From Embryology

--Vishnnu Shanmugam 13:09, 6 August 2009 (EST)--Mark Hill 21:58, 5 August 2009 (EST) Where are your answers from Laboratory 1 Assessment? --Vishnnu Shanmugam 13:09, 6 August 2009 (EST) Attended lab --Vishnnu Shanmugam 13:13, 27 August 2009 (EST) Attended lab --Vishnnu Shanmugam 13:18, 3 September 2009 (EST) Attended lab--Vishnnu Shanmugam 14:07, 17 September 2009 (EST) Attended lab--Vishnnu Shanmugam 13:24, 24 September 2009 (EST) Attended lab--Vishnnu Shanmugam 13:05, 1 October 2009 (EST) attended lab--Vishnnu Shanmugam 13:24, 8 October 2009 (EST) attended lab --Vishnnu Shanmugam 13:04, 15 October 2009 (EST)

Lab 1 Questions:

1. What is the zona pellucida protein that binds spermatozoa to the oocyte surface? ZP3 glycoprotein

2. Name the 3 main stages of follicle development in the ovary?

       1)	Primordial follicle
       2)	Preantral follicle 
       3)	Antral follicle 

Lab 2 Questions:

1. What factor do the synctiotrophoblast cells secrete to support the ongoing pregnancy? Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG) hormone

2. What does the corpus luteum secrete to prevent continuation of the menstrual cycle? Progesterone

3. What are the 2 main tissues to be derived from the germ cell layer continuous with the lining of the amniotic sac?

       1)	Epithelium of skin covering embryo
       2)	Nervous system from neural crest & neural tube

Lab 3 Questions:

1. What period of human development (in weeks) do the 23 Carnegie stages cover?

       In human development, the Carnegie stages cover the first 8 weeks of embryonic development

2. What part of the somite will contribute to the vertebral column? The sclerotome

3. At what Carnegie stage does the human neural tube normally completely close? Carnegie Stage 13

Lab 4 Questions:

1. Into what structure do most blood vessels empty before they enter the embryonic heart? The Sinus Venosus

2. What do the dorsal aortas become in the adult? The Decending Aorta

3. What are the layers of cells found in a tertiary villi?

       Tertiary (placental) villi are composed of a core of villous capillaries (from mesenchymal cells) surrounded by an inner
       layer of mononuclear cells called cytotrophoblast and an outer layer of multinucleated cells called syncytiotrophoblast

Lab 5 Questions:

1.What was the question I said in the respiratory lecture would be part of this week's assessment?

       Is the Congenital Disphramatic Hernia more common on one side or both?

2.What is the answer to the above question?

       Yes, it is more common for a diaphragmatic hernia to occur on one side, primarily (80% of the time) on the left side 
       causing viscera to enter the thorax and compress the lungs

Lab 6 Questions:

1. Which is the more common clefting, cleft lip or cleft palate? Cleft lip

2. What structures does pharyngeal pouch 1 form?

       Pharyngeal pouch 1 forms tympanic cavity, mastoid antrum, auditory tube & tympanic membrane of tubotympanic recess

3. Neural crest forms which cells within the skin? Melanocytes of skin

Lab 7 Questions:

1. Briefly; what is a myotube and how is it formed? A myotube is a developing muscle fiber with a centrally located nucleus

2. What changes would I expect to see in the muscle fibre types in my legs if I:

a) Suffered a spinal cord injury - Muscles below the spinal level of the injury will undergo conversion to fast-fatiguing (fast-twitch) fibres because of disuse

b) Took up marathon running - Slow fibers become more efficient and over time intermediate fast-twitch fibers may be converted to slow-twitch fibers


Lab 10 Questions:

Question 1 - Identify and name 3 tissue types which contain adult (somatic) stem cells that were used/studied from the 5 articles discussed during the tutorial.

Muscle, bone marrow, fat cells (adipocytes)

Question 2 - Name 2 reprogramming strategies/methods used in generating human induced Pluripotent Stem Cells (iPSCs) from the 5 articles discussed during the tutorial.

1) Introduction of 4 genes using viruses method: Yamanaka factors (genes) introduced into cell using a lenti virus

2) Virus free method: Episomal vectors (these are plasmids) used to introduce genes into cells.

Question 3 - Is the following statement TRUE or FALSE? "Unlike the nuclear genome, the mitochondrial DNA in the embryo is derived almost exclusively from the egg; that is, it is of maternal origin."


--Antonio Lee 15:07, 31 October 2009 (EST) 3/3 Correct.