Advanced - Outflow Tract
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The outflow tract is one of the most common sites of cardiac abnormalities, as it requires normal development and proliferation of multiple cell types. Abnormalities commonly occur via defects in the following areas:
- Anterior/secondary heart field - abnormal contribution/proliferation leads to an elongation defect
- Neural crest cells - abnormal migration/proliferation leads to a septation defect
- Myocardium - abnormal rotation/laterality leads to an alignment defect
- Endocardium - abnormal EMT/proliferation leads to a cushion defect
These abnormalities are consequently expressed as a host of disorders involving the conotruncal region such as common arterial trunk, double outlet right ventricle, interrupted aortic arch, transposition of the great arteries, tetralogy of fallot and ventricular septal defect.
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