From Embryology

Lab 4 Online Assessment

  1. The allantois, identified in the placental cord, is continuous with what anatomical structure?
  2. Identify the 3 vascular shunts, and their location, in the embryonic circulation.
  3. Identify the Group project sub-section that you will be researching. (Add to project page and your individual assessment page)

Lab Attendance

--z3291622 12:53, 28 July 2011 (EST)

Lab 1 Assessment

--Z3291622 22:45, 2 August 2011 (EST)

1. Identify the origin of In Vitro Fertilization and the 2010 nobel prize winner associated with this technique

The history of IVF can be dated back as early as the 1890’s when the first known case of embryo transplantation in rabbits was reported. In 1959, Chang MC produced undisputable evidence of IVF through his work on rabbits. The breakthrough in IVF was the birth of the first successful ‘test-tube’ baby, Louise Joy Brown, born on the 25th of July 1978 in Oldham, England through the work of Patrick Steptoe and Robert Edwards. The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2010
was awarded to Robert G. Edwards for the development of in vitro fertilization.

2. Identify a recent paper on fertilization and describe its key findings

Copy and paste the reference from a search of Pubmed and write a few lines about the paper.

The effectiveness of Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ART) depends on many factors. Implantation failure has been identified as the main cause of failure. Thus the purpose of this paper was to compare the effectiveness of two IVF techniques; IMSI (intracytoplasmic morphologically selected sperm injection) and ICSI (intracytoplasmic sperm injection) in couples that have already experienced repeated implantation failures. The results indicated that while IMSI did not significantly improve the clinical outcome compared to ICSI, it decreased rates of miscarriage (≈50% reduced). However more research into these techniques is needed to draw out much more concrete and reliable evidence.



Oliveira, J., Cavagna, M., Petersen, C., Mauri, A., Massaro, F., Baruffi, R., & Franco, J Jr. (2011). Pregnancy outcomes in women with repeated implantation failures after intracytoplasmic morphologically selected sperm injection (IMSI). Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology, 9:99. doi:10.1186/1477-7827-9-99

3. Identify 2 congenital anomalies. Just name them.

Hypospadias Trisomy 21 (Down Syndrome)

--Mark Hill 10:00, 3 August 2011 (EST) These are good answers to Lab 1 assessment.

Lab attendance

--z3291622 12:58, 4 August 2011 (EST)

Lab 2 Assessment

1. Identify the ZP protein that spermatozoa binds and how is this changed (altered) after fertilization

The human Oocyte is surrounded by an extracellular coat of gylcoproteins; Zona Pellucida (ZP). This coat is composed of four glycoproteins; ZP1, ZP2, ZP3 & ZP4. Studies show how during fertilization ZP3 acts as a receptor for the capacitated (matured) spermatozoa. ZP4 also binds to the anterior head of the matured sperm. Both these glycoproteins that bind the spermatozoa induce a process known as acrosomal exocytosis (AE). This AE process involves the exocytosis of the acromosal enzymes that digests the substance of the ZP exposing the underlying ZP2 which bind sperm, facilitating the membrane fusion between egg and sperm. Thus ZP2 acts as a secondary sperm receptor. The fusion of sperm and egg leads to an intracellular influx of calcium which triggers the cortical reaction; release of cortical granules (mixture of enzymes and proteases) that alters the ZP3 of zona pellucida to prevent polyspermic fertilization by cross linking and solidifying the zona pellucida.


Ganguly, A., Bansal, P., Gupta, T., Gupta, S. (2010). ‘ZP domain’ of human zona pellucida glycoprotein-1 binds to human spermatozoa and induces acrosomal exocytosis. Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology. Ch 8:110.

2. Identify a review and a research article related to your group topic. (Paste on both group discussion page with signature and on your own page)

Research Article:

Greer, P., Hanayama, R., Bloodgood, B., Mardinly, A., Lipton, D., Flavell, S., & Greenber, M. (2010). The Angelman Syndrome Protein Ube3A Regulates Synapse Development by Ubiquitinating Arc. Cell, 140(5), 704-716. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2010.01.026

The aim of this research paper is to find out how the Ube3A gene mutation causes cognitive impairment in individuals with Angelman Syndrome. The research is specifically looking into the role of Arc (synaptic protein) and AMPA (subtype of glutamate receptors). The experimental data suggests a relationship between the disruption of Ube3A activity and decrease in AMPA expression and how this can be utilised in the treatment of AS by using drugs that promote AMPA receptor expression.

