From Embryology

Lab attendence:

--Z3290270 12:56, 28 July 2011 (EST)

--Maeda Sadeghpour 11:48, 4 August 2011 (EST)

--z3290270 11:47, 11 August 2011 (EST)

--Maeda Sadeghpour 11:09, 18 August 2011 (EST)

--Maeda Sadeghpour 11:06, 25 August 2011 (EST)

--Maeda Sadeghpour 12:03, 1 September 2011 (EST)

--Maeda Sadeghpour 12:29, 15 September 2011 (EST)

--Maeda Sadeghpour 11:34, 22 September 2011 (EST)

--Maeda Sadeghpour 11:30, 29 September 2011 (EST)

--Maeda Sadeghpour 11:22, 6 October 2011 (EST)

--Maeda Sadeghpour 1:07, 13 October 2011 (EST) - I was her for the lab and I emailed you about how the signature link is disabled.

--Maeda Sadeghpour 12:14, 20 October 2011 (EST)

Lab 1 Assignment:

1. Identify the origin of In Vitro Fertilization and the 2010 nobel prize winner associated with this technique. The history of IVF dates back to early as 1890s with physicians conducting experiemnts on animal embryo transplantation. With increased research into egg maturation cycle and optimal conditions of fertilization in the womb, the first IVF animal was born in 1959. Robert Edwards was awarded The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2010 for the "for the development of in vitro fertilization".

2. Identify a recent paper on fertilisation and describe its key findings.

Carson C, Kelly Y, Kurinczuk J, Sacker A, Redshaw M, Quigley M. (2011). Effect of pregnancy planning and fertility treatment on cognitive outcomes in children at ages 3 and 5: longitudinal cohort study. BMJ, 343(d4473). The UK based cohort study recorded cognitive outcomes in children born after planned and unplanned pregnancy. The study found that there is no evidence that pregnancy planning, subfertility, or assisted fertility had a direct affect on the subject’s cognitive development at age 3 or 5. Children conceived through unplanned pregnancies score poorly in comparison to those born as a result of planned pregnancy but this was linked to socioeconomic factors and inequalities.

3. Identify 2 congenital anomalies.

Hirschsprung’s disease, Spina bifida

--Mark Hill 09:49, 3 August 2011 (EST) These answers are fine, you seem to be able to work online for this course. I will also be showing you how the reference can be linked to the internet database.

Lab 2 Assignment:

1. Identify the ZP protein that spermatozoa binds and how is this changed (altered) after fertilisation.

ZP3 – Zona pellucida glycoprotein 3, which acts as a receptor for spermatozoa. ZP3 stimulates the acrosome reaction, allowing enzymes to be released from the acrosome of the sperm which subsequently digest a path through the zona pellucida. This causes intracellular calcium levels in the oocyte to increase, causing the activation of cortical granules. An enzyme of the cortical granules clips the terminal sugar residues of ZP3 carbohydrate chains which makes the egg impenetrable by another sperm.

2. Identify a review and a research article related to your group topic. (Paste on both group discussion page with signature and on your own page)

Review: Padmanabhan, R. (2006). Etiology, pathogenesis and prevention of neural tube defects. Congenital Anomalies, 46(2), 55-67.

Research: Joó, J. G., Beke, A., Papp, C., Tóth-Pál, E., Csaba, A., Szigeti, Z., Papp, Z. (2007). Neural tube defects in the sample of genetic counselling. Prenatal Diagnosis, 27(10), 912-21.

468px-Differentially expressed RefSeq genes in human trisomy 21

Lab 3 Assignment:

What is the maternal dietary requirement for late neural development?

Iodine, 250μg/day. Iodine is critical in the synthesis of thyroid hormones which have a significant role in fetal development.

Shah, D., & Sachdev, H. P. (2004). Maternal micronutrients and fetal outcome. Indian J Pediatr, 71(11), 985-90.

Establishment of HD hybrid cell line

Establishment of HD hybrid cell line

(A) First polar body of mature rhesus macaque oocyte was removed by gentle squeezing through a slit of zona pellucida (A-a). Staining of 1st polar body DNA (arrowhead) and oocyte DNA (arrow) (A-b). HD monkey skin cell was placed under the zona pellucida (black arrow) (A-c). Reconstructed oocyte with HD monkey skin cell (A-d; yellow arrow) was placed between two electrodes for electrofusion (A-d). (B) Day 12 hatching blastocyst derived from HD monkey hybrid embryo (B-a; arrow indicated ICM). HD monkey hybrid blastocyst outgrowth at six days after attached onto feeder cells (B-b). High magnification of selected region (inset) of the ICM outgrowth (arrowhead). HD monkey hybrid cell line (TrES1) at passage 10 (B-c). (C) G-banding analysis of TrES1. Cytogenetic analysis of TrES1 demonstrated tetraploid chromosome (84; XXXY). (D) Expression of ES-cell specific markers: Alkaline phosphatase, Oct4, SSEA4 and TRA-1-60.

