Book - An Atlas of Topographical Anatomy 25

From Embryology

XXV. Frontal section through the male thorax

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Braune W. An atlas of topographical anatomy after plane sections of frozen bodies. (1877) Trans. by Edward Bellamy. Philadelphia: Lindsay and Blakiston.

Plates: 1. Male - Sagittal body | 2. Female - Sagittal body | 3. Obliquely transverse head | 4. Transverse internal ear | 5. Transverse head | 6. Transverse neck | 7. Transverse neck and shoulders | 8. Transverse level first dorsal vertebra | 9. Transverse thorax level of third dorsal vertebra | 10. Transverse level aortic arch and fourth dorsal vertebra | 11. Transverse level of the bulbus aortae and sixth dorsal vertebra | 12. Transverse level of mitral valve and eighth dorsal vertebra | 13. Transverse level of heart apex and ninth dorsal vertebra | 14. Transverse liver stomach spleen at level of eleventh dorsal vertebra | 15. Transverse pancreas and kidneys at level of L1 vertebra | 16. Transverse through transverse colon at level of intervertebral space between L3 L4 vertebra | 17. Transverse pelvis at level of head of thigh bone | 18. Transverse male pelvis | 19. knee and right foot | 20. Transverse thigh | 21. Transverse left thigh | 22. Transverse lower left thigh and knee | 23. Transverse upper and middle left leg | 24. Transverse lower left leg | 25. Male - Frontal thorax | 26. Elbow-joint hand and third finger | 27. Transverse left arm | 28. Transverse left fore-arm | 29. Sagittal female pregnancy | 30. Sagittal female pregnancy | 31. Sagittal female at term
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Pages where the terms "Historic Textbook" and "Historic Embryology" appear on this site, and sections within pages where this disclaimer appears, indicate that the content and scientific understanding are specific to the time of publication. This means that while some scientific descriptions are still accurate, the terminology and interpretation of the developmental mechanisms reflect the understanding at the time of original publication and those of the preceding periods, these terms and interpretations may not reflect our current scientific understanding.     (More? Embryology History | Historic Embryology Papers)


THE accompanying frontal section of the thorax and shoulder- joints was made from the body of a very powerful man. Beyond the enlarged thyroid body there was nothing abnormal. From the recumbent position of the body, particular regard was taken of the upper extremity, and it appeared desirable to divide the humeri in their long axes, and the arms being placed in the position they would have held in the upright position were rolled outwards so that the bicipital groove was directed forwards. After being frozen in this position, tne head was removed from the neck just below the larynx, and the rest of the body separated by a section through the nipples. The frontal section was so directed that it passed through the middle of the heads of the humeri and their shafts.


Before freezing, the arteries were injected from the femoral.


The cupolas of the lungs are divided through their highest points. Both subclavian arteries pass over the cupolae of the lungs, and consequently cause an impression on the pleura, which on examining the cavity of the chest can be readily recognised.


The arteries, however, do not cross the cupolae of the lungs at their highest points. They lie considerably behind them and below the brachial plexus in the neighbourhood of the head of the first rib. The section has passed through the arch of the right subclavian artery, but not disturbed the left, running in front of it as is clearly seen in the plate. The preparation showed on further examination that the lungs and pleural cavities extended considerably further up. The first ribs were divided at their anterior extremities, the right behind the origin of the scalenus anticus, the left immediately through its origin.


The roots of the lungs lie behind the section, the left further from its plane than the right.


Corresponding with this, on the left side of the plate, there is no interruption of the pleura, whilst on the right side (to the left of the spectator), the points of reflexion of this membrane have fallen in the section. The relations are complicated by the pericardium. Between the lungs and heart there are seen two spaces, which are the cavities of the pericardium and pleurse.


The left ventricle is opened, and a portion of the right auricle is shown. In connection with them are seen the aorta and superior vena cava in section. The former is exposed for its whole extent, so that the entrance from behind of the azygos major vein appears. In continuation of the superior cava is the right innominate vein, which as it passes more vertically, is divided throughout, and the two delicate valves are seen. The left innominate vein, which passes more obliquely, was removed with the other half of the body. Its end only is shown, at the point of entrance of the left subclavian vein as a large venous lumen immediately above the first rib.


The aorta is exposed in the horizontal portion of its arch. At its origin it shows a considerable swelling of the bulbus aortsB, produced by the pressure of the injection on the semilunar valves, of which two, one nearly bisected, are seen. Below them, in the left ventricle, is the aortic segment of the mitral valve. The liquor pericardii had collected in the upper portion of the pericardium.


