From Embryology

Lab Attendance

--Z3291423 12:59, 28 July 2011 (EST) --z3291423 11:48, 4 August 2011 (EST) --z3291423 11:49, 11 August 2011 (EST) --z3291423 12:12, 18 August 2011 (EST) --z3291423 11:05, 25 August 2011 (EST) --z3291423 12:05, 1 September 2011 (EST) --z3291423 11:39, 15 September 2011 (EST) --z3291423 11:13, 22 September 2011 (EST) --z3291423 11:28, 29 September 2011 (EST) --z3291423 11:24, 6 October 2011 (EST) --z3291423 12:04, 13 October 2011 (EST) --z3291423 11:04, 20 October 2011 (EST)

Lab 1 Online Assignments

1. Identify the origin of In Vitro Fertilization and the 2010 Nobel Prize winner associated with this technique. Infertility, the biological incapability to contribute towards conception, is a condition that is known to plague one in 10 couples. While studies related to human reproduction had their origins in the first half of the 20th century, majority of work was carried out on aquatic species (non-mammals), rabbits and other mammals, it was only in the late 1950’s that a team of researchers lead by Dr. Robert Edwards at the national institute for medical research, England started working towards development of a technique to alleviate the pain of infertile couples. It was in 1978, after 2 decades of research that the first IVF baby, Louise Brown was born in 1978. IVF or in vitro fertilization allowed practitioners to remove human gametes, fertilize them in a simulated environment and then transfer viable embryos into the female womb. For his development of this technique Dr. Robert Edward was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. Dr. Edwards research combined both basic and applied medicine to overcome many hurdles in the development of this technique, from in vitro maturation and fertilization of gametes to development of viable embryos for implantation.

2. Identify a recent paper on fertilisation and describe its key findings. With the rise in females that are now classified as obese, female fertility has been called into question. The article [1] looks into the effect of obesity on those that are undergoing fertility treatments, in specific the article found that the requirement of specific hormones was larger for somebody of BMI of 32 kg/m2 in comparison to someone of 25 kg/m2 (both receiving Assisted Reproductive Technology). The paper found that women of higher BMI had a lower chance to achieve pregnancy. In addition the article finds, that there is also an increased incidence of early pregnancy loss of those with higher BMI's and that reduction of weight by 5-10% can significantly increase chances of reproduction and hence fertilisation.

3. Identify 2 congenital anomalies: - Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia (CDH) and Congenital insensitivity to pain with anhidrosis (CIPA)

References: 1. [Pandey Et Al] Pandey S, Pandey S, Maheshwari A, Bhattacharya S. The impact of female obesity on the outcome of fertility treatment. J Hum Reprod Sci. 2010 May; 3(2):62-7. :

--Z3291423 19:52, 2 August 2011 (EST)

--Mark Hill 09:59, 3 August 2011 (EST) These answers are good for the Lab 1 assessment. I will help you with reference formatting.

Lab 2 Online Assignment

1. Identify the ZP protein that spermatozoa binds and how is this changed (altered) after fertilisation.

The protein that the spermatozoa binds to is ZP3 in the Zona Pellucida. After fertilisation, the Cortical Granules are released from beneath the perivitelline space causing the Zona Pellucida to become impenetrable and therefore preventing polyspermy.

2. Identify a review and a research article related to your group topic. (Paste on both group discussion page with signature and on your own page)

Disease proposed: Hypoplastic Left Heart syndrome

Review article:

2001 May-Jun;21(3):705-17. Hypoplastic left heart syndrome. Bardo DM, Frankel DG, Applegate KE, Murphy DJ, Saneto RP.

Link: [1]


2011 Aug 1;108(3):421-7. Epub 2011 May 31. Prenatal diagnosis of hypoplastic left heart syndrome in current era. Kipps AK, Feuille C, Azakie A, Hoffman JI, Tabbutt S, Brook MM, Moon-Grady AJ. Link: [2]


1. Bardo DM, Frankel DG, Applegate KE, Murphy DJ, Saneto RP ""Hypoplastic left heart syndrome.""Radiographics. 2001 May-Jun;21(3):705-17 [1]