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. --Maeda Sadeghpour 21:21, 17 August 2011 (EST)

Lab 4 Assignment:

1. The allantois, identified in the placental cord, is continuous with what anatomical structure?

Ventral outgrowth of the hindgut in developing embryo, expanding from the caudal wall of the yolk sac.

2. Identify the 3 vascular shunts, and their location, in the embryonic circulation.

1. Ductus Venosus - connecting portal and umbilical veins to the inferior vena cava.

2. Ductus Arteriosus - connects pulmonary trunk to aorta.

3. Foramen Ovale - connects right and left atrium.

3. Identify the group project sub-section that you will be researching.

- Pathogenesis

- Genetics --z3290270 23:31, 24 August 2011 (EST)

Lab 5 Assignment:

Which side (L/R) is most common for diaphragmatic hernia and why?

Diaphragmatic hernias are more common on the left side. It is most likely due to the earlier closure of the right pleuroperitoneal opening. This could be life threatening due to compression of the lungs and other organs.

--Maeda Sadeghpour 00:48, 1 September 2011 (EST)

Lab 6 Assignment:

1. What week of development do the palatal shelves fuse?

The palatal shelves fuse in week 9 of development. The fusion takes place between both secondary and primary palate which is shapes at approximately week 6.

2. What animal model helped elucidate the neural crest origin and migration of cells?

The quail-chick chimeras.

3. What abnormality results from neural crest not migrating into the cardiac outflow tract?

Tetralogy of fallot which results in failure of the pulmonary trunk and aorta to divide functionally.

--Maeda Sadeghpour 01:20, 15 September 2011 (EST)

Lab assignment 7:

1. Are satellite cells (a) necessary for muscle hypertrophy and (b) generally involved in hypertrophy?

Satelite cells are not necessary for hypertrophy but b) they are generally involved in hypertrophy.

2. Why does chronic low frequency stimulation cause a fast to slow fibre type shift?

Chronic low frequency stimualtion damages the muscle cells which in turn stimualtes satelite cell recruitment which differentiates the fast fibres to slow fibre types. This method can be used to increase aerobic capacity.

--z3290270 21:13, 21 September 2011 (EST)

Peer review:

  • Growth curves for trisomy- Although the graph was easy to understand, there was no description that explained the significance of the results, and punctuation was not used correctly in the one sentence used to describe the image.
  • References: The fact that the references had so many subheadings, specifically in the opening page, led me to believe that it was merely there to give a false impression of comprehensive research. Even though there were some aspects of the writings that were all-inclusive.
  • Lack of a glossary – This page would be available to a broad range of readers, and it might be worthwhile and of value to invest some time in developing a glossary describing the terminology used. For example atrioventricualr canal in the abnormalities segment.
  • Defnitions as research: In quite a few sections there wasn't much detail explaining the concepts but just definitions.For example the “Prevalence is measure of the proportion of a population that are disease cases at a point in time. Generally used to measure only relatively stable conditions, not suitable for acute disorders.” And “Aneuploidy is the term used to describe any abnormal number of chromosomes either an increase or decrease in total number.” These should all be moved to the glossary segment. The fact that the definitions are taking up almost 1/3rd of the space dedicated to the specific section shows lack of research and dedication.
  • Associated congenital abnormalities – Some of these can well be represented by pictures – either hand drawn or photographs would make the page more pleasing to look at and would encourage readers to understand to read on. The detail given to explain the abnormalities is very poor. They have not shown any link between the defect and the abnormalities (even if they haven’t been well understood, you can still mention any current or past research trying to discover these links), nor have they explained what these abnormalities are. For example: "leukemia - Acute lymphocytic (lymphoblastic) leukemia (ALL) and Acute megakaryocytic leukemia (AML). AML occurs 200 to 400 times more frequently in Down syndrome." This is a very interesting point, but it there is nothing explaining what AML/ALL are or how they are linked to trisomy 21.
  • Structure of writing:

Most of the writings were in dot-point format. This may be an efficient way to make a draft of what will be discussed, but inappropriate as the final copy. It looked very rushed and “last-minute”.