It will be observed from the free surface afforded by the divided left auricular appendix above the left ventricle, that the two laminae of the pericardium are considerably separated from each other in this situation, whilst in all other places they are directly in apposition, so that its cavity is shown only as a crevice. Between the left ventricle and the ascending aorta is the section of the pulmonary artery, which being nearly horizontal, is divided transversely. The vessel is seen from before backwards, and the lumen of the right branch is exposed, curving sharply behind the aorta, to reach the root of the right lung ; whilst the left branch passes obliquely upwards and outwards, to course over the left bronchus and root of the left lung.


The position of the great vessels given off from the aorta is considerably altered by the hypertrophied thyroid gland. This, as the plate shows, has compressed the trachea on both sides ; and very probably interfered wit! deglutition from pressure on the oesophagus. It involved the interspace that the two carotids form with the aorta, and pushed them asunder. I] the left carotid, which is freely divided, this is clearly seen ; whilst in th right a small portion only of its origin from the innominate is involved, a it lay almost entirely in the anterior half of the preparation.


The subclavian artery of the left side is not seen, as it takes its origii from the arch of the aorta behind the carotid ; it lay in this preparatioi behind the section, covered by the pectoralis minor. Its continuation, tb brachial artery, came into the line of section, and is to be seen between it accompanying nerves.


On the right side is seen, on the other hand, the continuation of th innominate artery into subclavian and axillary. The arch of the right sub clavian passes under the right innominate vein, over the cupola of th right lung ; and gives off anteriorly the internal mammary artery, which i here transversely divided, and the inferior thyroid which is slit up am covered at its extremity by the thyroid body ; passes over the first rib fron within outwards ; and finally disappears behind the cut surface of th coraco-brachialis.


The subclavian veins correspond on both sides. The right subclaviai vein is cut short off above the second rib, and the left is widely opene< between the scalenus anticus and pectoralis minor. The latter, whicl receives many small veins, is of large calibre, and passes with its inne wall rather more upwards, towards the internal jugular vein which lie on the outer side of the carotid artery. Of the internal jugular vein o the right side nothing is to be seen, the parts being entirely removed wit] the anterior half of the body. The left subclavian vein consequently lie farther forward than the right.


The right brachial plexus is exposed throughout its length, whilst th left is covered and only its commencement is seen under the anterio scalene muscle.


The several structures of the neck group themselves about the fifth sixth, and seventh cervical vertebrae. At the lower border of the seventl cervical are the cut surfaces of the longi colli muscles, which lie between the spine and the thyroid gland. Above both muscles, on either side of the bodies of the vertebrae, are the vertebral arteries slit open ; of these the left shows a far larger calibre than the right. From behind these vessels proceed the roots of the brachial plexus, which is entirely covered on the left side, and partly on the right, by the cut surfaces of the scaleni. Still more externally and upwards are the sections of the sterno-cleido-mastoids, with a strip of the platysma, immediately beneath which on both sides is the external jugular vein.


The right phrenic nerve is completely removed ; the left is seen between the carotid artery and the lung. The artery accompanying it is the internal mammary.


The vagus is only partially cut on the left side, where it lies in front of the arch of the aorta, and from whence its recurrent branch passes upwards behind that vessel. On the right side, on the contrary, it is divided transversely at the point where it is applied to the root of the lung.


The shoulder-joints have so fallen into the section that the saw has passed on both sides in front of the glenoid cavities ; and nothing is seen of the scapular element of these articulations. The bony elements of this portion of the joint He behind the plane which passes through the middle point of the head of the humerus. On the left side the glenoid cavity was only a quarter of an inch behind the plane of section ; on the right it was so much closer that the limbus cartilagineus fell into it. As the head of the humerus is directed inwards and backwards towards the glenoid cavity and as the section passes deeper on the right than on the left, the greater tuberosity of the right side has been entirely removed. The round section of the head is all that is seen, whereas on the left the greater tuberosity projects in a triangular form.


On the right side a portion of the acromion appears ; and on the left the section has passed more anteriorly, and has nearly divided the coracoacromial ligament. Normally the acromion rises but very little above the head of the humerus, so that anteriorly a tolerably large portion of the latter remains unprotected by bony covering. The coracoid process is divided transversely on either side, and is readily seen between the head of the humerus and the clavicle. It is cut through behind the attachments of the muscles.


The pectoralis minor on both sides of the chest is divided, and shows a large surface of section, on the left side particularly. This is explained by the forward position of the shoulder, and by the muscle becoming relaxed and folded so that its posterior border was bent backwards.


The strongly curved clavicle has a different appearance on the two sides. The right, which projects further forwards, shows beyond the section its entire acromial end, whereas on the left side this is not seen. The section of the clavicular portion of the deltoid of this side is shown. On the right side the anterior attachment of this muscle is completely removed. Its attachment to the humerus is equally divided on both sides ; and the bursa between it and the capsular ligament appears as a black line.