Review Article:

Pelc, K., Cheron, G., & Dan, B. (2008). Behaviour and neuropsychiatric manifestations in Angelman Syndrome. Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment, 4(3), 577-584.

Lab attendance

--z3291622 12:50, 11 August 2011 (EST)

Lab 3 Assessment

What is the maternal dietary requirement for late neural development?

The maternal dietary requirement for late neural development is Iodine. The most severe effect of iodine deficiency is congenital hypothyroidism (also known as Cretinism), which is characterized by a combination of mental deficiency, motor rigidity and deaf mutism. Iodine deficiency during pregnancy not only results in brain damage to the developing fetus, but also in low birth weight, prematurity and increased infant mortality. The recommended dietary intake for pregnant women (according to the FAO/WHO) is now 250μg/day.


1. Haddow, J., Palomaki, G., Alan, W., Williams, J., Knight, G., Gagnon, J., & Klein, R. (1999). Maternal Thyroid Deficiency during Pregnancy and Subsequent Neuropsychological Development of the Child. The New England Journal of Medicine, 341:549-555 2. World Health Organization. (2005). Iodine Deficiency. Retreived from

Upload a picture relating to your group project

Subtle Finger Tremors-A five months old boy with Angelman syndrome and drug resistant infantile spasms

Subtle Finger Tremors-Angelman Syndrome

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. --z3291622 00:11, 16 August 2011 (EST)

Lab Attendance

--z3291622 13:07, 18 August 2011 (EST)

Lab 4 Assessment

1. The allantois, identified in the placental cord, is continuous with which anatomical structure?

The allantois, originating from the endodermal layer of the trilaminar embryo is continuous with the urinary bladder. Specifically it is the intra-embryonic part of the allantois that is continuous with the bladder. (The extra-embryonic part of the allantois degenerates during the second month).

2. Identify the 3 vascular shunts, and their location, in the embryonic circulation:

Foramen Ovale: between left and right atrium Ductus Arteriosus: between pulmonary artery and aortic arch Ductus venosus: connects the umbilical and portal veins to the Inferior Vena Cava.

3. Identify the Group project sub-section that you will be researching

Angelman Syndrome:



--z3291622 23:58, 24 August 2011 (EST)

Lab 5 Assessment

1. Which side (L/R) is most common for diaphragmatic hernia and why?

Diaphragmatic herniation is more common on the left side of the diaphragm towards the back of the body and is referred to as a Bochdalek Hernia. The herniation occurs through the posterolateral defect caused by the failure of pleuroperitoneal hiatus to close during development. This type of hernia is more common because it is more likely to allow organs such as stomach, intestines or spleen to protrude into the chest cavity. In contrast, on the right side, the position of the liver decreases the chance of organ herniation by blocking the hole. --z3291622 19:01, 31 August 2011 (EST)

Lab Attendance

--z3291622 12:44, 1 September 2011 (EST)

Lab 6 Assessment

1.What week of development do the palatal shelves fuse?

The palatal shelves fusion, also known as fusion of secondary palate occurs during week 9 in the development of human embryo.

2.What animal model helped elucidate the neural crest origin and migration of cells?

The origin and migration of neural crest cells were confirmed in 1987 by using quail to chicken chimeras, utilizing the distinctness of the transplanted quail nucleoli and host chicken nucleoli. This process was pioneered by Nicole Le Douarin.

3.What abnormality results from neural crest not migrating into the cardiac outflow tract?

