Book - An Atlas of Topographical Anatomy 20

From Embryology

XX. Transverse section through the upper portion of the thigh, left thigh close to the trochanter minor

Fig. 1. Transverse section through the upper portion of the thigh, parallel with and close to Poupart's ligament (same body as Plate I). Fig. 2. Transverse section through the left thigh of the same body close to the trochanter minor


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Braune W. An atlas of topographical anatomy after plane sections of frozen bodies. (1877) Trans. by Edward Bellamy. Philadelphia: Lindsay and Blakiston.

Plates: 1. Male - Sagittal body | 2. Female - Sagittal body | 3. Obliquely transverse head | 4. Transverse internal ear | 5. Transverse head | 6. Transverse neck | 7. Transverse neck and shoulders | 8. Transverse level first dorsal vertebra | 9. Transverse thorax level of third dorsal vertebra | 10. Transverse level aortic arch and fourth dorsal vertebra | 11. Transverse level of the bulbus aortae and sixth dorsal vertebra | 12. Transverse level of mitral valve and eighth dorsal vertebra | 13. Transverse level of heart apex and ninth dorsal vertebra | 14. Transverse liver stomach spleen at level of eleventh dorsal vertebra | 15. Transverse pancreas and kidneys at level of L1 vertebra | 16. Transverse through transverse colon at level of intervertebral space between L3 L4 vertebra | 17. Transverse pelvis at level of head of thigh bone | 18. Transverse male pelvis | 19. knee and right foot | 20. Transverse thigh | 21. Transverse left thigh | 22. Transverse lower left thigh and knee | 23. Transverse upper and middle left leg | 24. Transverse lower left leg | 25. Male - Frontal thorax | 26. Elbow-joint hand and third finger | 27. Transverse left arm | 28. Transverse left fore-arm | 29. Sagittal female pregnancy | 30. Sagittal female pregnancy | 31. Sagittal female at term
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Pages where the terms "Historic Textbook" and "Historic Embryology" appear on this site, and sections within pages where this disclaimer appears, indicate that the content and scientific understanding are specific to the time of publication. This means that while some scientific descriptions are still accurate, the terminology and interpretation of the developmental mechanisms reflect the understanding at the time of original publication and those of the preceding periods, these terms and interpretations may not reflect our current scientific understanding.     (More? Embryology History | Historic Embryology Papers)


THESE two sections of the thigh were taken from the same individual as Plates I A and I B. The sections were so directed that the first (tab. xx, fig. 1) passed immediately below Poupart's ligament and parallel with it, but obliquely with the direction of the thigh itself; it is consequently a section of Scarpa's triangle, and should be compared with that given by Legendre (' Anat. Homolograph,' PL XXIII), and by Voltz (' Chirurg. Anat. der Extrem.,' Tafl. vi, fig. 3). The second section (tab. xx, fig. 2) was not parallel with the first, but at right angles to the axis of the thigh near the perineum, so that the two sections would include a wedge taken out of the thigh, with the base external and the apex internal.


The following sections ran parallel to each other, and they form a segment of about 1'6 inches thick. They are from a very muscular thigh, and form a series. The other sections, from below the knee to the foot, are taken from another, though equally normal, male subject, and show the same relations.


The upper surfaces furnish the plates ; and these, from the symmetrical structure of the extremities, will serve equally well for either limb, although they happen to be taken from the left ; by being reversed they will correspond with the right, so that the under surface may be regarded as the stump of an amputation.


With regard to the bones, we first notice, in tab.xx, fig. 1, the absolutely circular section of the head of the femur completely surrounded by a thin layer of cartilage, behind which is seen the cavity of the joint as a dark circle. It is enclosed by a portion of the acetabulum, which is joined by the divided part of the ischium, or rather by its upper ramus. The section has then passed through the obturator foramen, obliquely outwards through the ascending ramus of the pubis and corpus cavernosum penis, the obturator membrane, and the sacro-sciatic ligament.