  • Recent findings: This section was very interesting, but perhaps it would be best positioned towards the end of the website. It would be best suited in my opinion to introduce and explain the disease before moving onto current research.

--z3290270 21:33, 21 September 2011 (EST)

Lab assignment 8:

Group 11:

  • Intro: Didn’t find it to be a fantastic read, could use an image and you also need to briefly expand on the other sections of the page very briefly.
  • History/timeline: These sections should be combined. Perhaps don’t use double spacing between your dot points, as it’s making it look longer than it is. But some very interesting points.
  • Diagnosis: Would be best to place the diagnosis after aetiology/pathophysiology, just a suggestion. Some excellent information nonetheless. The use of colour is great to see.
  • Development: Aetiology should have its own section and the details provided need to elaborated upon. Use an image of the gene perhaps.
  • Types of cleft-palate: image is very interesting and detailed.
  • Pathophysiology: Good use of colour. “DRAWING!!! To be added soon” nice to know that you’re enthusiastic about this drawing, but probably best if you didn't write this.
  • Genetic configuration: There’s no references here. This could be a subheading rather than a section on its own.
  • Treatment: references missing and need to elaborate on the dot-points.
  • Glossary: incomplete
  • Overall, the structure is poorly formatted. There are headings that should be sub headings and there are subheadings that should headings (eg: aetiology). References are missing, glossary is incomplete and some images are poorly referenced/copyrighted. In saying that, there was some excellent research but it just needs to be reorganised and tidied up. Good work so far.

Group 10

  • Intro: One of the very few groups to use an image of the disease in the intro, well done! Like how you have referred to Duchenne’s as DMD in brackets initially heading to avoid confusion.
  • History: A lot of writing, no techniques to break it up, which will basically bore your reader. Use a timeline perhaps.
  • Epidemiology: Subheading will benefit this segment.
  • Aetiology: The image could use some colour, but it is still very well done. It would be worthy to refer to the drawing as your explaining the genetics, just to bring them together.
  • Pathogenesis: Very brief, not very informative and lacking subheadings or an image. Hopefully this will be fixed.
  • Signs and Symptoms:Poorly done. Dot-points are a good way to initiate the writing but not appropriate as a final copy. Needs more description and research.
  • Clinical manifestations:The image used is excellent but needs more explanation.
  • Diagnosis:Very short, looks incomplete and there’s only one reference for the entire section.
  • Treatment: Well done, I like the colour and the table structure, makes it much easier to understand.
  • Glossary: Incomplete, much more terminology has been used.
  • References: Double referencing is a big problem here.
  • Text:image ratio: could use more images.

Group 9:

  • Intro: Clear and concise information but you definitely need an image.
  • History: Stick to the timeline, no need for long paragraphs.
  • Genetics: Love th atble and the colour is excellent. The information above the table needs to be broken down with sub-headings.
  • Diagnosis: The image needs more explanation or referred to in the writings to get a better understanding.
  • Epidemiology:Confused as to why this sections is positioned here. It should be one of the initial sections. Only one line for the entire section, because obviously management and treatment need their own section.
  • Phenotype: The student drawn image is excellent and very well suited.
  • Cardiac conditions: difficult to follow the large blocks of text.
  • Current research: Poorly done in comparison to the rest of the project. Needs more work.
  • Glossary: There is many more words that need to be in this section. A lot of terminology has been used in the previous parts.
  • Overall, great job (some parts more than others), need to make the page more cohesive by using a common formatting style, add plenty more words to the glossary and revise and trim some of the longer segments.

Group 8:

  • Introduction: Good introduction, gives an overall image. Quite like the image.
  • History: I don’t think history of the guy who found it is that necessary, perhaps just focus on the disease itself. Only 5 events in timeline? Surely there’s more after 1996.
  • Epidemiology:Love the subheadings and the straight-to-the-point approach instead of writing paragraphs describing something that could be said in one dot point. The content is exactly what the epidemiology should cover.
  • Aetiology: image is unclear and looks like it was done in a rush. Where’s the referencing? hThe information is very informative however and quite good use of subheadings, but it would be improved by bolding a few of the significant words.“Friedreich's Ataxia Pedigree.jpg” not referenced correctly.
  • Pathogenesis: Love the image, very clear and concise.
  • Neuropathology: VERY detailed and word-heavy. It shows you’ve done the research but it’s too much to read and become boring after a certain point. You can summarise some of the sections quite easily.
  • Clinical: Great content, and fantastic use of subheadings.
  • Diagnosis: fantastic formatting for the tables.
  • Treatments: Need an image of some sort here, but the information is very relative.
  • Glossary: Needs to be placed before the reference list.
  • References: Looks good, couldn’t find any mistakes.
  • Image/Text ratio: Some parts the text is too long and need a picture to break it up and in others it just plain needs an image to make it interesting,a s mentioned above.