Tetralogy of Fallot: a congenital heart disease which is also classified as a cyanotic heart defect because the condition causes low levels of oxygen in the blood leading to cyanosis (child appears blue). The condition involves four related defects of the heart; ventricular septal defect (opening between R/L ventricles), aortic override (blood exits to rest of body from both ventricles instead of just the LV), right ventricular outflow tract obstruction and right ventricular hypertrophy. The tetralogy of Falot is the most common form of cyanotic heart disease and has an overall incidence of ~10% congenital heart disease. --z3291622 23:53, 14 September 2011 (EST)

Lab Attendance

--z3291622 12:50, 15 September 2011 (EST)

Lab 7 Assessment

1. Are satellite cells (a) necessary for muscle hypertrophy and (b) generally involved in hypertrophy?

a - No, not necessary. Evidence shows that hypertrophy is possible without satellite cells

b- Yes, satellite cell proliferation is a normal part of the hypertrophic process

2. Why does chronic low frequency stimulation (CLFS) cause a fast to slow fibre type shift?

CLFS causes fast fibres to shift to slow fibres to remain "turned "on and active for a prolonged period of time. Slow fibres are usually evident on the postural muscles (e.g erector spinae) and muscles of the posterior compartment of leg (e.g. soleus) that requires continual activity. Th shift from fast to slow occurs as a transition in the myosin heavy chains (which gives muscles it's contractive ability). --z3291622 23:47, 21 September 2011 (EST)

Trisomy 21: Review

1. The key points relating to the topic that your group allocated are clearly described. Good distribution and placement of information into different sub headings. However some sub headings seemed to be a bit out of place and sub headings such as "history" were missing; the image of John L Down was out of place and did not correspond with any information in the page.

2. The choice of content, headings and sub-headings, diagrams, tables, graphs show a good understanding of the topic area. Yes each section was clearly and concisely explained. Good use of tables and flow charts to explain difficult concepts. The images also helped 'brighten' the page and attract reader's attention. The image of John L Down was placed in the wrong section and seemed a bit out of place in the 'prevalence' and 'screening' section because there was no appropriate section to add it to.

3. Content is correctly cited and referenced. Yes

4. The wiki has an element of teaching at a peer level using the student's own innovative diagrams, tables or figures and/or using interesting examples or explanations. The inclusion of more student drawings, tables and flow charts is a good way to show the depth of understanding and knowledge of the disease.

5. Evidence of significant research relating to basic and applied sciences that goes beyond the formal teaching activities. The use of pubmed research articles and information from recently published articles is evidence of significant amount of research done relating to topic.

6. Relates the topic and content of the Wiki entry to learning aims of embryology.

7. Clearly reflects on editing/feedback from group peers and articulates how the Wiki could be improved (or not) based on peer comments/feedback. Demonstrates an ability to review own work when criticised in an open edited wiki format. Reflects on what was learned from the process of editing a peer's wiki.

8. Evaluates own performance and that of group peers to give a rounded summary of this wiki process in terms of group effort and achievement.

9. The content of the wiki should demonstrate to the reader that your group has researched adequately on this topic and covered the key areas necessary to inform your peers in their learning.

10. Develops and edits the wiki entries in accordance with the above guidelines --z3291622 23:36, 21 September 2011 (EST)

Lab Attendance

--z3291622 12:55, 22 September 2011 (EST)

Peer Assessments

Group 1

  • Few grammatical errors found in the introduction, such as missing words in the sentences but overall the introduction was well written.
  • Would have been good to include an image in the introduction eg. Chid diagnosed with the syndrome indicating the characteristic short stature.
  • Hyperlinks to the glossary are missing in the introduction and epidemiology sections.
  • Images named ‘stats abnormal’ and “turner syndrome X chromosome variations” does not include any copyright information.
  • The etiology section was well written but it would have easier to understand concepts such as ‘dysjunction’ if the image was linked after the section in paragraph that explains it. At the moment the image looks a bit random and is hard to understand the processes illustrated in it.
  • I liked how the clinical manifestations were divided into different parts.
  • Great use of table and images in the “Prenatal Diagnosis” section. Summarises the information quite well.
  • The text in the ‘current research’ section is a bit heavy and confusing. Either try and summarise the key points in a table or use an image to break up the text. The information presented in the future research section seems lacking compared with the ‘current research’ section.
  • Some words listed in the glossary do not include there definitions.
  • Overall good work. Just small things to fix up.