2. Kipps AK, Feuille C, Azakie A, Hoffman JI, Tabbutt S, Brook MM, Moon-Grady AJ ""Prenatal diagnosis of hypoplastic left heart syndrome in current era."" Am J Cardiol. 2011 Aug 1;108(3):421-7. Epub 2011 May 31 [2]

--z3291423 00:52, 10 August 2011 (EST)

Lab 3 Online Assessment

1. What is the maternal dietary requirement for late neural development? The maternal dietary requirement for late neural development is iodine, with a recomended daily intake of 220µg per day. Without meeting such requirements development of Cretinism may arise.

2. Upload a picture relating to you group project.

Some common effects for patients with Tetralogy of Fallot


Differentially expressed RefSeq genes in human trisomy 21

Lab 4 Online Assessment

1.The allantois, identified in the placental cord, is continuous with what anatomical structure?

The allantois is a slim diverticulum from the cloaca, it extends into the hind gut and endoderm.

2. Identify the 3 vascular shunts, and their location, in the embryonic circulation.

Foramen Ovale connects the right and left atria, in the heart.

Ductus arteriosus connects the pulmonary artery with the descending aorta (found in aortic arch).

Ductus venosus connects umbilical and portal veins to the IVC (in liver)

3. Identify the Group project sub-section that you will be researching. (Add to project page and your individual assessment page)

Treatment/Management, Prognosis & Future directions

Lab Online Assignment 5

Which side (L/R) is most common for diaphragmatic hernia and why?

The Left side is the most common for diaphragmatic hernia because the right side of the pleuroperitoneal opening closes earlier than the left and hence left diaphragmatic hernia occurs 80-85% of times.

Lab 6 Online Assessment

1. What week of developmentdo the palantal shelves fuse?

The palantal shelves fuse in week 9

2. What early animal model helped elucidate the neural crest origin and migration of neural crest cells?

The quail and the chick helped elucidate neural crest origin and migration of cells.

3. What abnormality results from neural crest not migrating into the cardiac outflow tract?

If the neural crests do not migrate into the cardiac outflow tract, truncus arteriosus, a failure to divide into a pulmonary and aortic artery. Some other abnormalities include elongation, mispositioning of outflow tract and also cushion hypoplasia

--z3291423 10:31, 15 September 2011 (EST)

Lab 7 Online Assessment

1. Are satellite cells (a) necessary for muscle hypertrophy and (b) generally involved in hypertrophy?

a) Satellite cells are not neccesary for muscle hypertrophy as other cells can carry out hypertrophication b)Yes, satellite cells are involved in hypertrophy because experiments show that satellite cells increase hypertrophy

2. Why does chronic low frequency stimulation cause a fast to slow fibre type shift?

Chronic low frequency stimulation imitates low electrical signals and slow muscle fibers are activated to that similar frequency. If fast fibers are chronically being stimulated by low frequency, their physiological adaptive response would be to activate to a slower frequency. This conversion of fibers follows the next neighbour rule, which states that gradual conversion of fibers occurs in different stages and follows from the following fibre sequence: IIb, IIx ,IIa, I.

Trisomy 21 review:

Introduction: It is quite disjointed and doesnt flow very well, there are no references as to where the statstics came from. There is a qoute in the intro with no reference either. Also, the picture used has no description and also no reference to the original picture/article it was obtained from.

Some recent finding: Why is this after introduction!?! this should be like towards the end! in anyway the part looks good, has good references and the picture's image source is well done.

Trisomy 21 karyotypes: whilst what you have said is good, i just dont understand what this has to do with the process please link it in properly.

Associated Congenital Abnormalities: good listing, but describe more? whats the picture have to do with it? please link!

Heart Defects:Love the idea of links being incorporated for further reading, but where do these percentages come from? references?

Limb defects: I think you need to state a description and introduction into the actual heading! its very fast and doesnt allow a person to comprehend it properly.

Prevalence: Why is this in between screening and recomendations!?! also, world regions? and then only listing ireland and US? be mroe specific about where the data was obtained from!

