From Embryology

Lab Attendance

Lab 1 Attendance:

--z3293267 12:55, 28 July 2011 (EST)

Lab 2 Attendance:

--z3293267 13:03, 4 August 2011 (EST)

Lab 3 Attendance:

--z3293267 12:43, 11 August 2011 (EST)

Lab 4 Attendance:

--z3293267 11:51, 18 August 2011 (EST)

Lab 5 Attendance:

--z3293267 11:40, 25 August 2011 (EST)

Lab 6 Attendance:

--z3293267 11:10, 1 September 2011 (EST)

Lab 7 Attendance:

--z3293267 12:12, 15 September 2011 (EST)

Lab 8 Attendance:

--z3293267 12:53, 22 September 2011 (EST)

Lab 9 Attendance:


Lab 10 Attendance:

--z3293267 12:58, 6 October 2011 (EST)

Lab 11 Attendance:

--z3293267 12:44, 13 October 2011 (EST)

Lab 12 Attendance:

--z3293267 12:12, 20 October 2011 (EST)

Lab 1: Online Assessment

Identify the origin of In Vitro Fertilization and the 2010 Nobel Prize winner associated with this technique.

John Rock, an American obstetrician and gynecologist, was a pioneer in in vitro fertilization and sperm freezing. He helped many of his patients achieve pregnancy and became known as a "ground-breaking infertility specialist." In 1977, Patrick Steptoe and Robert Edwards successfully carried out a pioneering conception which resulted in the birth of the world's first baby to be conceived by IVF.
Robert G. Edwards was awarded the 2010 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine.

Identify a recent paper on fertilisation and describe its key findings.

The article, Correlation of Body Mass Index with Outcome of In Vitro Fertilization in a Developing Country[1], examined individuals in a developing country, examining the relationship between their body mass index and the outcome of in vitro fertilization. It correlated ovarian response to stimulation and IVF outcome according to the women's BMI. The conclusion came to an increased BMI is associated with poorer IVF outcome.[1]

Identify 2 congenital anomalies.

  • Down syndrome (Trisomy 21)
  • Turner's syndrome

--z3293267 22:45, 1 August 2011 (EST)

--Mark Hill 10:03, 3 August 2011 (EST) These answers are fine.

Lab 2: Online Assessment

Identify the ZP protein that spermatozoa binds and how is this changed (altered) after fertilization.

The ZP protein that binds to the spermatozoa is the ZP3. Plasma membranes of the spermatozoa and oocyte fuse, during fertilisation, and the head and tail of the spermatozoa enter the oocyte, leaving the spermatozoa's plasma membrane attached to the oocyte's plasma membrane.

Identify a review and a research article related to your group topic.

Turner Syndrome[2] can be defined as loss or abnormality of the second X chromosome in at least one cell line in a phenotypic female.[2]
The article, Optimising management in Turner syndrome: from infancy to adult transfer[3], reviewed that there is a potential for increased height with growth hormone treatment. Also discussed is the spectrum of gonadal function, ranging from the onset of spontaneous puberty and the potential for fertility to complete gonadal failure.[3]

--z3293267 21:01, 7 August 2011 (EST)

Lab 3: Online Assessment

What is the maternal dietary requirement for late neural development?

Edit:--z3293267 10:26, 17 August 2011 (EST)

A maternal dietary requirement for late neural development is iodine.
Iodine deficiency can lead to goiter(an enlargement of the thyroid gland) development when the amount of thyroid hormone in the blood is low. It can also cause cretinism, a condition of hypothyroidism during fetal life, infancy, and childhood. Characteristics include both severe stunted body growth and mental retardation. Iodine deficiency is the leading cause of preventable mental retardation in lesser developed countries.
The primary dietary source of iodine nowadays is iodized salt (table or sea salt that has been fortified with iodine). It can also be found in certain seafood e.g, shellfish, sardines, tuna, clams, herring and lobster.

Upload a picture relating to your group project.

Chromosome segregation defects associated with abnormal spindles in UBE3A shRNA knockdown clones.jpg
Chromosome segregation defects associated with abnormal spindles in UBE3A shRNA knockdown clones.[4]

--z3293267 22:11, 16 August 2011 (EST)

--Mark Hill 09:34, 17 August 2011 (EST) The answer to dietary requirement is not the answer I sought, the component required prevents cretinism. The second part with the image is exactly as requested.