With regard to the relations of this capsule, the following points are to be noticed. Since the shoulder-joint is under the influence of atmospheric pressure, the bone is pressed against the glenoid cavity; and therefore the cavity of the joint notwithstanding its extent and the laxity of its capsule can be shown merely as a crevice in the representation of its section. The ligamentous tissue which terminates at the neck of the humerus is the capsule : this, on the left side, encircles the bone like a ring from the greater tuberosity, and encloses the obliquely divided tendon of the biceps superiorly; these relations on the right side are shown rather differently. In the first place, a portion of the limbus cartilagineus is seen, terminating above in a sharp angle, and externally the supra-spinatus presents itself in section strengthening the capsule by its tendon, and which more externally is so closely united with the tendons of the infra- spinatus and the teres minor that no line of separation can be represented.


On the inner side of the neck the capsule is more loosely attached, so that by raising the humerus its folds are obliterated.


The limit of the capsule towards the middle line is formed by the subscapularis, which is seen divided on both sides. Beneath it lies its bursa, which must be looked for between it and the capsule. It normally forms a communication with the cavity of the joint, but which was not seen in this section. Nevertheless the outer side of the subscapularis is to be seen on the left shoulder-joint limited by a dark line, indicating the synovial membrane in section. This line runs in a curved direction with its concavity outwards, corresponding with the head of the humerus.


In order to demonstrate the extent of the cavity of the capsular ligament and to show the amount of separation of the humerus from the scapula when the joint is distended by effusion, I injected some fresh joints with tallow, froze them, and then made sections. One of these preparations is shown in the following woodcut.



Frontal section of the right shoulder-joint, injected with tallow. Anterior half. 5. 1. Head of humerus. 2. Neck of scapula. 3. Anterior margin of scapula. 4. Clavicle. 5. Deltoid. 6. Triceps. 7. Teres major. 8. Teres minor. 9. Infra- spinatus. 10. Supra- spinatus. 11. Trapezius.


The humerus is seen from behind half extended and somewhat rolled inwards, a position it acquired from the great pressure of the injection, and corresponding with the greatest amount of distension of the capsule. This injection was made from the supra-spinous fossa through the glenoid cavity, and the upper arm amputated at its lower end, so as not to hamper the movements of the joint by its weight. It appeared that the greatest distance of the head of the humerus from the glenoid cavity was somewhat over half an inch ; hence it would appear likely that in inflammation with effusion into the cavity of the joint, there would be some considerable lengthening of the limb.


In order to bring the relations of the heart more completely into notice, it became necessary to extend the section farther downwards than was possible in this preparation. Consequently I made a series of sections to supply this deficiency, but unfortunately none of these specimens could be used to supplement this plate.



Historic Disclaimer - information about historic embryology pages 
Mark Hill.jpg
Pages where the terms "Historic Textbook" and "Historic Embryology" appear on this site, and sections within pages where this disclaimer appears, indicate that the content and scientific understanding are specific to the time of publication. This means that while some scientific descriptions are still accurate, the terminology and interpretation of the developmental mechanisms reflect the understanding at the time of original publication and those of the preceding periods, these terms and interpretations may not reflect our current scientific understanding.     (More? Embryology History | Historic Embryology Papers)
Braune Plates (1877): 1. Male - Sagittal body | 2. Female - Sagittal body | 3. Obliquely transverse head | 4. Transverse internal ear | 5. Transverse head | 6. Transverse neck | 7. Transverse neck and shoulders | 8. Transverse level first dorsal vertebra | 9. Transverse thorax level of third dorsal vertebra | 10. Transverse level aortic arch and fourth dorsal vertebra | 11. Transverse level of the bulbus aortae and sixth dorsal vertebra | 12. Transverse level of mitral valve and eighth dorsal vertebra | 13. Transverse level of heart apex and ninth dorsal vertebra | 14. Transverse liver stomach spleen at level of eleventh dorsal vertebra | 15. Transverse pancreas and kidneys at level of L1 vertebra | 16. Transverse through transverse colon at level of intervertebral space between L3 L4 vertebra | 17. Transverse pelvis at level of head of thigh bone | 18. Transverse male pelvis | 19. knee and right foot | 20. Transverse thigh | 21. Transverse left thigh | 22. Transverse lower left thigh and knee | 23. Transverse upper and middle left leg | 24. Transverse lower left leg | 25. Male - Frontal thorax | 26. Elbow-joint hand and third finger | 27. Transverse left arm | 28. Transverse left fore-arm | 29. Sagittal female pregnancy | 30. Sagittal female pregnancy | 31. Sagittal female at term

Reference

Braune W. An atlas of topographical anatomy after plane sections of frozen bodies. (1877) Trans. by Edward Bellamy. Philadelphia: Lindsay and Blakiston.


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Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2019, December 12) Embryology Book - An Atlas of Topographical Anatomy 25. Retrieved from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Book_-_An_Atlas_of_Topographical_Anatomy_25

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