From Embryology

Lab 4 Online Assessment

  1. The allantois, identified in the placental cord, is continuous with what anatomical structure?
  2. Identify the 3 vascular shunts, and their location, in the embryonic circulation.
  3. Identify the Group project sub-section that you will be researching. (Add to project page and your individual assessment page)

--Z3288196 12:55, 28 July 2011 (EST)

--Mark Hill 09:38, 3 August 2011 (EST) All 3 questions from Lab 1 need to be completed before Lab 2.

Lab 1 Assessment

1. Identify the origin of In Vitro Fertilization and the 2010 nobel prize winner associated with this technique.

In Vitro Fertilization refers to the fertilization of an egg cell outside of the organism, usually in a laboratory environment. Robert G. Edwards was the first to successfully perform this process in 1978, and was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 2010 as recognition for his work in developing this method of fertilization.

2. Identify a recent paper on fertilisation and describe its key findings.

Groeneveld, E.; Broeze, K. A.; Lambers, M. J.; Haapsamo, M.; Dirckx, K.; Schoot, B. C.; Salle, B.; Duvan, C. I. et al. (2011). "Is aspirin effective in women undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF)? Results from an individual patient data meta-analysis (IPD MA)". Human Reproduction Update 17 (4): 501–509.

The key finding of this paper is that aspirin is not effective in women undergoing IVF. Women who take aspirin after IVF did not show improved pregnancy rates after IVF.

3. Identify 2 congenital anomalies.

- Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia

- Spina Bifida

--Z3288196 09:23, 4 August 2011 (EST)

Lab 2 Assessment

1. Identify the ZP protein that spermatozoa binds and how is this changed (altered) after fertilization.

Spermatozoa bind to Zona Pellucida Glycoprotein 3 (ZP3). After fertilization has occured, enzymes digest the zona pellucida and spermatozoa are no longer able to bind to ZP3 as it is altered by these digestive enzymes.

2. Identify a review and a research article related to your group topic. (Paste on both group discussion page with signature and on your own page)

The primary journal article I found talks about the expression of the DMD Gene Products in Embryonic Stem Cells, so I'm hoping that this will allow our group to elaborate a bit on the genetic aspects of the development and potential early identification, as symptoms do not usually appear in humans until a few years of age [1]. Also the review article I found refers to two other types of muscular dystrophies as well as DMD (SCARMD, CMD), highlighting many key developments in research. Seem to be very informative, also refers a bit to the importance of animal models in these developments [2].

--Z3288196 12:38, 4 August 2011 (EST)

Lab 3 Assessment

1.What is the maternal dietary requirement for late neural development?

NHRMC Policy (1993) suggests that an intake of 0.4mg-0.5mg of folate is required to reduce incidence of neural tube defects, such as spina bifida and anencephaly, and allow for normal neural development.

--Z3288196 12:35, 11 August 2011 (EST)

2. Upload and post an image.

"Aspiration pneumonia in the child with DiGeorge syndrome -- A case report "

A preoperative chest PA showing a narrowed superior mediastinum suggesting thymic agenesis, apical herniation of the right lung and a resultant left sided buckling of the adjacent trachea air column

Chest PA 1.jpeg

A preoperative chest PA showing a narrowed superior mediastinum suggesting thymic agenesis, apical herniation of the right lung and a resultant left sided buckling of the adjacent trachea air column.

Ji-Young Lee, Yun-Joung Han "Aspiration pneumonia in the child with DiGeorge syndrome -A case report-"

Korean J Anesthesiol. 2011 June; 60(6): 449–452. Published online 2011 June 17. doi: 10.4097/kjae.2011.60.6.449 [3]

This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License [4], which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

--Z3288196 16:13, 17 August 2011 (EST)

Lab 4 Assessment

1. The allantois, identified in the placental cord, is continuous with what anatomical structure?

The allantois is composed of an inner layer of endodermal cells and an outer layer of mesoderm. The inner layer is continuous with the endoderm of the digestive tract and the outer layer is continuous with the splanchnic mesoderm of the embryo. The allantois dilates with development into the allantoic sac and remains connected to the hindgut by the allantoic stalk, which passes through the umbilical cord.

2. Identify the 3 vascular shunts, and their location, in the embryonic circulation.

i) Ductus Arteriosus: Connects the pulmonary artery with the aortic arch. ii) Ductus Venosus: Connects the umbilical and portal veins to the inferior vena cava. iii) Foramen Ovale: Connects the right and left atria.

3. Identify the Group project sub-section that you will be researching. (Add to project page and your individual assessment page)

I am doing the Etiology and Further Research sub-sections in our group project on DiGeorge Syndrome.

Lab 5 Assessment

1. Which side (L/R) is most common for diaphragmatic hernia and why?

The left side is most common for the occurrence of Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia. Herniation refers to abnormal closure of the pleuroperitoneal foramen. When the pleuroperitoneal folds close the foramen, the right side usually closes first. Hence this increases the likelihood of an opening on the left side through which the viscera of the gut can move in to.