Lab 4: Online Assessment

The allantois, identified in the placental cord, is continuous with what anatomical structure?

The allantois, an endoderm in origin extending from the early hindgut, is continuous to the superior end of developing bladder.

Identify the 3 vascular shunts, and their location, in the embryonic circulation.

  • Ductus arteriosus: located between the pulmonary artery and the descending aorta.
  • Ductus venosus: located between the portal vein, umbilical vein and inferior vena cava.
  • Foramen ovale: located between the left and right atria.

Identify the Group project sub-section that you will be researching.

  • Progonsis
  • Treatment
  • Management

--z3293267 18:08, 24 August 2011 (EST)

Lab 5: Online Assessment

Which side (L/R) is most common for diaphragmatic hernia and why?

The most common side for diaphragmatic hernia is the left side. This may be due to the right side of the diaphragm, during embryonic growth, closing earlier than the left side, exposing it to more risks of herniation.

--z3293267 14:44, 30 August 2011 (EST)

Lab 6: Online Assessment

What week of development do the palatal shelves fuse?

The development week which palatal shelves fuse together is week 9.

What early animal model helped elucidate the neural crest origin and migration of neural crest cells?

The earliest animal model which helped elucidate the neural crest origin and migration of neural crest cells is the quail/chicken chimeras model.

What abnormality results from neural crest not migrating into the cardiac outflow tract?

The abnormality that results from neural crest not migrating into the cardiac outflow tract is called the Tetralogy of Fallot.

--z3293267 10:18, 15 September 2011 (EST)

Lab 7: Online Assessment

Are satellite cells (a) necessary for muscle hypertrophy and (b) generally involved in hypertrophy?

Satellite cells are not required for skeletal muscle fiber hypertrophy; however, satellite cells are necessary for both the formation of new fibers and fiber regeneration.

Why does chronic low frequency stimulation cause a fast to slow fibre type shift?

A chronic low frequency stimulation (CLFS) causes a fast to slow fibre type shift when a muscle that is inhabited by a satellite cell population. The primary role of satellite cells is to maintain the long-term stability of activity-induced fibre-type transitions. Thus, satellite cells appear to play a direct role in fast-to-slow fibre-type transitions that is quantitative in nature.

--z3293267 13:28, 15 September 2011 (EST)

Lab 8: Online Assessment

Completing the peer assessment is your individual assessment for this Lab. Write your comments on each group discussion page and place a coy of your comments on your own page.

Group 1

Overall, this wiki is very easy to read and very well researched. However a lot issues need to be addressed:

  • It would be better if the Introduction was split into two parts; maybe dedicate a section for History.
  • A history timeline would be appreciated.
  • Would be a lot better if the first thing to mention of Turner Syndrome was the fact it is female only.
  • A few grammar errors noticed; needs to be proofread.
  • Could use more pictures; a picture every section.
  • Graph at Epidemiology is not referenced properly even after Mark Hill addressed the issue. Needs to fixed ASAP.
  • The glossary in incomplete and I don't like the break-up of the alphabet letters in every title; I find it very distracting.
  • References are constantly repeated. This does not have 150 individual references. I find it misleading and a quick check at the wiki help site can fix this.

Group 2

This wiki has obviously been given a lot of time and effort and it shows. The text isn't too heavy and I've learnt a few things about DeGeorge Syndrome. Very thoroughly researched and overall, looks and feels very neat and concise. A few points to be made:

  • No need to define congenital disorder. I recommend just leaving it out entirely.
  • Some pictures still need to be captioned even after addressed by Mark Hill. Who is that person in the History section? Angelo DiGeorge? Which one is he?
  • The student drawn images are the let-down. They look very rushed and haven't been given enough effort. The student drawn images on the wiki is also small, so to read the accompanying text by expanding the image, breaks up the flow of reading the wiki. It also hasn't followed the referencing format.
  • BACS- on beads technology image is a pdf file. Either put a picture in the designated area or remove the reference.
  • Amniocentesis doesn't have an image.
  • You should refrain from using the words "mental retardation" as this could be deemed offensive. Use "intellectual disability" as that is a more common term now used in Australia. Also use "learning difficulty" or "developmental delay". We should also encourage the use of person-first language e.g., "a child with an intellectual disability" rather than "intellectually disabled child". This promotes the idea that a person comes before their disability.
  • References section needs attention. Some referencing are not present at all in some casees.

