From Embryology

Lab 4 Online Assessment

  1. The allantois, identified in the placental cord, is continuous with what anatomical structure?
  2. Identify the 3 vascular shunts, and their location, in the embryonic circulation.
  3. Identify the Group project sub-section that you will be researching. (Add to project page and your individual assessment page)

Lab attendance

--z3332178 12:55, 28 July 2011 (EST)

--z3332178 13:04, 4 August 2011 (EST)

--z3332178 11:07, 11 August 2011 (EST)

--z3332178 11:09, 18 August 2011 (EST)

--z3332178 11:06, 25 August 2011 (EST)

--z3332178 11:15, 1 September 2011 (EST)

--z3332178 11:53, 15 September 2011 (EST)

--z3332178 10:54, 22 September 2011 (EST)

--z3332178 10:08, 29 September 2011 (EST)

--z3332178 11:00, 6 October 2011 (EST)

--z3332178 1:04, 13 October 2011 (EST)

Online Assessments

Lab 1 Assessment

1. Identify the origin of In Vitro Fertilization and the 2010 nobel prize winner associated with this technique.

Robert Edwards first started research in human IVF after the successful attempts of fertilisation outside the womb in other animals by various scientists. After contacting Patrick Steptoe, a gynaecologist ,Edwards was able to begin practicing IVF on humans. Together they studied the hormone levels of female patients and worked out the optimal time for fertilisation to occur to increase the success rate of implantation. Edwards later implanted the first successful “test tube baby”, Louise Brown born on the 25th of July, 1978. In 2010, Robert Edwards was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for the development of in vitro fertilisation.

2. Identify a recent paper on fertilisation and describe its key findings.

The article “Zona pellucida-based contraceptive vaccines for human and animal utility” addresses the potential use of the glycoproteins found in the zona pellucida as a vaccine to prevent pregnancies. The contraceptive vaccine would aim to prevent gamete production, fertilisation and therefore a successful pregnancy. The testing was performed mainly on wildlife animals and was found to be successful. However, before using it for the human population more research needs to be done to increase the success rate and variations of the antibodies amongst species and therefore the duration of the vaccines productivity has to be reassessed. There is also the issue of possible oophoritis that may develop in women using this method of contraception. Despite the limitations of the contraceptive vaccine for human use, it is still profitable for wildlife context.

Gupta SK. Gupta N. Suman P. Choudhury S. Prakash K. Gupta T. Sriraman R. Nagendrakumar SB. Srinivasan VA. Zona pellucida-based contraceptive vaccines for human and animal utility. [Review] Journal of Reproductive Immunology. 88(2):240-6, 2011 Mar.[1]

3. Identify 2 congenital anomalies.

Spina bifida

Bladder exstrophy

--Mark Hill 10:10, 3 August 2011 (EST) These answers are fine for the assessment.

Lab 2 Assessment

1. Identify the ZP protein that spermatozoa binds and how is this changed (altered) after fertilisation.

When the spermatozoa reaches the zona pellucida, ZP protein 3 binds with the spermatozoa. This reaction causes the release of degradative enzymes from the acrosome, thus allowing the sperm to enter the zona pellucida.

2. Identify a review and a research article related to your group topic.

Review Article

“The behavioral phenotype of Williams syndrome: A recognizable pattern of neurodevelopment” by Colleen A. Morris

The review article concludes that people with Williams syndrome share distinct cognitive and behavioural features. The phenotype of a typical patient will be due to the deleted genes of chromosome 7 q11.23.[2]

Research Article

“Impaired geometric reorientation caused by genetic defect” by Laura Lakusta, Banchiamlack Dessalegn, and Barbara Landau

By testing participants in a plain or single blue walled chamber, the study was able to show that Williams syndrome patients show a failure to reconstruct and use geometric representations of the chamber to find hidden objects.[3]

Lab 3 Assessment

1. What is the maternal dietary requirement for late neural development?

There are many nutritional requirements to promote greater success in late neural development. Iodine plays a role in the formation of the cerebellum and the thyroid, foliate in the closing of the neural tube and Omega 3 plays a special role in the development of the brain stem as well as other neural structures.

2. Upload a picture relating to you group project.

The frequency of SD cells for RB1 and SNRPN in WS and control individuals.

