforehand by certain muscles, viz. the brachialis anticus and biceps, so that it may not be included between the bones.


It can be seen from the plate that the bones do not lie completely in apposition. Injections of the elbow-joint with strong pressure show that it acquires the position of semiflexion, and that the fluid injected partially separates the joint-surfaces.


The terminations of the flexor muscles of the arm are not seen. The brachialis anticus, which lies close upon the capsule, is divided longitudinally, as is seen from the direction of its fibres ; and the same remark applies to the biceps, its tendon is deeper down behind the radius, and can be exposed only by dissection. The tendinous mass shown in the plate, between the upper end of the radius and the ulna, is a portion of the tendon of the biceps ; another portion of it belongs to the circular ligament of the ulna, which forms the means of checking excessive separation, and becomes broader in pronation. The triceps at the back of the humerus shows its complete connection with the olecranon. On the anterior surface of the biceps is the supinator brevis, and farther in front are portions of the supinator longus and the extensor carpi radialis longior the heads of which are removed with the external condyle. No vessels or nerves are seen in the plate, excepting an obliquely divided vein, a portion of the median-cephalic, and the radial nerve beneath the supinator longus. The main artery, with its accompanying veins and the median nerve, which pass down on the inner side of the arm and afterwards turn forwards on the bend of the elbow, lie concealed in the soft parts below the surface of the section.


Sections made as shown in this plate are rarely successful, and not easy to understand at first sight, since in complete supination and parallelism of the bones of the forearm the usual position from which descriptions are made the radius and ulna lie in a frontal plane.


I have, however, specially chosen the present position of the arm for the section as being the more normal one in which the radius lies in front of the ulna for almost its entire length. A very similar representation is to be found in Pirogoff's Atlas (Fasc. iv B, Taf. iv, fig. 7).


Frontal sections of the elbow-joint agree with the preceding if the forearm is completely extended and supinated, and if, moreover, it be forcibly retained in this position before freezing.


The radius and ulna are divided in their longitudinal axes and in continuation with the humerus. As Pirogoff's and Voltz's Atlases contain an excellent and complete series of such sections, it seems hardly worth while to multiply them in this work.


Fig. 2 is a longitudinal section of the right forearm, hand, and third finger, from the same arm as fig. 1, and is viewed from the ulnar aspect. The radius is divided in its entire length ; on its articular surface is the semilunar bone, and in front of it the os magnum and third metacarpal bone, the first phalanx, and a portion of the second, the third was not included in the section. The joints were not particularly prepared for the section. In the hand they are in the condition of partial extension, whilst the fingers are flexed from the effects of freezing. The skin is smooth on the dorsal aspect, whilst on the volar, which is rich in fat, it forms thick pads, giving rise to deep furrows. During extension these furrows appear as transverse lines, and do not correspond with the opposed articular surfaces of the joints. Those on the volar aspect of the root of the finger lie considerably further forwards than the corresponding metacarpophalangeal joints, and the subsequent furrow exceeds, though not to so great an extent, the joints between the first and second and third phalanges, consequently in disarticulation of a finger from the volar aspect the joint will not be opened if the knife be applied directly upon this furrow. The articulation will be far more certainly reached if the incision be made from the extensor aspect, after slightly flexing the finger, a little in front of the projection which the head of the bone makes with its distal phalanx. Corresponding with the more extensive expansion of the cartilage on the volar aspect, the cavity of the synovial membrane extends further upwards than on the extensor. The capsular ligament is moreover considerably strengthened by the tendinous expansions formed by the lateral ligaments, and which prevent too g^eat an amount of extension of the finger. Immediately beneath the skin, and separated from it merely by bursal tissue, are the flexor tendons of the finger, of which the more superficial disappears at the first phalanx, and the tendon of the deep is shown passing on to its insertion into the ungual. These tendons are easily followed upwards, beneath the annular ligament to their muscles which form the chief bulk of the forearm.


The number of sections which could be made with advantage of the hand is unlimited, as in every change of position new and interesting forms arise. This is more particularly the case with regard to the region of the thumb, where section is especially suitable for the purpose of demonstrating the peculiar relations of the joint in dislocation. It is a pity that no more space can be afforded, and I must therefore refer the reader to PirogofFs Atlas, fasc. iv B, tab. v and vi, where frontal sections of the hand are shown, and to fasc. iv A, tab. iv and v, which represents longitudinal sections of the thumb both in its normal and dislocated conditions.


Historic Disclaimer - information about historic embryology pages 
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Pages where the terms "Historic Textbook" and "Historic Embryology" appear on this site, and sections within pages where this disclaimer appears, indicate that the content and scientific understanding are specific to the time of publication. This means that while some scientific descriptions are still accurate, the terminology and interpretation of the developmental mechanisms reflect the understanding at the time of original publication and those of the preceding periods, these terms and interpretations may not reflect our current scientific understanding.     (More? Embryology History | Historic Embryology Papers)
Braune Plates (1877): 1. Male - Sagittal body | 2. Female - Sagittal body | 3. Obliquely transverse head | 4. Transverse internal ear | 5. Transverse head | 6. Transverse neck | 7. Transverse neck and shoulders | 8. Transverse level first dorsal vertebra | 9. Transverse thorax level of third dorsal vertebra | 10. Transverse level aortic arch and fourth dorsal vertebra | 11. Transverse level of the bulbus aortae and sixth dorsal vertebra | 12. Transverse level of mitral valve and eighth dorsal vertebra | 13. Transverse level of heart apex and ninth dorsal vertebra | 14. Transverse liver stomach spleen at level of eleventh dorsal vertebra | 15. Transverse pancreas and kidneys at level of L1 vertebra | 16. Transverse through transverse colon at level of intervertebral space between L3 L4 vertebra | 17. Transverse pelvis at level of head of thigh bone | 18. Transverse male pelvis | 19. knee and right foot | 20. Transverse thigh | 21. Transverse left thigh | 22. Transverse lower left thigh and knee | 23. Transverse upper and middle left leg | 24. Transverse lower left leg | 25. Male - Frontal thorax | 26. Elbow-joint hand and third finger | 27. Transverse left arm | 28. Transverse left fore-arm | 29. Sagittal female pregnancy | 30. Sagittal female pregnancy | 31. Sagittal female at term

Reference

Braune W. An atlas of topographical anatomy after plane sections of frozen bodies. (1877) Trans. by Edward Bellamy. Philadelphia: Lindsay and Blakiston.


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Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2019, September 17) Embryology Book - An Atlas of Topographical Anatomy 26. Retrieved from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Book_-_An_Atlas_of_Topographical_Anatomy_26

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