Birth Statistics

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Introduction

Newborn infant

Birth or parturition is a critical stage in development, representing in mammals a transition from direct maternal support of fetal development, physical expulsion and establishment of the newborns own respiratory, circulatory and digestive systems. These notes only cover the biological processes surrounding birth including fetal signaling changes and maternal signaling changes. Note that there is a growing worldwide trend in developed countries toward caesarean section delivery. There are a great number of comprehensive, scientific and general, books and articles that cover birth, childbirth or parturition. The time surrounding birth is known as the perinatal period.

Birth Links: birth | Lecture - Birth | caesarean | preterm birth | birth weight | macrosomia | Birth Statistics | Australian Birth Data | Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHAD) | Neonatal Diagnosis | Apgar test | Guthrie test | neonatal | stillbirth and perinatal death | ICD-10 Perinatal Period | Category:Birth
Historic Birth links  
1921 USA Birth Mortality

Additional graphs see Category:Birth

Australian Data

In 1903, when the crude birth rate was lower than it had ever been before, the Royal Commission On the Decline in the Birth-rate and On the Mortality of Infants in New South Wales was appointed. It reported in 1904 and concluded that "...the cause or causes of the Decline of the Birth-rate must be a force or forces over which the people themselves have control..." in other words, couples were limiting the size of their families.

For more detailed statistics see the annual reports Australia’s mothers and babies 2007, 2008 and 2009.


Australian-births 2007.png Australian-births 2011.jpg


Links: Australian Statistics

USA Live Births and Fertility Rates

2007 Data [1] Number of births: 4,317,119 Birth rate: 14.3 per 1,000 population Fertility rate: 69.5 births per 1000 women aged 15-44 years Percent born low birthweight: 8.2% Percent unmarried: 39.7%


2006 Data Martin JA, Hamilton BE, Sutton PD, Ventura SJ, et al. Births: Final data for 2006. National vital statistics reports; vol 57 no 7. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics. 2009. National vital statistics reports; vol 57 no 7 PDF

Graph source - Births: Final data for 2006[2]

2005 Data An estimated 6,408,000 pregnancies resulted in 4.14 million live births, 1.21 million induced abortions, and 1.06 million fetal losses.[3] USA live births and fertility rates.jpg


References

  1. USA National Vital Statistics System - Birth Data
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 Martin JA, Hamilton BE, Sutton PD, Ventura SJ, et al. Births: Final data for 2006. National vital statistics reports; vol 57 no 7. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics. 2009. PDF
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 MacDorman M, Menacker F, Declercq E. Trends and characteristics of home and other out-of-hospital births in the United States, 1990–2006. National vital statistics reports; vol 58 no 11. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics. 2010. PDF
  4. Ventura SJ, Abma JC, Mosher WD, Henshaw SK. Estimated pregnancy rates for the United States, 1990–2005: An update. National vital statistics reports; vol 58 no 4. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics. 2009. PDF
  5. Osterman MJK, Martin JA, Menacker F. Expanded health data from the new birth certificate, 2006. National vital statistics reports; vol 58 no 5. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics. 2009.
  6. Mathews TJ, Menacker F, MacDorman MF. Infant mortality statistics from the 2000 period linked birth/infant death data set. National vital statistics reports; vol 50 no 12. Hyattsville, Maryland: National Center for Health Statistics. 2002. PDF

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Terms

Statistics Terms (expand to view) 
Birth | Embryology Statistics
  • confidence interval - An interval describing the range of values within which there is reasonable certainty that the true effect lies. Uncertainty increases with the width of the interval.
  • double blind study - A statistical study in which neither the subject nor the observer is aware of which treatment or intervention the subject is receiving in order to protect against bias.
  • epidemiology - The statistical study of diseases within a population, covering the causes and means of prevention.
  • incidence - rate of new (newly diagnosed) cases of the disease, reported as the number of new cases occurring within a period of time. This can also be further categorized by different subsets of the population; gender, racial origin, age group or by diagnostic category.
  • Kaplan-Meier - commonly used statistical probability of survival (life-table) method used in medicine. Data requires both the time of commencement of the treatment and the time the measured event occurred (death, relapse, hospitalization).
  • mean difference - the absolute difference between the mean value in two groups in a clinical trial, which estimates the amount by which the intervention changes the outcome on average compared with the control.
  • meta analysis - The pooled results from a collection of independent statistical studies to merge their findings into a single estimate of a treatment effect. Note depending upon the individual studies criteria it may be inappropriate or misleading to statistically pool results in this way.
  • multi centre study - A statistical study where subjects are selected from different locations or populations.
  • odds ratio - the ratio of the likelihood of an event occurring in one group to that of it occurring in another group. An odds ratio of 1 indicates that the condition or event under study is equally likely to occur in both groups. An odds ratio greater than 1 indicates that the condition or event is more likely to occur in the rst group and an odds ratio less than 1 indicates that the condition or event is less likely to occur in the first group.
  • outcome reporting bias - the selective reporting of some outcomes but not others. Outcomes with favourable ndings may be reported more. For example, adverse events have been found to be reported more often in unpublished studies. This may result in more favourable results for published studies.
  • prevalence - actual number of cases alive, with the disease either during a period of time (period) or at a particular date in time (point), reported as the number of cases as a fraction of the total population at risk. This can also be further categorized by different subsets of the population; gender, racial origin, age group or by diagnostic category.
  • prospective study - A statistical study in which people are entered into the research and then followed up over a period of time with future events recorded as they happen. This contrasts with studies that are retrospective.
  • randomised controlled trial - a study in which participants are allocated at random to receive one of several clinical interventions. One of these interventions is the standard of comparison or control. The control may be a standard practice, a placebo or no intervention at all.
  • relative risk - the ratio of the risk (rate) of an outcome in an exposed group (eg to a specific medicine) to the risk (rate) of the outcome in an unexposed group in a specifed time period
  • retrospective study - A statistical study of the present and past and does not involve studying future events.
  • sensitivity - the proportion of people with the condition who have a positive test result.
(Some terms based upon Glossary in NICE Guidelines, No. 13 Bookshelf).


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