The frequency of SD cells for RB1 and SNRPN in WS and control individuals

The frequency of SD cells for RB1 and SNRPN in WS and control individuals.jpg

Lab 4 Assessment

1. The allantois, identified in the placental cord, is continuous with what anatomical structure?

Initially formed by an invagination in the hindgut, and extends from the hindgut into the umbilical cord to the placenta.

2. Identify the 3 vascular shunts, and their location, in the embryonic circulation.

- Ductus Arteriosus – A shunt allowing blood flow to bypass the pulmonary artery straight into the aortic arch

- Ductus Venosus – Allowing blood flow from the umbilical vein into the inferior vena cava

- Foramen Ovale – Between right and left atrium allowing the flow of blood to bypass the right ventricle.

3. Identify the Group project sub-section that you will be researching.

1 Introduction

2 History of the disease

3 Etiology

4 Genetic Factors

5 *Physical Characteristics*

6 Associated medical conditions

7 *Cognitive, Behavioural and Neurological Problems*

8 Epidemiology

9 Management/treatment

10 Specialized Facilities/ supportive associations

11 Current research and developments

Lab 5 Assessment

1. Which side (L/R) is most common for diaphragmatic hernia and why?

The right side of the diaphragm is the first to close and therefore the left side is more susceptible to hernias.

Lab 6 Online Assessment

1. What week of development do the palatal shelves fuse?

9th week

2. What early animal model helped elucidate the neural crest origin and migration of neural crest cells?

Chicken model

3. What abnormality results from neural crest not migrating into the cardiac outflow tract?

The heart defect Tetralogy of Fallot

Lab 7 Online Assessment

1. Are satellite cells (a) necessary for muscle hypertrophy and (b) generally involved in hypertrophy?

(a) No, not for hypertrophy, but are essential for the formation of new muscle fibers.

(b) Yes, they can play a role in muscle regeneration however, it is not essetial.

2. Why does chronic low frequency stimulation cause a fast to slow fibre type shift?

The CLFS causes the muscle to continuously exhibit a slow muscle fiber type. Yhe strain induced on the fast muscle fibers causes the gradual shift of the fast to slow muscle fiber type.

Trisomy 21 assessment

Overall, the page looks good, however there are a few formatting issues. The pictures are not aligned properly to the text and many of them are not referenced properly. There are no copyright statements stating the picture was of free access or any permission to use the images. These images should be removed or the copyright statement added to the content. There is also no student image as required by the assessment. Although there is a long list of references, there is a lack of information on the page. There is a lack of detail in all the sections. There is a good balance between the (inappropriate) use of images and information. The images do not relate to the imformation and some of the text lack a reference. The overall flow of the headings and subheadings needs more work. The heading "[edit] American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists Recommendations" should be under the subheading diagnosis as it refers to diagnosis techniques recomended by the association. Although the page looked good, there is still a lot of work to be done.

Lab 8 Assessment

Group 1:

“Turner’s syndrome” should be the topic and all other sections should go under it as 1.1, 1.2, 1.3 etc.

The pictures are aligned funny, which disrupts the overall formatting of the page.

Excessive amounts of references in the clinical manifestations.

Good student drawn picture but the prenatal diagnosis pics should have a title attached to it.

Awesome glossary, but the glossary and references take up half the page. Probably because the references are duplicated.

Group 2:

There seems to be a lot of references, almost an excessive amount.

A picture for epidemiology and aetiology would be good.

Diagnostic tests was done well

Clinical manifestations should include some info on what the normal structure and function of the heart.

There is a very large amount of written information and this is reflected in the reference section that takes up alot of space on the page. There are slabs of writing which makes it hard to read the page. It’s boring to see long slabs of writing. The long glossary reflects the long slabs of writing. It’ll be hard to read through. Its not that clear and concise.

Group 3:

The long introduction and history needs a pic.

The pictures in epidemiology are really small.

Links to the videos are a good idea.

There is an inconsistent amount of referencing throughout the various sections. Some sections have an excessive amount of referencing and others have just enough. Maybe 2-4 a section.

The references take up quite a bit of the page most probably because there are repeated references that have not yet been addressed.

Group 4:

Glossary and reference take up half the page because the glossary has terms which should probably be explained in the text instead of being an item in the glossary. The references section should also be checked, for example 56, 57,60, 69 all reference Zuccato, C, 2009. There is an excessive amount of references. Not every sentence needs to be referenced.

Title “video of Huntington’s disease patient” should probably go as a subheading not a heading coz then all of the information that should be refering to diagnostic test becomes a subheading of the video.

