Anatomy of the Human Body by Henry Gray

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Gray H. Anatomy of the human body. (1918) Philadelphia: Lea & Febiger.

Historic Disclaimer - information about historic embryology pages 
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Pages where the terms "Historic Textbook" and "Historic Embryology" appear on this site, and sections within pages where this disclaimer appears, indicate that the content and scientific understanding are specific to the time of publication. This means that while some scientific descriptions are still accurate, the terminology and interpretation of the developmental mechanisms reflect the understanding at the time of original publication and those of the preceding periods, these terms and interpretations may not reflect our current scientific understanding.     (More? Embryology History | Historic Embryology Papers)

Introduction

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Classic anatomy textbook widely reproduced online, particularly the anatomical illustrations, due to the fact that the 1918 edition is out of copyright. W.H. Lewis edited the 20th edition published in September 1918, the current 40th edition was published in 2008. The majority of images were anatomical drawings with some cartoon simplifications. The text also includes earlier historic drawings, particularly in the embryology section that commences the text.


Clicking the Category:Gray's 1918 Anatomy should display a list of the images available on this current website. Note that over time the image naming has varied and requires better standardisation. Images used here may be altered and edited from those appearing in the original textbook.

Links: Category:Gray's 1918 Anatomy | Gray's Anatomy for the iPhone


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Gray's Anatomy Embryology


iBook - Gray's Embryology  
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  • iTunes link | iBooks Store
  • Description - an extract of the embryology content from Anatomy of the Human Body By Henry Gray Philadelphia: Lea & Febiger, 1918.
  • Releases
    • First Edition - Jan 2012
    • Second Edition - March 2012 Repaired formatting and image display issues related to Pad rotated display and minor editing issues.
  • Print length 169 pages, 41.6 MB, Language English.
  • The current website also includes numerous images from this textbook, see Anatomy of the Human Body by Henry Gray and Category:Gray's 1918 Anatomy. Note the also Historic Disclaimer.

ANATOMY OF THE HUMAN BODY


Textbook Introduction

THE term human anatomy comprises a consideration of the various structures which make up the human organism. In a restricted sense it deals merely with the parts which form the fully developed individual and which can be rendered evident to the naked eye by various methods of dissection. Regarded from such a standpoint it may be studied by two methods: (1) the various structures may be separately considered— systematic anatomy; or (2) the organs and tissues may be studied in relation to one another — topographical or regional anatomy.

It is, however, of much advantage to add to the facts ascertained by nakedeye dissection those obtained by the use of the microscope. This introduces two fields of investigation, viz., the study of the minute structure of the various component parts of the body — histology — and the study of the human organism in its immature condition, i. e., the various stages of its intrauterine development from the fertilized ovum up to the period when it assumes an independent existence — embryology. Owing to the difficulty of obtaining material illustrating all the stages of this early development, gaps must be filled up by observations on the development of lower forms — comparative embryology, or by a consideration of adult forms in the line of human ancestry — comparative anatomy. The direct application of the facts of human anatomy to the various pathological conditions which may occur constitutes the subject of applied anatomy. Finally, the appreciation of structures on or immediately underlying the surface of the body is frequently made the subject of special study — smiace anatomy.

Systematic Anatomy

The various systems of which the human body is composed are grouped under the following headings: 1. Osteology — the bony system or skeleton.

2. Syndesmology — the articulations or joints.

3. Myology — the muscles. With the description of the muscles it is convenient to include that of the fasciae which are so intimately connected with them.

4. Angiology — the vascular system, comprising the heart, bloodvessels, lymphatic vessels, and lymph glands.

5. Neurology — the nervous system. The organs of sense may be included in this system.

6. Splanchnology — the visceral system. Topographically the viscera form two groups, viz., the thoracic viscera and the abdomino-pelvic viscera. The heart, a thoracic viscus, is best considered with the vascular system. The rest of the viscera may be grouped according to their functions: (a) the respiratory apparatus; (6) the digestive apparatus; and (c) the urogenital apparatus. Strictly speaking, the third subgroup should include only such components of the urogenital apparatus as are included within the abdomino-pelvic cavity, but it is convenient to study under this heading certain parts which lie in relation to the surface of the body, e. g., the testes and the external organs of generation.

