From Embryology

--Mark Hill 21:59, 5 August 2009 (EST) Where are your answers from Laboratory 1 Assessment?

--Emily Wong 13:06, 6 August 2009 (EST) on the discussion page... sorry

--Emily Wong 13:13, 6 August 2009 (EST)

Lab 2 Questions

  1. What factor do the synctiotrophoblast cells secrete to support the ongoing pregnancy?
  2. What does the corpus luteum secrete to prevent continuation of the menstrual cycle?
  3. What are the 2 main tissues to be derived from the germ cell layer continuous with the lining of the amniotic sac?

1. hCG- human chronionic gonadotrophin 2. Progesterone and oestrogen 3. The germ cell layer is the ectoderm and the 2 main tissues derived from this tissue is the nervous system and the epithelial skin surrounding the embryo

--Emily Wong 13:06, 13 August 2009 (EST)

Lab 3 Questions:

  1.  What period of human development (in weeks) do the 23 Carnegie stages cover?
  2. What part of the somite will contribute to the vertebral column?
  3. At what Carnegie stage does the human neural tube normally completely close? 

1. till day 60 which is the first 8 weeks of human development

2. the sclerotome

3. stage 13

--Emily Wong 13:28, 20 August 2009 (EST)

Lab 4 Questions

  1. Into what structure do most blood vessels empty before they enter the embryonic heart? 
  2. What do the dorsal aortas become in the adult? 
  3. What are the layers of cells found in a tertiary villi? 

1. Sinus Venosus

2. the descending aorta

3. trophoblasts, mesoderm and blood vessels

--Emily Wong 13:13, 27 August 2009 (EST)

Lab 5 Questions

  1. What was the question I said in the respiratory lecture would be part of this week's assessment?
  2. What is the answer to the above question?

1. What is congenital diaphragmatic hernia and how does it effect fetal lung formation?

2. Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) is the term applied to a variety of congenital birth defects that cause abnormal development of the diaphragm which then can allow the abdominal contents to protrude into the chest, preventing proper lung formation. Newborn with CDH often have severe respiratory distress which can be life threatening unless treated.

--Emily Wong 13:04, 3 September 2009 (EST)

Lab 6 Questions

  1. Which is the more common clefting, cleft lip or cleft palate?
  2. What structures does pharyngeal pouch 1 form?
  3. Neural crest forms which cells within the skin? 

1. cleft lip is more common than cleft palate. 2. the structures formed by the 1st phayrngeal pouch are the tympanic membrane, tympanic cavity, mastoid antrum and auditory tube of the tubotympanic recess 3. Neural crest forms melanocytes in the skin.

--Emily Wong 14:22, 17 September 2009 (EST)

Lab 7 Questions

  1. Briefly; what is a myotubeand how is it formed?
  2. What changes would I expect to see in the muscle fibre types in my legs if I: 
   a) Suffered a spinal cord injury 
   b) Took up marathon running

1. A myotube is the initial multinucleated cell that is formed by the fusion of myoblasts during myogenesis 2a. The muscle fibre would convert from type 1 fibres to type 2. 2b. The muscle fibre types would change from type 2 fibres to type 1 fibres.


--Emily Wong 13:07, 24 September 2009 (EST)

--Emily Wong 13:40, 8 October 2009 (EST)

Lab 10 Questions

Question 1. Identify and name 3 tissue types which contain adult (somatic) stem cells that were used/studied from the 5 articles discussed during the tutorial.

Question 2. Name 2 reprogramming strategies/methods used in generating human induced Pluripotent Stem Cells (iPSCs) from the 5 articles discussed during the tutorial.

Question 3. Is the following statement TRUE or FALSE? "Unlike the nuclear genome, the mitochondrial DNA in the embryo is derived almost exclusively from the egg; that is, it is of maternal origin."

1. 3 tissue types are: Adipose tissue, Bone marrow and skeletal muscle.


  • Viral method using the individual lentiviruses which contained 'Yamanaka' four Factors. These are genes which reprogrammed selected cells into their embryonic stem cell state.
  • virus free integration - used the Ox4 gene and Nanog and delivered it into the cells through episomal vectors that were virus free and transfected them into human fetal progenitor cell.

3. True

--Antonio Lee 15:16, 31 October 2009 (EST) 3/3 Correct.

--Emily Wong 12:58, 22 October 2009 (EST)