Screening: Describe the actual processes? it would be great to get some idea of how the screening process occurs?!No image source for John Langdon. Terms should be in a all in one glossary list.

Meosis 1 and 11: what does thsi section have to do with your project page? please relate the two.

Aneuploidy: You didnt need a second heading for this, it could have been incorporated elsewhere.

Overall much work needs to be done in making this page come upto scratch. :) --z3291423 10:45, 22 September 2011 (EST)

lab 8 Online Assessment

Group 1: Intro seems a bit to mundane, there is no ‘hook’ and a picture wouldn’t look bad either. Spelling and grammatical mistakes in the epidemiology also the common abnormalities table/pic has no copyright permission in the journal either. very little references in eitiology, surely all that information was gathered from somewhere. the clinical manifestations section could be put in a table, maybe with a brief description of each item listed. How about some photos in this section? table in diagnostic procedures is good and succinct, however the picture has no copyright notification. A short table for treatment? Maybe some photos to relate the procedures used to what is being said. current & future research is good however the sheer amount of reading is too much, so maybe find a way to space it out? glossary is very awesome and I love the links! multiple references need to be fixed!

Group 3:

Whilst I appreciate the introduction and its content, I feel an introduction doesn’t need to be of the same size as some of the other sections of the project. It is to give a mere idea of the condition. History could be broken apart with dot points or bolded dates instead. How about a picture of Harry Klinefelter? Aetiology picture has no link to the article or where it was found, and no copyright notice. Pathogenesis has very little references, surely more would have been used. Images in table are blank and a lot more references would have been used than shown. space out the subheadings so they don’t look disjointed in diagnosis. references have not been listed properly (various links for same article)

Group 4: intro is a bit wordy e.g polyglutamate history: indent the quotes, maybe italcis too. timeline can be bolded to make it more readable. epidemiology: could have verbose words simplified and explained (the ones that are not in the glossary) genetics could have a picture about where the gene is located abnd also be simplified into tables. the picture in pathogenesis could have alot less writing or have it simplified, spaced and bolded. clinical manifestations is well written and succinct picture in diagnosis could be explained better so we can see the link to HD expand glossary and recheck the references

group 5: dont like the picture positioning maybe space them out a bit? the first portion of history could be removed and just have like the x like description part, also how about a picture of the prson who discovered the disease? i think the screening part of epidemiology is irrelevent, it should just be who its affected and how many people suffer from the disease. text in aetiology is wquite verbose signs and symptoms is way to long, figure out a way to break all the text apart with pictures,tables etc little glossary and multiple references present

group 7:

Intro is short and doesn't have that hook factor to attract audience also a picture wouldn't go astray either. history is good, but again a picture or a table should be used to break up such a massive chunk or writing. as if there is not enough data for a larger epidemiology. again aetiology is very short, genetics could be elaborated as this is a very important part of the project. bold some of the subheadings to make it more easier to read in pathogenesis. apart from that it is great! use subheadings for diagnosis and bold the dot points as well. very little references for treatment, sure there is more references used. overall very little photos used, i expected more to be achieved from the group by this stage, try to really work hard on it!

Peer review of group 8:

Introduction is good, short and succinct. the timeline in history could be in a table to make it stand out a bit more and break up the text. how about subheadings be used instead of bolded words no copyright statement on both drawn images pathogenesis could be very heavily expanded, this is the biggest part of your project so spend some more time on it. no copyright notice on the student drawn image in neuropathology. how about a table or dot points for clinical presentation to make it more easier to read. email copyright assurances from the video owners to embed into your table for diagnosis? elaborate a bit upon the current research section to give an image of what is happening now! multiple references present.

peer review for group 9:

Intro and history are great lead ins to your project, but id really appreciate a picture or two for those who can't visualise what you are trying to say. No glossary for those verbose words such as haploinsufficiency? The order of your headings is really out of order, how can you go from aetiology to diagnosis and then back to epidemiology? Introduction and history: These sections need pictures. It is difficult to read such a large block of text.