For descriptive purposes. the body is supposed to be in the erect posture, with the arms hanging by the sides and the palms of the hands directed forward. The median plane is a vertical antero-posterior plane, passing through the center of the trunk. This plane will pass approximately through the sagittal suture of the skull, and hence any plane parallel to it is termed a sagittal plane. A vertical plane at right angles to the median plane passes, roughly speaking, through the central part of the coronal suture or through a line parallel to it; such a plane is known as a frontal plane or sometimes as a coronal plane. A plane at right angles to both the median and frontal planes is termed a transverse plane.

The terms anterior or ventral, and posterior or dorsal, are employed to indicate the relation of parts to the front or back of the body or limbs, and the terms superior or cephalic, and inferior or caudal, to indicate the relative levels of different structures; structures nearer to or farther from the median plane are referred to as medial or lateral respectively.

The terms superficial and deep are strictly confined to descriptions of the relative depth from the surface of the various structures; external and internal are reserved almost entirely for describing the walls of cavities or of hollow viscera. In the case of the limbs the words proximal and distal refer to the relative distance from the attached end of the limb.

Embryology

THE term Embryology, in its widest sense, is applied to the various changes ^^ which take place during the growth of an animal from the egg to the adult condition: it is, however, usually restricted to the phenomena which occur before ^" birth. Embryology may be studied from two aspects: (1) that of ontogeny, which deals only with the development of the individual; and (2) that of phylogeny, which concerns itself with the evolutionary history of the animal kingdom.

In vertebrate animals the development of a new being can only take place when a female germ cell or ovum has been fertilized by a male germ cell or spermatozoon. The ovum is a nucleated cell, and all the complicated changes by which the various tissues and organs of the body are formed from it, after it has been fertilized, are the result of two general processes, viz., segmentation and differentiation of cells. Thus, the fertilized ovum undergoes repeated segmentation into a number of cells which at first closely resemble one another, but are, sooner or later, differentiated into two groups: (1) somatic cells, the function of which is to build up the various tissues of the body; and (2) germinal cells, which become imbedded in the sexual glands — the ovaries in the female and the testes in the male — and are destined for the perpetuation of the species.

Having regard to the main purpose of this work, it is impossible, in the space available in this section, to describe fully, or illustrate adequately, all the phenomena which occur in the different stages of the development of the human body. Only the principal facts are given, and the student is referred for further detaUs to one or other of the text-books^ on human embryology.


Not all site images are included below. There may be several image versions (sizes, labeling, and formats gif, jpg, png).

Historic Disclaimer - information about historic embryology pages 
Mark Hill.jpg
Pages where the terms "Historic Textbook" and "Historic Embryology" appear on this site, and sections within pages where this disclaimer appears, indicate that the content and scientific understanding are specific to the time of publication. This means that while some scientific descriptions are still accurate, the terminology and interpretation of the developmental mechanisms reflect the understanding at the time of original publication and those of the preceding periods, these terms and interpretations may not reflect our current scientific understanding.     (More? Embryology History | Historic Embryology Papers)

Development

301-400

Cardiovascular

401-500

Lymphatic

592 Immune System Development

Neural

623

Smell

852

Vision

Hearing

Somatosensory

Integumentary

Respiratory

Gastrointestinal

Urogenital

Endocrine

The Ductless Glands

Surface Anatomy

Surface Anatomy and Surface Markings



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Cite this page: Hill, M.A. 2017 Embryology Anatomy of the Human Body by Henry Gray. Retrieved November 24, 2017, from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Anatomy_of_the_Human_Body_by_Henry_Gray

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© Dr Mark Hill 2017, UNSW Embryology ISBN: 978 0 7334 2609 4 - UNSW CRICOS Provider Code No. 00098G