Group 7:

  • Intro: Needs a picture, a patient perhaps would be more engaging.
  • History: Contradictions in regards to the initial date of discovery in the introduction.
  • Epidemiology: Looks incomplete and rushed. Why the only places considered Denmark, Estonia, Sweden and WA? Surely Angelman’s exists in other places too.
  • Aetiology: The table is very difficult to follow. What’s UBE3A? What’s cytogenetics FISH? It either needs to be summarised into a neat paragraph or more detail needs to be added to explain what’s happening. Image needs more explanation and it’s also not referenced correctly.
  • Pathogenesis: Quite extensive! It’s very informative but a lot to take in, extremely word heavy. It would be best to summarise a few sections and use more subheadings and highlight the main words to make it more easy to understand. “UBE3A Ubiquitylation Pathway” image needs a lot more explanation to understand the pathway.
  • Signs and Symptoms: Very well done! Love the use of subheadings and reference to the images. You can quite easily use one of these photos in your intro to keep your readers interested.
  • Complications: Way too short (especially compared to pathogenesis section). Needs more work
  • Diagnosis: Needs better formatting. Subheadings, font change - its hard to follow.
  • Glossary: There’s a lot of terminology used in this page and not many have been defined. It would also help if you can link your words to the glossary.
  • References: Double referencing (common problem it seems).
  • Overall, great job but there’s a great difference between the quality of research in some sections as compared to others.

Group 6:

  • Intro: Best not to start off the introduction with stats, people will quickly lose interest. I like how you’ve given a very brief idea of each subheading. This section would benefit from a picture , something to grab your attention.
  • History: A timeline would be best, as this section isn’t as significant as the others so it doesn’t need to be in extensive detail.
  • Epidemiology: “ It makes up around 7%-10% of cardiac congenital defects. Moreover, epidemiological studies show that it occurs in 3 out of 10000 live births that are delivered” repetitive. Best if not mentioned in introduction, as it is useful fact in this segment. Needs a little more detail, quite short in comparison to other sections.
  • Signs and Symptoms: Good use of subheadings, need more images. Loved the audio! Very interesting. This section needs to come in after aetiology though.
  • Genetics/Aetiology: Quite extensive, very detailed and understandable, but a lot longer than the other sections, it could do with a bit of trimming. Also the one type of image being used 3 times is not appealing, perhaps hand draw it in different colours or get a different style of drawing representing it.
  • Pathophysiology: Like the subheadings and it’s easy to follow the information.The first image is great, the 2nd image could be broken down and hand drawn to compare the normal blood flow with TOF blood flow individually, instead of having the other conditions included. This would make it more clear.
  • Diagnostic Test: Table is clearly incomplete. Add images, and add colour. The text is also not referenced. Why is there one reference at the bottom of the table?
  • Treatment: Quite detailed and informative. There are many sections missing references above the table.
  • Glossary: INCOMPLETE. There’s many more words you can add here.
  • References: Links to other pages don’t count as references- that needs to be fixed.
  • Overall: Great job. You’re image:text ratio is little unbalanced, as you need more interesting pictures. Needs a few changes here and there as I’ve mentioned above but it’s looking good so far.