Above the capsule of the hip-joint through the divided synovia] membrane is observed the psoas muscle and the portion of the iliacus associated with it. Below the outer extremity of this muscle is the section of the tendon of the rectus femoris. The second head of this muscle is incorporated with the ligamentous structures at the brim of the acetabulum, and could not be shown separately in the plate.


Above the ilio-psoas, is seen the fascia over the last dorsal nerve running down over the vessels to unite with the fascia of the pectineus, and attaching itself to the capsule of the hip -joint. We have here already the commencement of the sheath of the femoral vessels, and observe how it forms a prismatic space, the outer wall of which bears towards the sartorius. The superior boundary of this space would be indicated by a single lamina, as is shown in the preparation. External to the sartorius is the origin of the tensor vaginae femoris attached to its tendinous sheath, and between them the external cutaneous nerve. Next, we observe the gluteus medius muscle with its strong tendinous fascia from which a portion of its fibres arise. The oblique section of its muscular bundles is not quite clearly rendered in the plate a remark which also applies to the gluteus minimus, which is more internal. To the latter is attached the tendon of the pyriformis, and of the gemellus superior and obturator internus, which is seen in its angular course with its large subjacent bursa.


The above-mentioned series of muscles forms the superior limit of the space occupied by the vessels and nerves, as the gluteus maximus does the inferior. The great sciatic nerve is here seen. The fascia which comes from the gluteus medius, to cover the gluteus maximus, is considerably thinner on the latter muscle, passes over this median ridge to be partly inserted into the great sacro-sciatic ligament, and partly into the fascia of the obturator internus.


Of the adductor group are seen the sections of the pectineus, the adductor longus, and the adductor brevis. The adductor magnus is not seen ; and the gracilis is divided in its tendinous origin. The acetabular artery, which in this case comes from the internal circumflex, lies close on the hip-joint. Care has been taken to represent the direction of the fibres of the muscles, and also the masses of the several bundles of fibres as accurately as possible, the coarse fibres of the gluteus maximus being particularly noticeable. It is true that from this plate hardly sufficient can be gathered to form a correct idea of the formation of the crural ring, and the anatomical relations of crural hernia ; but we shall have to rest contented with having obtained the idea of the size of the individual portions and the position of their layers with regard to each other in their natural relations, and I do not think that we should have gained more if the section had been taken farther up. Linhart has already correctly remarked, that for the representation of the relations of crural hernia single sections are not sufficient.


Plate XX, fig. 2, is a section of the thigh at right angles to its axis immediately below the trochanter minor. The lower portion of the iliacus muscle is still seen on the inner surface of the thigh ; close to it and internally the pectineus ; and externally the crureus. The femoral artery has already given off the profunda, which is separated from the main trunk by a lamina of fascia.


The three adductors lie over one another on the inner side ; and above and beneath the adductor brevis are the two branches of the obturator nerve, with it the branches of the internal circumflex artery. More internally is the gracilis, which is now fleshy.


The sartorius is drawn more over to the middle, and is on the point of overlapping, like a muscular roof, the femoral artery, which vessel has acquired a more superficial position with respect to its accompanying vein.


The rectus femoris with its internal tendinous raphe, lies on the crureus and vastus externus, and near it the tensor vaginaa femoris, which is enclosed by the fascia common to it and to the tendon of the gluteus maximus.


The strong lamina of fascia which passes beneath from the gluteus maximus, and turns inwards between the vastus externus and rectus femoris, is worthy of notice. The tendon of attachment of the gluteus maximus to the bone is not yet seen, but its insertion into the fascia lata only, which is especially developed at the external surface of the thigh. Covered over, but separated from it by a thin lamina of fascia, is the common head of the biceps and semi-tendinosus, and above that the strong tendon of the semi-membranosus. Between it and the adductor magnus is the great sciatic nerve, and a large inosculating branch of the ischiatic artery, with the first perforating and the profunda.