Group 2

  • Good introduction. Like the use of the image to grab the reader's attention but it might be a good idea to include one or two sentences in the text explaining the characteristic appearance of the patients and give the image a title (just to link the image to text straightway at first glance without having to click on the image to understand it's significance).
  • Not sure if you need to explain the term 'congenital' in the introduction. Might be better to start straight away on the actual syndrome.
  • Great job on the "Historical background" section. Maybe have small title for the image of Angelo DiGeorge.
  • Good explanations in the 'epidemiology' and 'etiology' sections but the text is a bit too heavy. Try breaking it up with an image.
  • Good use of images, table and the general arrangement and layout of information in the 'Diagnostic test" section. (Small spelling error in section name). Try to include an image in the "Amniocentesis" section as well to complete the table.
  • Needs to explain the link in the "BACS- on beads technology" section and why it has been inserted.
  • Like the student drawings in the 'tetralogy of fallout' section and good explanations of what is happening. Small grammatical error in the title (on instead of an).
  • Good job on the 'treatment' and 'current/future research' sections.

Group 3

  • Overall, good use of sub headings and layout.
  • Maybe start the introduction with the actual disease rather explaining the genetics behind it. Got a bit boring. However rest of it was well written.
  • History section is well researched. Table is a good summary of the key events. Try and insert an image in this section to break up the heavy text and bring some color into the page.
  • The epidemiology section contains information about clinical manifestations and appearances that can be included in a different section. Try and refine this section a little bit. Enlarge the two images in this section.
  • Aetiology was well written. It might be a good idea to include some text below the student drawing included in this section explaining it. It doesn't make much sense at the moment.
  • I liked the pathogenesis and sign and symptoms sections
  • Liked his 'other similar defects' table. Explains the information quite well.
  • well researched assignment.

--Z3291622 01:25, 29 September 2011 (EST)

Group 4

  • Good introduction: concise and easy to understand. It might be a good idea to hyperlink some words in this section with the glossary.
  • History and time line; well written and researched. I really like how you inserted one the original quotes in the text. I suggest you putting the timeline into a table so it looks better.
  • Epidemiology; Good use of tables to summarize the figures/numbers. The placement of the tables between paragraphs also break up the text nicely.
  • I strongly suggest hyperlinking words to the glossary. Makes the page more user friendly.
  • Small typo in "Hungtingtin" title in the genetics section, but that's just a minor fix up. The section was well written. Good us of student drawn images to explain the concepts. I like how the genetics was sub-sectioned into the normal and diseased parts, makes it easier to understand.
  • Other sections were also well done. Maybe include a table in the 'clinical manifestations' section. Also I'm not sure if this is beyond the scope of the course but have they been able to link the five specific features of this disease to specific genetic abnormalities or pathways that happens due to this disease? What causes these features? (This is just out of my curiosity).
  • Maybe it would look neater if the "imaging" heading was also placed on the most left hand side of the page so it aligns with other headings such as 'neuropathy'. It seems a bit messy atm. Same goes for genetic testing and prenatal diagnosis.
  • Excellent table in the treatment section. Is there a specific reason only the actions of 'Tetrabenazine' was explained below the table? if so, what are the reasons?
  • Overall, good job :)

Group 5

  • Introduction; well written but too brief. Need to include more information.
  • Not sure if the 'screening' section is appropriate under the title 'epidemiology' especially because there is no inclusion of epidemiological data gathered from these tests but just explanations about their usage.
  • I suggest using Microsoft word, power point or paint to draw the student drawings rather than from hand, especially images such as the one in the introduction showing X chromosome. Would look much more neater and professional.
  • It also might be a good idea to hyperlink words in the text with the glossary. Makes it much more user friendly.
  • The genetic section is well researched however the information is bit too confusing and the layout is messy. Try using tables to summarize the information.
  • The section on 'development' of the gene is well written. Try and include imaged of patients at the different stages to compliment the writing.
  • Try and incorporate a table in the 'signs and symptoms' section which is very text heavy.
  • Diagnosis: section is a bit too brief. Not sure if this is possible but try and include images of these lab results characteristic of FXS in this section.
  • Like the use of table in the 'treatment' section. Much more easier to read and understand.
  • Glossary: needs to be expanded.