Group 3

The wiki has overall interesting information and is well structured. You have also taken all of Mark Hill's suggestions and improved on the site a lot. Some issues:

  • Introduction is a little confusing and not very understood well. Should start off with Klinefelter’s description.
  • Some images are too small. To expand images while reading the wiki breaks up the flow, especially the table images.
  • I don't like the break-up of the alphabet letters in every title on the Glossary section; I find it very distracting.

Group 4

  • There is a good text/image ratio. However an image in the introduction would work well.
  • Possibly make the dates bold in the History section so that they stand out more.
  • Image in History needs to be referenced properly and lacks a student template.
  • There is a file in the pathogenesis that is not working.
  • The image in the pathogenesis has no copyright information.
  • It’s not necessary to have a large subheading for’ Video of Huntington's disease patient’.
  • Reference section contains multiple references.

Group 5

  • More images needed.
  • Introduction has too much detail, only one of the images would of been enough.
  • No references in the Introduction.
  • A small explanation in the History section regarding the significance of the discoveries would be very helpful.
  • Images could be formatted better.
  • Glossary needs more words and definitions.
  • Referencing needs fixing up.

Group 6

  • More images needed.
  • No references in the introduction.
  • History section could use a timeline.
  • Pathophysiology needs references.
  • Genetics section is very text heavy, could use a bit more summarising.
  • Glossary still needs work.

Group 8

This wiki looks like a lot of time and effort has been invested into the project and very nicely done. There is an abundance of referencing and loads of info given that this was one of the lowest reference item found in BioMed website. You've also used the correct referencing programming so it doesn't repeat. Bravo!

  • It is a marathon to get passed all of this. It is text heavy, though it is hard to deny that all info is relevant.
  • Aetiology's images aren't done too well. It hasn't translated as well when viewing it from the wiki as it is very faded and overall feels rushed in making. Use Paint is my recommendation.
  • Timeline could be better suited into a table.
  • All student drawn images aren't referenced properly. Just missing the disclaimer and the inspiration from info.
  • The first dot point of The Spinocerebellar Tract seems out of place, don't quote. Hypotonia's dot point in explaining the definition is longer than the glossary definition.

Group 9

This wiki shows a lot of promise and a lot of energy has been used into it, just needs a little more polish

  • Very text heavy, most notably in sections:Genitourinary Conditions, Cognitive, Behavioural and Neurological Phenotype, Structural Differences in the Brain.
  • You should refrain from using the words "mental retardation" as this could be deemed offensive. Use "intellectual disability" as that is a more common term now used in Australia. Also use "learning difficulty" or "developmental delay". We should also encourage the use of person-first language e.g., "a child with an intellectual disability" rather than "intellectually disabled child". This promotes the idea that a person comes before their disability.
  • Some sections could do with images just so it breaks up the info and text.
  • Structural Differences in the Brain has only one reference, yet all that info. Could you have found more references to back the section?
  • Specialised Facilities and Supportive Associations could do without. I find it distracting and could better suited as External Links or Queries.
  • Glossary needs a lot of work.
  • Current Research in comparison to the text heavy sections is lacking and in doing also in bullet point form seems out of place. Needs an overhaul.

Group 10

This wiki still feels like what Mark Hill mentioned earlier, like a backbone for content to be built upon. The foundations are there, but still very incomplete. Comparing the sections, some have done a lot of effort, others not so much, and it is very visible.

  • Should start the wiki with this code:

<wiki>=Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD)= </wiki>


<wiki>==Introduction == </wiki>

  • History is far too text heavy and it shouldn't be like that, as this makes it a chore to read. A timeline would be better suited and summarise into the timeline.
  • Should be more student drawn images, since there's only one. If getting pictures is hard to find, then draw your own.
  • The one student drawn image is not referenced correctly, needs the disclaimer info.
  • Diagnosis needs to be expanded. There is 300+ articles, there has to be more info or an image to be found.
  • Pathogenesis needs to be expanded, maybe an image.
  • Signs and symptoms need more referencing. Also, just leave the title as Signs and Symptons.
  • Treatment needs to be expanded on. It isn't any good just listing drugs into a table.
  • Split the Treatment to include Managment and give a separate section for Current Research.
  • Glossary is incomplete.