The segment, the upper surface of which is here represented, was about two inches thick. If the sections of the arteries in both plates be compared, it will be seen that the femoral artery changes its position with regard to the bone, and to its accompanying vein, in its course downwards. At the level of the horizontal ramus of the pubes it lies so near the bone, that the possibility of its compression against it was obvious ; in fig. 1 the distance of the artery from the head of the bone is so inconsiderable that pressure could be readily exerted on the vessel ; whilst in fig. 2 greater pressure would appear to be necessary.


Besides this distance of the vessel from the bone there is also an alteration in its direction. In figure 1 the artery lies above the bone, so that a force acting vertically from the front might smash both bone and vessel ; in fig. 2 it lies farther down, already so far to the side of the femur, taking its course outwards, that a force acting in the same direction might wound the artery without injuring the bone, or the contrary.


Moreover the position of the artery to the vein changes during its course. Commencing at the abdominal cavity, the main trunks lie alternately in the sagittal and frontal planes. The abdominal aorta lies on the lumbar vertebra close to the vena cava. In the abdominal cavity the iliac artery lies in front of its vein, at the inner border of the psoas ; and then, after passing below the crural arch, lies to the side of the vein. The vessels, however, soon again change their relation, for below the fossa ovalis, as is seen in fig. 2, the vein lies below the artery and accompanies it to the knee ; so that, in attempting to reach the popliteal artery from behind, the vein would be in danger of being wounded, and must be pushed aside in order to render the artery accessible.


Historic Disclaimer - information about historic embryology pages 
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Pages where the terms "Historic Textbook" and "Historic Embryology" appear on this site, and sections within pages where this disclaimer appears, indicate that the content and scientific understanding are specific to the time of publication. This means that while some scientific descriptions are still accurate, the terminology and interpretation of the developmental mechanisms reflect the understanding at the time of original publication and those of the preceding periods, these terms and interpretations may not reflect our current scientific understanding.     (More? Embryology History | Historic Embryology Papers)
Braune Plates (1877): 1. Male - Sagittal body | 2. Female - Sagittal body | 3. Obliquely transverse head | 4. Transverse internal ear | 5. Transverse head | 6. Transverse neck | 7. Transverse neck and shoulders | 8. Transverse level first dorsal vertebra | 9. Transverse thorax level of third dorsal vertebra | 10. Transverse level aortic arch and fourth dorsal vertebra | 11. Transverse level of the bulbus aortae and sixth dorsal vertebra | 12. Transverse level of mitral valve and eighth dorsal vertebra | 13. Transverse level of heart apex and ninth dorsal vertebra | 14. Transverse liver stomach spleen at level of eleventh dorsal vertebra | 15. Transverse pancreas and kidneys at level of L1 vertebra | 16. Transverse through transverse colon at level of intervertebral space between L3 L4 vertebra | 17. Transverse pelvis at level of head of thigh bone | 18. Transverse male pelvis | 19. knee and right foot | 20. Transverse thigh | 21. Transverse left thigh | 22. Transverse lower left thigh and knee | 23. Transverse upper and middle left leg | 24. Transverse lower left leg | 25. Male - Frontal thorax | 26. Elbow-joint hand and third finger | 27. Transverse left arm | 28. Transverse left fore-arm | 29. Sagittal female pregnancy | 30. Sagittal female pregnancy | 31. Sagittal female at term

Reference

Braune W. An atlas of topographical anatomy after plane sections of frozen bodies. (1877) Trans. by Edward Bellamy. Philadelphia: Lindsay and Blakiston.


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Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2019, December 9) Embryology Book - An Atlas of Topographical Anatomy 20. Retrieved from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Book_-_An_Atlas_of_Topographical_Anatomy_20

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© Dr Mark Hill 2019, UNSW Embryology ISBN: 978 0 7334 2609 4 - UNSW CRICOS Provider Code No. 00098G