Group 6

  • Introduction: the layout is a bit messy. Maybe get rid of the double spacing. It might also be a good idea to include an image e.g. maybe of a heart. Needs to include more references in this section.
  • History section was well written. I suggest putting the quote in a blue box or highlighting it in some way to make it stand out. Try including a table or timeline to summarise the key events and findings.
  • Signs and symptoms; Good layout and presentation of information. Easy to follow and understand.
  • Genetics: shows it has been thoroughly researched. Like the use of images to compliment the text. Try and put the information in a table. The section is too lengthy in comparison with the other sections. Needs to hyperlink certain technical words to the glossary.
  • Pathophysiology: well written. The information is concise and easy to understand. Good use of student drawn images.
  • Great idea summarizing the information on 'diagnostic tests' in a table. Get rid of the in text referencing in the table.
  • Add a border around the table in the treatment/management section.
  • Other sections; good information. The referencing need to be fixed, it's not consistent. Try and include more images or tables in the prognosis, future directions sections to break up the heavy text. These sections seem a bit mundane compared with the rest. Prognosis section required more referencing.
  • Glossary; need to be expanded.

Group 8

  • Introduction and History: well written. Maybe place the image in the history section rather than in introduction. The timeline should be expanded a little. It might be a good idea to include more information on other key events in the paragraph above the timeline which at the moment only includes information about Friedreich.
  • Need to summarize the information in etiology section more. It's very text heavy and difficult to follow. Strongly suggest the student drawn images in this section be redrawn using word, power point or paint.
  • Hyperlink words to the glossary. Makes it much more user friendly.
  • Pathogenesis: well written. Not sure if neuropathology needs to be a different section from pathology.
  • Other sections; good job! Good use of tables and images to present the information.
  • Try to incorporate a table in the treatment section. Looks a bit mundane compared to the other sections.
  • The double spacing in the 'current research' section looks awkward. Need to fix the layout of this section.
  • Overall, good job!

Group 9

  • Introduction; well written. Concise and to the point, requires an image.
  • The history is too text heavy and is hard to follow. The timeline needs to summarized, includes too much of information. Try to include an image to make it look more appealing.
  • Really like the table and image in the genetic factors/etiology section. They break up the text nicely and makes it easier to understand and follow.
  • Epidemiology section should come above diagnosis. Why is treatment and management included as sub headings in the epidemiology section? It would make more sense to have them as separate sections further down. The information on epidemiology needs to be expanded a little it more.
  • Phenotype; good layout.
  • The 'other problems' subheading under cardiac conditions has no information.
  • The layout of headings and subheadings needs to be fixed. It's a bit confusing and hard to follow at the moment. For example, try to combine Genitourinary, cardiac conditions and endocrine under one heading rather than 3 separate sections.
  • The "Cognitive, Behavioural and Neurological Phenotype" sections needs images to break up the text. Try and summarize some of the information. This section looks a bit mundane compared with the rest. Requires more referencing, there only one reference per sub section at the moment.
  • Not sure if you need to include the "Specialised Facilities and Supportive Associations" section. Maybe add a link to these websites instead.
  • Current research and development is too brief, needs more information.
  • Glossary: Needs to be expanded.

Group 10

  • introduction is well written and descriptive. Good use of image to make it look appealing. No references in the first paragraph.
  • History section is too long, text heavy and a bit boring. Try to summarize the details on a timeline. You can include an image e.g. of Dr Edward Meryon if possible.
  • Epidemiology and aetiology; well written. The image in the aetiology needs to be linked with the text.
  • Pathogenesis; too brief. Needs more information and explanation of the disease process. Include an image or flowchart to compliment the text.
  • Signs and symptoms; needs to be expanded a bit more. I suggest using a table to present the information that just as dot points. Same goes for the diagnosis section, which also needs to be expanded. Try and use more images, tables, graphs etc to break up the texts and make the page look more appealing.
  • I suggest hyperlinking words in the page with the glossary to make the page more user friendly.
  • Like the use of table in the "current and future prospects". It's better to present information like this rather than in big long paragraphs.
  • The glossary needs to be expanded more.

