BGDB Sexual Differentiation - Quiz

From Embryology
Practical 12: Sex Determination | Early Embryo | Late Embryo | Fetal | Postnatal | Abnormalities | Quiz | Audio | 2013 Notes PDF

Here are a few simple questions that relate to your BGD practical, this page is not a part of today's Practical class. You should try in your own time after completing the Practical today.Take the quiz and see what you know, if you get some wrong, try working through through the BGDB Practical - Sexual Differentiation.

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1. Sex determination occurs initially through the SRY transcription factor acting on:

primordial germ cells
anterior pituitary
testes support cells
ovary support cells
mesonephric duct cells
The support cells in the genital ridge, forming the testes, express SRY and this leads to a cascade of signaling differentiating these cells into Sertoli cells, also called sustentacular (structural support) cells of Sertoli. Primordial germ cells are not involved in this initial sex determination step. The anterior pituitary participates in later hormonal events. Ovary support cells (granulosa cells) differentiate in the absence of SRY. Sesonephric duct cells, while present early in genital ridge development, are not the initiators of this process but later effected by gonad differentiation.

2. The lower end of the mesonephric duct branches to form the:

ureteric bud
uterus bud
urethral bud
gonadal bud
none of the above
The ureteric bud is a single epithelial branch forming from each mesonephric duct, that extends laterally into intermediate mesoderm as part of early metanephric formation. Mesonephric duct does not form uterus or urethra. As far as I know I made up the term "gonadal bud".

3. The sequential development of the renal structures within intermediate mesoderm can best be described as:

pronephros, mesonephros, metanephros
pronephros, metanephros, mesonephros
mesonephric duct, metanephros, mesonephros
mesonephric duct, paramesonephric duct, metanephros
uteric bud, ureter, urinary bladder
The rostro-caudal paired strips of intermediate mesoderm form in a downward sequence: pronephros (in the neck region), mesonephros (along the length of the trunk) and metanephros (at the level of the hindlimbs). The metanephros being the developing adult kidney.

4. The sequential development of the genital system can best be described as:

internal and external genital tract dependent upon primordial germ cell hormone secretion
gonadal differentiation and hormone secretion determining internal then external tract development
mesonephric duct hormone secretion forming genital ridge then internal and external tract development
internal tract determining gonadal then hormone secretion for external tract development
paramesonephric duct forming genital ridge then hormone secretion for internal and external tract development
Differentiation of the initially indifferent gonad is required before internal tract and then external tract development. Both the latter require gonad development and will be abnormal without this first step. Mesonephric duct is present beside the early genital ridge, but does not induce its differentiation. Paramesonephric duct forms after gonad determnation.

5. The allantois, cloaca, hindgut and yolk sac are all lined with endoderm

During week 3 gastrulation generates the endoderm layer that forms an epithelial layer that with later embryonic disc folding lines all of the above structures.

6. The cells in the adult male and female gonad forming from equivalent primordial cells in each sex are:

Sertoli cells and thecal cells
Leydig cells and interstitial cells
primordial germ cells and oocytes
thecal cells and interstitial cells
ductus deferens and mesonephric ducts
Thecal cells (female) and interstitial cells (male) both form the sex hormone secreting cell population in the gonads. Leydig cells and interstitial cells are 2 names for the same cell in the testis. Primordial germ cells exist in both sexes and do form oocytes, but this is not what the question asked. The ductus deferens is the male internal genital tract formed from the mesonephric ducts.

7. Select the correct options below for the embryonic contribution to the female uterus and vagina

Wolffian duct
Utereric duct
Mullerian duct
paramesonephric duct
urogenital sinus
Mullerian and paramesonephric duct are the same thing and the embryonic contributors to the female uterus and vagina development.

8. The relative movement of organs with the peritoneal cavity can best be described as:

descent of the adrenal glands and gonads
ascent of the adrenal glands and genital tubercle
ascent of the kidneys and descent of the gonads
descent of the kidneys and adrenal glands
none of the above
The adrenals, kidneys and gonads are initially closely related. Both the adrenals and kidneys are described as moving relatively as ascending, while the gonads (both ovary and testis) move away in relative descent.

9. The genital tubercle and inner genital folds form the same adult structures in both sexes.

In the fetus, the genital tubercle and genital folds appear as the same external genital structures in both sexes and differentiate to form different adult structures.

10. Select the correct options below describing aspects of gonad development

testis cortical and ovary medullary
ovary cortical and testis medullary
prenatal meiosis in the ovary germ cells
prenatal meiosis in the testis germ cells
prenatal mitosis in the ovary germ cells
Remember the anatomy of the adult gonads, with cortical primordial follicles in the ovary and medullary seminiferous tubules. The primordial germ cells in the testis form diploid spermatogonia that proliferate by mitosis and divide by meiosis postnatally. The primordial germ cells in the ovary form primordial oocytes that proliferate by mitosis and commence meiosis prenatally in the fetal ovary.

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BGDB: Lecture - Gastrointestinal System | Practical - Gastrointestinal System | Lecture - Face and Ear | Practical - Face and Ear | Lecture - Endocrine | Lecture - Sexual Differentiation | Practical - Sexual Differentiation | Tutorial

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© Dr Mark Hill 2018, UNSW Embryology ISBN: 978 0 7334 2609 4 - UNSW CRICOS Provider Code No. 00098G