Group 11

This wiki has come a long way from when Mark Hill originally evaluated it, so well done for everyone for putting the input in such a short amount of time. Still, this is very incomplete. Cleft palate sounds like a very interesting subject, yet I'm left a little dazed and lost a little interest by the end.

  • Headings are all over the place. Aetiology could of used it's own heading instead of Development.
  • Introduction is lacking in a lot of detail, needs to be expanded.
  • Introduction has no references.
  • Images are not referenced properly. No use of the pubmed reference seen.
  • Could use more pictures. If it was hard finding pictures, you should of done some drawings.
  • Timeline would of benefited into a table as it wouldn't have to be so stretched out. Does not need it's own heading.
  • No epidemiology. What is the incidence rate? Among gender, race, age?
  • No student drawn images.
  • No references in Genetic Configuration.
  • No references in Treatment.
  • No references in Problems associated with Cleft Palate
  • No references in Treatment.
  • Treatment could of expanded into Management as there wold be a lot of difficulty in everyday activity regarding this abnormality.
  • Current and Future Research is lacing in detail.
  • Glossary needs more work.
  • I don't understand the Gallery section. Could of used those pictures in the Introduction.

--z3293267 10:32, 29 September 2011 (EST)

Lab 9: Online Assessment

There was no assessment added for this practical class.

--z3293267 15:23, 30 September 2011 (EST)

Lab 10: Online Assessment

Besides fetal alcohol syndrome, identify another environmental teratogen that can lead to hearing loss.

Another environmental teratogen that can lead to hearing loss is the Rubella virus.

Identify 3 factors that contribute to poor neonatal drainage of the middle ear.

  • Auditory tube is not elevated to the adult and is only at a (10 degree) angle
  • Muscles for the auditory tube differ, adults have 2 muscles and infants contain 1 muscle
  • Auditory Tube is more narrow compared to adult.

Identify 1 genetic abnormality that affects hearing development and link to the OMIM record.

ABCD syndrome can be caused by homozygous mutation in the endothelin B receptor gene. Bilateral deafness was confirmed by brainstem auditory evoked potentials. [OMIM - ABCD Syndrome]

--z3293267 10:32, 13 October 2011 (EST)

Lab 11: Online Assessment

Name the components that give rise to the interatrial septum and the passages that connect the right and left atria.

The components that give rise to the interatrial septum are the septum primum and the septum secundum.
The passages that connect the right and left atria are the foramen ovale and foramen secundum.

Identify the cardiac defects that arise through abnormal development of the outflow tract.

  • Aortic Stenosis
  • Common Arterial Trunk
  • Double Outlet Right Ventricle
  • Interrupted Aortic Arch
  • Pulmonary Atresia
  • Pulmonary Stenosis
  • Tetralogy of Fallot
  • Transposition of the Great Vessels

--z3293267 00:42, 20 October 2011 (EST)

Lab 12: Online Assessment

Give examples of 3 systems that continue to develop postnatally.

  • Neurological system
  • Reproductive system
  • Respiratory system

Identify the abnormalities detected by the Guthrie Test and link to one abnormality listed in OMIM.

  • Maple Syrup Urine Disease (MSUD) (OMIM)

  • Biotinidase Deficiency
  • Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia (CAH)
  • Congenital Hypothyroidism (CH)
  • Congenital Toxoplasmosis
  • Cystic Fibrosis (CF)
  • Galactosemia (GAL)
  • Homocystinuria
  • Phenylketonuria (PKU)

--z3293267 20:43, 20 October 2011 (EST)


  1. 1.0 1.1 <pubmed>21792549</pubmed>
  2. 2.0 2.1 <pubmed>2029883</pubmed>
  3. 3.0 3.1 <pubmed>2082783</pubmed>
  4. 4.0 4.1 <pubmed>21633703</pubmed>