Group 11

  • Introduction:way too brief. Needs more information. Include an image to make it look more appealing e.g. child with the characteristic appearance of the condition.
  • History and timeline should be under one section, not be separated into two. The timeline is well written and great job extending it up to 2010, but try and summarize it a bit more so that the key events and figures stand out more. The image of Pierre Joseph Desault breaks up the information well and makes the section look more appealing.
  • The diagnosis section is well researched, written and laid out. However try and include an image or flowchart to break up the paragraphs. Good use of the tables to present the figures. I suggest this section be moved further down the page and place sections such as aetiology, pathogenesis, features above this. The information does not flow well from timeline straight to diagnosis.
  • The epidemiology should have it's own section. It seems a bit out of place in the diagnosis section and it also needs to be expanded a bit more.
  • "Syndromes and Anomalies associated with cleft section" is well written. The images nicely breaks up the information. Be careful of the making certain words appear in bold, it doesn't make much sense e.g. why is the word "rare" in bold? Also the layout of this section needs to be corrected, some sentences are double spaced while others are not.
  • Pathophysiology section needs an image to break up the last three lengthy paragraphs.
  • Genetic configuration section also requires an image. Very text heavy. The womb and external environment sections need to be more clear.
  • The "Neuroembryology and functional anatomy" section is well paid out. The image needs to be properly referenced. Not sure if it from another source or a student drawn image.
  • There are no student drawn images??
  • The treatment section is well written but try and edit the layout a bit so it looks much neater.
  • Current and future research section needs more information.
  • Glossary: needs to be expanded more.

--Z3291622 11:06, 29 September 2011 (EST)

Lab Attendance 10

--z3291622 12:06, 6 October 2011 (EST)

Lab 10 Assessment

1. Besides fetal alcohol syndrome, identify another environmental teratogen that can lead to hearing loss

Bacterial infections such as bacterial meningitis is a common cause of hearing loss in new born children.

2. Identify 3 factors that contribute to poor neonatal drainage of the middle ear

The 3 factors mentioned below which contributes to poor neonatal drainage of the middle ear are all associated with the Eustachian Tube that functions to drain middle ear secretions, ventilate middle ear to equalize and regulate pressure and protect it from nasopharyngeal secretions. In neonates the Eustachian tube is: At an acute angle of 10 degrees (which reduces its protective function) Is shorter than adults (18 mm) Only opened by a single muscle called the tensor palati muscle (in adults it is opened by 2 muscles)

3. Identify 1 genetic abnormality that affects hearing development and link to the OMIM record. (Your individual abnormality should be different from all other students)

Axenfeld-Rieger Syndrome Type 3; is caused by mutation in the FOXC1 gene on chromosome 6p25. It is an autosomal dominant syndrome associated with sensorineural hearing loss. Axenfeld-Rieger Syndrome

--Z3291622 19:21, 12 October 2011 (EST)

Lab Attendance 11

--z3291622 13:05, 13 October 2011 (EST)

Lab 11 Online Assessment

1. Name the components that give rise to the interatrial septum and the passages that connect the right and left atria.

  • The components include the Septum Primum and Septum Secundum.
  • The passage are the Foramen Ovale and Foramen Primum.

2. Identify the cardiac defects that arise through abnormal development of the outflow tract

Some examples include:

  • Aortic Stenosis
  • Pulmonary Stenosis
  • Pulmonary Atresia
  • Tetralogy of Fallot

--z3291622 (Signature stamp is not working)

Lab Attendance 12


Lab 12 Online Assessment

1.Give examples of 3 systems that continue to develop postnatally

  • Musculoskeletal system: long bones continue to undergo endochondral ossification at the sites of growth plates and skull bones continue to develop as brain grows (fontanelle replaced by bone)
  • Heart- closure of atrial septum; prevents right to left shunt of blood and disuse of ductus ateriosus when the pulmonary system begins to work.
  • Respiratory system; Lungs begin to work from first breath.

2.Identify the abnormalities detected by the Guthrie Test and link to one abnormality listed in OMIM

--Nimeshi Fernando 10:14, 30 October 2011 (EST)