Apart from that, good assignment. Good use of pictures and written text. And tables.

Group 5:

References 5,6,7 & 8 refer to nothing. If all the information for a particular section refers to one reference, you don’t need to link to the same reference after each paragraph. Just put it in once at the end of the paragraph, eg under screening/population testing and reference 11.

Good glossary, good use of pictures especially at the beginning, maybe more in the middle? Signs and diagnosis have few pictures making it look like a long trail of writing.

Group 6:

Great intro, brief but covers everything. Good amount of references for the information provided Genetics part was covered well.

The reference under diagnostic techniques should be with the other references and hopefully, by the end of semester there will be images where it says “insert images”

Good use of tables.

Maybe a few more pictures and the page will be perfect.

Evidently there’s been good work put in and the information has been researched well.

9-13 are all the one link so it should be one link not 5 seperate links.

Clear and conscise

Group 7

Good info. But theres few pics esp. at the top where the attention of readers is ment to be grabbed.

Slabs of writing then a collection of pictures. Perhaps the pictures should be spread out.

Good intro but picture? Pathogenesis 1st picture is extremely large.

Good headings and subheadings

Group 8:

Glossary is extremely long probably because the words are supposed to be explained in the text. The text is very heavy and the no. of pics drops off towards the end and gets gradually less attractive. Even though there are a few pictures at the top, they are very small and hard to see.

Its very long and that reflects the amount of effort and reading done. Summarise a little more? Cut down and make it specific.

Current research seems a little patchy and incomplete. Was the dot points on purpose?

Group 10:

Clear and conscise but still needs more work breaking up the long slabs of writing. Perhaps more subheadings esp. in the first sections.

More pics are needed to break up the work.

Treatment includes a good table.

Glossary needs a bit of work and expanding on the explanations.

References needs to be fixed as there is duplications of references.

Group 11:

Intro is extremely short and brief, but thats fine.

History and timeline should probably be made into one timeline of the history of cleft lip/palate.

The balance of pictures, tables and texts if poor but all aspects are there in the appropriate amount. More pictures preferable and placement hasn’t been thought out well esp. the schematic diagrams under treatment. Lists in associated problems should probably be a table.

Inconsistent amounts of references in each section. Some have none, others have sufficient referencing. And history, perhaps a little too much. Also duplication of references.

Current and future research is poorly done.

Lab 10 Online Assessment

1. Besides fetal alcohol syndrome, identify another environmental teratogen that can lead to hearing loss.

Exposure to toxic substances such as radioactive wastes.

2. Identify 3 factors that contribute to poor neonatal drainage of the middle ear.

The almost horizontal auditory tube is short and narrow hence liquid is more likely to accumulate in the infant ear. This is especially true when there is the child is suffering from an illness such as a fever. The inflamed auditory tube will swell up further narrowing the tube.

3. Identify 1 genetic abnormality that affects hearing development and link to the OMIM record. (Your individual abnormality should be different from all other students)

Mccune-Albright Syndrome OMIM Entry #174800 –Mccune-Albright Syndrome (MAS)

Lab 11 Online Assessment

1. Name the components that give rise to the interatrial septum and the passages that connect the right and left atria.

Components that give rise to the interartrial septum = out-growth of membranous tissue formed from myocardium which is differentiated from splanchnic mesoderm. The muscular septum secundum originates from the right of the septum primum.

Passes connecting the right and left atria = foramen secundum & foramen ovale

2. Identify the cardiac defects that arise through abnormal development of the outflow tract

The cardiac defects that arise through abnormal development of the outflow tract are:

•Pulmonary or aortic stenosis

•Interrupted Aortic Arch

•Coarctation of the Aorta

•Transposition of the Great Vessels

Lab 12 Online Assessment

1. Give examples of 3 systems that continue to develop postnatally.

Three systems that continue to develop postnatally include:

Reproductive system

Respiratory system

Cardiovascular system

2. Identify the abnormalities detected by the Guthrie Test and link to one abnormality listed in OMIM.

Some of the abnormalities that can be detected by the guthrie test include:

Biotinidase Deficiency OMIM Entry #253260 -BIOTINIDASE DEFICIENCY

Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia

Congenital Hypothyroidism

Congenital Toxoplasmosis

Cystic Fibrosis



Maple Syrup Urine Disease

Medium-Chain Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenase Deficiency


Toxoplasma gondii IgM antibodies