From Embryology

Attendance LAB1--Jin Lee 13:15, 13 July 2009 (EST)

--Mark Hill 21:58, 5 August 2009 (EST) Where are your answers from Laboratory 1 Assessment?

Attendance LAB2--Jin Lee 13:07, 6 August 2009 (EST)

Lab 1 Questions

1. What is the protein that the sperm binds to on the surface?

Zona pellucida protein ZP3 acts as receptor for sperm

2. Name the three stage of follicle development in the ovaries?

1. Primordal follicle

2. Secondary follicle- (Pre-antral follicle)

3. Graffian follicle- (Antral follicle):is the mature follicle

Lab 2 Questions

1.What factor do the synctiotrophoblast cells secrete to support the ongoing pregnancy?

hCG(Human Chorionic Gonadotropin)

2.What does the corpus luteum secrete to prevent continuation of the menstrual cycle?

progesterone, oestrogen

3.What are the 2 main tissues to be derived from the germ cell layer continuous with the lining of the amniotic sac?

1.ectoderm, which forms nervous system tissue 2.epidermis of epithelium of skin --Jin Lee 13:53, 12 August 2009 (EST)

Attendance LAB3--Jin Lee 13:05, 13 August 2009 (EST)

Lab 3 Questions

1. What period of human development (in weeks) do the 23 Carnegie stages over?

8weeks 4days

2. What part of the somite will contribute to the vertebral column?

paired Sclerotome of somite (ventral half)and the midline ventral patterning structure the notochord contribute to the formation of axial vertebral column.


3. At what Carnegie stage does the human neural tube normally completely close?

Human neural tube normally completely close at Carnegie stage 13(appox.4 weeks).

--Attendance LAB4--Jin Lee 13:16, 20 August 2009 (EST)

Lab 4 Questions

1. Into what structure do most blood vessels empty before they enter the embryonic heart?

Sinus Venosus

2. What do the dorsal aortas become in the adult?

The Desending Aorta

3. What are the layers of cells found in a tertiary villi?

Blood Vessels, Cytotrophoblast layer, Extra-Embryonic Mesoderm

Attendance LAB5--Jin Lee 13:21, 27 August 2009 (EST)

Lab 5 Questions

1.What was the question I said in the respiratory lecture would be part of this week's assessment?

Explain the foramen of Bochdalek within Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia

2.What is the answer to the above question?

When the pleuroperitoneal foramen (foramen of Bochdalek) fails to close it allows different viscera into thorax. Thus Intestine, stomach or spleen can enter the pleural cavity, compressing the lung which stops full development of the lung. This usually occurs on the left side more commonly than the right. Hence the Congenital Disphragmatic Hernia is more common on one side than both.

--Jin Lee 18:37, 31 August 2009 (EST)

Lab 6 Questions

1. Which is the more common clefting, cleft lip or cleft palate?

The Cleft lip is more common because a cleft lip always forms from a cleft palate but a cleft lip can also occur individually as well, whereas a cleft palate can not.

2. What structures does pharyngeal pouch 1 form?

The Pharyngeal arch elongates to form tubotympanic recess, tympanic cavity, mastoid antrum, eustachian tube

3. Neural crest forms which cells within the skin?

Forms melanocytes within the skin

Attendance LAB6--Jin Lee 13:30, 3 September 2009 (EST)

Lab 7 Questions

1. What is a myotube and how is it formed?

It is a multi-nucleated cell that comes from the differentiation of myoblasts and creates the mature muscle fibres.

2. What changes would I expect to see in the muscle fibre types in my leg if I...

(a) Suffered a spinal cord injury? Muscle Atrophy would occur within the muscles

(b) Took up Marathon Running? There would be a conversion to slow twitch fibres within the muscles

oops, I forgot to do the timestamp for lab7;;;;;;--Jin Lee 17:33, 20 September 2009 (EST)

Attendance LAB8--Jin Lee 13:23, 24 September 2009 (EST)

Attendance LAB9--Jin Lee 13:10, 1 October 2009 (EST)


Lab 10 Questions

Attendance LAB10--Jin Lee 13:49, 8 October 2009 (EST)

Question 1. Identify and name 3 tissue types which contain adult (somatic) stem cells that were used/studied from the above 5 articles.

  • skeltal tissue, adipose tissue, bone marrow

Question 2. Name 2 reprogramming strategies/methods used in generating human induced Pluripotent Stem Cells (iPSCs) from the above 5 articles.

  • virus inserting method. (what type of virus?Lenti-virus conatining yamanaka factors ( Oct4, SOX2, Klf4, c-MYC)
  • non-viral method:episomal vectors

Question 3. Is the following statement TRUE or FALSE? "Unlike the nuclear genome, the mitochondrial DNA in the embryo is derived almost exclusively from the egg; that is, it is of maternal origin."

  • TRUE!! unlike the nuclear genome (derive from both egg and sperm), mtDNA is exclusively from the egg.

--Antonio Lee 15:03, 31 October 2009 (EST) 3/3 Correct.