Group 5:

  • Intro: Like the hand drawn figure but it’s not explained and most importantly, the Image is not referenced at all. Define methylation perhaps- it’s not a good idea to have introduction with a lot of terminology because you will lose your audience if they can’t understand the initial part f the page. The description of features is brief and good way to introduce the disease, it would help if you could use an image of an affected patient instead of the chromosome (which can be sued in the etiology section)/
  • History: Love the colour but perhaps add a few more events, it looks very short. You can link your bolded words to a glossary.
  • Epidemiology: The “screening” section doesn’t belong here. The section explained in dot points is not referenced at all. The image is great, but there is no references to the original image or any explanation of the image itself. Genetic counselling subheading also doesn’t belong in this section.
  • Etiology: Clear and easy to follow but there are words that need defining in the glossary. The section would benefit if the image of the chromosome was moved here. Perhaps more explanation on the FMR gene. The first image could do with a bit more explanation. There are words in there eg: 5UTR that are not easy to understand.
  • Development of disease: Good, the subheadings help and its well-formatted. Need a picture explaining the development.
  • Signs and symptoms: The image is great, you can use this as your introduction to make it a bit more engaging. You should also make it bigger and explain the distinguishing features. The research is thorough!
  • Diagnosis: Very short, needs more detail.
  • Treatment: Love the colour, very detailed
  • Glossary: Needs a lot more work! There are many words that you will need to define. For example “ allele, permutation, asymptomatic...” list goes on.
  • Reference: What’s happening in references 3-8? That’s not proper referencing format. Number 41 reference – a link isn’t a reference.
  • Overall: You keep referring to the disease as either fragile X syndrome or FXS. It’s best to stick to one or the other to avoid confusion. Need more interesting images. Some excellent research but it could do with a bit of work. Good job so far.

Group 3:

  • Intro: Not a very good idea to introduce the disease with an overly simplified/unexciting image of meiosis, especially if you want the responder to keep reading. I’m sure there something more exciting to represent the disease.
  • History: Thorough research, you just have to find a better way of representing it. Take the text, break it down and add it to the timeline. If I was given this to read I would look at the timeline and skip the text, it’s too much.
  • Epidemiology: image: “Age and intellectual functioning of boys with Klinefelter Syndrome and normal males.png”. The png should not be left at the end of image and quite honestly the table is hard to understand with little explanation given. Wouldn’t people ask what is “ F(1,27= 5.9, p=0.02”? Either explain the table thoroughly or get rid of it.
  • Aetiology: Animations were excellent! Perhaps use still-frames as images in this section, because the picture provided is a bit dull and looks very similar to the opening image.
  • Pathogenesis: The two images look very similar; perhaps use different colours to indicate their differences. It will make the page more appealing also. The information is relative and easy to follow, although some information is overlapping with aetiology.
  • Signs and symptoms: Love the table format- but more information is required. More detail on each section and corresponding images would improve it. Also there is no referencing in the “puberty” section.
  • Management:“Action of Amoratase Inhibitors on Production of Estradiol.JPG” is not referenced.
  • Other similar defects: It’s a lot more thorough than a few of the sections explaining the disease itself. I don’t think you need to be this descriptive in this section.
  • Image/text ratio: need more interesting images (no more cell division images though), and also need to be more detailed in a few sections as mentioned above.
  • Overall: Good job, but you still have some work to do.

Group 2:

  • Intro: Great intro, the picture is excellent and grabs your attention. Perhaps don’t start with a definition of congenital disorders. You can put that in the glossary or mention it after you have initially began discussing the disease.
  • History: Love the timeline, clear, easy to follow.
  • Epidemiology: Very word heavy which is not necessary for this section. Dot pints or some sort of visual representation would make it more appealing.
  • Etiolgy: “ mentioned previously it has a prevalence of 1/2000 to 1/4000” This part is not necessary. Image of the gene would look good in this section. You refer to the disease as DGS (which is perfectly fine) but repeatedly refer to it as DiGeorge syndrome in the previous section, which can get a little confusing. Either use its full name or just the abbreviation.
  • Pathogenesis:“As mentioned in the introduction, the pathogenesis of DiGeorge is a 22q11.2 microdeletion” probably unnecessary.

Excellent image, perhaps make it a bit bigger so that you can refer to it whilst reading.

  • Diagnosis: The formatting of the text against it’s visual representation is fantastic and love the use of colour – refreshing! The use of colour can be expanded to the rest of the page to make it more cohesive. There is a an image heading with no image under the “ Amniocentesis” heading. There is also an image missing in the BAC’s image column replaced with a link- should fix this.
  • Clinical manifestations: Once again great use of colour, but VERY word heavy. It shows that you have done a lot of research but it’s a lot to take in, you can definitely make it more compact.
  • Treatment: I quite like this section. It’s informative and is formatted in a way that won’t bore you. The sections which have big blocks of text could benefit from this format. You need to choose a different colour for the block highlights though because you can barely see it.
  • Research: Thorough research, very informative but again too much text. If you feel it’s necessary to keep the text you can break it down with word highlights/ bolding or dot points.
  • Text/image: Great ratio except a few sections where the text can be cut down a little bit.
  • Overall, very thorough, loved the colour and formatting and the student drawn image. Excellent work.