management and treatment should be well explained, not everyone knows how a urine analysis shows a person has Williams-Beuren Syndrome how about subheadings under treatment? I think your headings are really confusing, no logical order or why one follows the next. nothing under other problems section of the cardiac conditions..? combine Genitourinary, cardiac conditions and endocrine under one heading. Cognitive, Behavioural and Neurological Phenotype needs to have some pictures to break up the tonne of writing! whilst Specialised Facilities and Supportive Associations is a good idea, maybe just include a link instead of actually listing so much. This isn't a major part of the project so i don't think so much detail needs to be into it. current research should describe what is happening..not just listing the new articles. very little glossary

peer review for group 10:

history should be broken up with dates on side or within a table. how about a short summary table to use for epidemiology no picture of Guillaume Benjamin Amand Duchenne? no copyright permission for the drawn image in genetics. pathogenesis seems very small for a section that is very important. describe how the signs and symptoms impact on patients to show the significance of the disease. diagnosis needs a lot of work, this section is very important. also very little references in this section. not enough pictures to accompany the text very short glossary multiple references of same articles

Peer review for group 11:

brief introduction with not much development on other sections than epidemiology, please write more! history and timeline sections could be combined together? and also i think the timeline section could be a bit more brief, its just to give a bit of insight really. how about you rearrange the headings and put diagnosis after aetiology and pathophysiology. elaborate more on the verbose words in Syndromes and Anomalies associated with cleft e.g popliteal web and Velocardiofacial development section needs text, also some parts of aetiology could be elaborated e.,g indirect genetic factors formatting of pictures in between the sections needs to be worked on. Genetic section is good but it needs some pictures of the genes. Treatment needs to be explained a bit more, adding text to pictures doesn't really help to understand what is happening.

current and future research could be expanded. very small glossary multiple references and also no PMID links?

--z3291423 11:37, 29 September 2011 (EST)

Lab 10 Online Assessment

1. Besides fetal alcohol syndrome, identify another environmental teratogen that can lead to hearing loss Thalidomide is an environmental teratogen that was banned in 1961 because of all the birth defects that is associated with the drug e.g. hearing loss or the lack of development of the ear.

2.Identify 3 factors that contribute to poor neonatal drainage of the middle ear The three factors that contribute to poor neonatal drainage of the middle ear includes:

  • Size of the Eustachian tube
  • Orientation of the Eustachian tube (at an acute angle of 10 degrees)
  • Muscles that opens up the Eustachian tube = only one in neonates (tensor palati) compared the 2 muscles in adult (tensor palati and levator palati)

3.Identify 1 genetic abnormality that affects hearing development and link to the OMIM record Alport Syndrome 301050

Lab 11 Online Assessment

1.Name the components that give rise to the interatrial septum and the passages that connect the right and left atria. The components that give rise to the intertribal septum are, Septum Primum and Septum Secundum. The passages that connect the right and left atria are foramen primum (initially) and then afterwards it is the foramen ovale and foramen secundum

2.Identify the cardiac defects that arise through abnormal development of the outflow tract The cardiac defects that arise through abnormal growth of the outflow tract include, Tetralogy of Fallot, Transposition of the Great Vessels, Aortic Stenosis, Pulmonary Stenosis, Pulmonary Atresia, Patent, Ductus Arteriosus, Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome, Coarctation of the Aorta and Interrupted Aortic


Lab 12 Online Assessment

1.Give examples of 3 systems that continue to develop postnatally. 3 systems that develop postnatally are the Respiratory, Heart and the GIT systems.

2.Identify the abnormalities detected by the Guthrie Test and link to one abnormality listed in OMIM. The abnormalities that can be detected by the Guthrie test include:

  • Phenylketonuria
  • Biotinidase Deficiency
  • Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia
  • Congenital Hypothyroidism
  • Congenital Toxoplasmosis
  • Cystic Fibrosis
  • Galactosemia [OMIM Link]
  • Galactosemia
  • Homocystinuria
  • Maple Syrup Urine Disease
  • Medium-Chain Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenase Deficiency
  • Toxoplasma gondii IgM antibodies


--z3291423 03:15, 28 October 2011 (EST)

  1. <pubmed>11353117</pubmed>
  2. <pubmed>21624547</pubmed>