Group 1:

  • Intro: It’s best to introduce the disease with an image or shock factor or the most interesting aspect of the disease. When you start with stats (eg: 1/200 females, morbidity rate, 10%) etc, it makes it sound dull and the reader will lose interest.
  • Epidemiology: The images in this section don’t state the copyright information. The images also don’t have any explanation. A major part of epidemiology is the distribution of the disease, which there is no mention of. Perhaps a world map as to where people are most commonly affected – just to make it more engaging.
  • Etiology: Fantastic idea linking the words to the glossary – makes it a lot easier to read and the information is very concise. The only issue is the pyrogeny image, although its a great image, there is little explanation. Also there is only 1 reference for the entire section which is a concern.
  • Clinical manifestations: Bullet points are great to see after the 3 extremely word heavy previous sections, but more description is definitely required, a few diagrams or images for the most common or severe characteristics. Well referenced!
  • Diagnostic procedures: Quite liked the drawing, very easy to understand and interesting, but you’re missing the “inspiration” reference to the original image. Again, great linking of words to glossary and the table format is excellent, very informative. Howver this section seems to be much longer than the other sections.
  • Treatment: Could definitely use some pictures and a bit of an overall explanation before the subheadings? You mentioned GH treatment without mentioning what GH stands for.
  • Research: Very interesting and good to see some very recent articles cited.
  • Tex/Image ratio: Already mentioned, some sections need more images.
  • Overall: You’re on your way, fix the image references, make it a little more visually appealing (pictures / colours) and try to make all sections relatively equally informative.

--z3290270 03:05, 29 September 2011 (EST)

Lab 9 Assignment

none assigned for this week.

Lab 10 Assignment

  • 1. Besides fetal alcohol syndrome, identify another environmental teratogen that can lead to hearing loss.


  • 2.Identify 3 factors that contribute to poor neonatal drainage of the middle ear.

There are 3 factors regarding the Eustachian Tube in neonates that lead to poor middle ear drainage. The Eustachian tube is at a 10 degrees angle, it is 18mm long which is shorter than adults and the tube is opened by one muscle only, called the tensor palati muscle, whilst the adult has an additional muscle known as the lavatory palate muscle.

  • 3.Identify 1 genetic abnormality that affects hearing development and link to the OMIM record.

Usher Syndrome, TYPE I (USH1)[1]

--Maeda Sadeghpour 13:10, 13 October 2011 (EST)I emailed you about the signature link being diabled last night. I did this earlier than the date shown.

Lab assignment 11:

1.Name the components that give rise to the interatrial septum and the passages that connect the right and left atria.

Septum primum and septum sucundum are the components that give rise to interatrial septum. The passage way that connects the right and left atria is initially foramen primum, and with further development it is foramen ovale and foramen sucundum that connect these two atria.

2.Identify the cardiac defects that arise through abnormal development of the outflow tract.

The cardiac defects that arise through abnormal development of the outflow tract include, Tetralogy of fallot, pulmonary stenosis, pulmonary atresia, transposition of great vessels, aortic stenosis, interrupted aortic arch, ventricular septal defect and hypoplastic left heart syndrome.

--Maeda Sadeghpour 03:00, 20 October 2011 (EST)

Project contributions:

To further demonstrate substantial discussion contributions, a link has been posted on group 4's discussion page to direct you to our facebook page.

I was not in the "red section" for discussion or edits, however I thought it would be useful for you to see that there was more discussion amongst our group than what is presented on our official page here. --Maeda Sadeghpour 03:00, 20 October 2011 (EST)

Lab assignment 12

1. Give examples of 3 systems that continue to develop postnatally.

Cardiovascular system, respiratory system and nervous system.


2. Identify the abnormalities detected by the Guthrie Test and link to one abnormality listed in OMIM.

  • Cystic Fibrosis
  • Phenylketonuria
  • Medium-Chain Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenase Deficiency Biotinidase Deficiency
  • Congenital Toxoplasmosis
  • Galactosemia[OMIM Link]
  • Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia
  • Congenital Hypothyroidism
  • Toxoplasma gondii IgM antibodies
  • Maple Syrup Urine Disease
  • Homocystinuria


--Maeda Sadeghpour 03:26, 26 October 2011 (EST)