--Z3288196 10:19, 1 September 2011 (EST)

Lab 6 Assessment

1. What week of development do the palatal shelves fuse?

Palatal shelves fuse in week 9

2. What animal model helped elucidate the neural crest origin and migration of cells?

The quail-chick chimera model

3. What abnormality results from neural crest not migrating into the cardiac outflow tract?

Tetralogy of Fallot

--Timothy Ellwood 12:34, 1 September 2011 (EST)

Lab 7 Assessment

1. Are satellite cells (a) necessary for muscle hypertrophy and (b) generally involved in hypertrophy?

a) Satellite cells are not necessary for muscle hypertrophy b) Satellite cells are required for the formation and regeneration of muscle fibers hence they are generally involved in hypertrophy.

2. Why does chronic low frequency stimulation cause a fast to slow fibre type shift?

Chronic low frequency stimulation increases the aerobic capacity of muscle cells in order to resist fatigue.

3. Comment on Trisomy 21 project page.

Peer Review

  • I found the introduction rather brief and disjunctive. More elaboration on the history and the nature of the condition would be more informative and possibly allow for a more flowing intro.
  • Recent findings subheading is a great idea. However it seems to make more sense that this would be better placed towards the end of the page, as very little information is given about Trisomy 21 prior to this, it might be better understood by the layperson once they have read a little more about the disorder. Also thought the articles could be explained, rather than just using direct quotations from the text. Would be more informative to include the general direction of future research in this subheading as well.
  • Karyotype is not explained, only images provided. Greater detail here would make it clearer as to what “Trisomy 21” actually means i.e extra chromosome.
  • Associated Abnormalities subheading is extremely brief. I feel that a little more detail here would help.
  • The subheading Aneuploidy seems unnecessary, as this has already been explained.
  • The screening subheading gives a clear picture of the detection rate of various test, however maybe some more information as to what these tests actually are and how they work could be important.
  • Screening by Country subheading seems incomplete.
  • The overall flow of the presentation could be improved.

--Z3288196 21:45, 21 September 2011 (EST)

Lab 8 Assessment

Peer Review

Turner Syndrome – Group 1

  • Some editing on the “Clinical manifestations” and “Epidemiology” headings to make them start on the next line would look a bit better I think.
  • Possible the addition of some images on the clinical manifestations section would be appropriate, also the idea of a table mentioned earlier by another reviewer I think would suit this sort of information well.
  • The glossary is perhaps a little incomplete? Only in some sections though, such as epidemiology and clinical manifestations. Other sections are well defined in glossary.
  • Future research section is very brief, also thought that you could possibly elaborate as to the direction that this future research is taking and what is trying to be learnt about the syndrome.
  • Some referencing issues with the images, namely the Epidemiology graph and the student drawn image in Diagnostic Procedures.
  • Overall I found the writing style very logical and succinct. Each section is covered quite well. Some errors in sentence structure and grammer however this could be fixed with a thorough proof read.
  • Under the clinical manifestations heading I thought that some terms used could be better defined in this section rather than just listing the conditions. Glossary could also be used, but I think overall it would make this section much more informative.
  • The treatment section seemed like it could include a little more information, a little brief for some of the sub-headings.

Klinefelter’s Syndrome – Group 3

  • I thought the introduction was very thorough however it didn’t really flow and came across as rather disjunct. Maybe you could actually be a little briefer in this section as it does contain a lot of detail that could possibly serve better in other sections. Good use of image in this section.
  • Good use of the table in the history section, maybe an image in this section would look nice also. Use of bullet points as suggested by other reviewers might help to give a more succinct overview, but I thought the writing in this section served well.
  • Putting both images in the Epidemiology section on the right side of the page I think would look better, also the sizing looks like they could be matched.
  • Aetiology is very well written. Good use of images.
  • Some of the pictures need to be referenced correctly and also a little more detail once you click on the images is needed to help explain exactly what is being shown.
  • Missing pics in Signs and Symptoms table. Maybe if its hard to find some you could remove this heading from the table and just have the images offset, as then it would not look incomplete.
  • Some formatting issues in diagnosis section. I liked the inclusion of the movie clip.
  • Current research could be better elaborated. Good explanation of papers however it doesn’t give an overall feel of what is happening in the field. Also the inclusion of future research direction could be an important point.
  • Glossary a little incomplete.

Huntingtons – Group 4

  • This page looks very good and highly detailed. Some of the images do not have correct referencing information and could also contain a little more of a description.
  • Excellent use of referencing. This seems highly detailed and looks like a lot of work has been done to get the page to this standard.
  • Some formatting issues such as the image in future research and in diagnostic tests headings.
  • Video of Huntington’s patient doesn’t need such a big heading, ruins the flow of the page in my opinion.
  • Timeline could give a bit more information, and the importance of these events explained better.
  • Overall was very good work of a high standard.

Fragile X Syndrome – Group 5

  • Introduction is perhaps a little brief. Some points that could be elaborated on are mentioned. Some referencing issues on the images in this section as well as a better explanation as to what these images actually show, why does the fragile x- chromosome look different?
  • Screening could be its own heading and epidemiology could use more images.
  • Etiology looks great. Good description in one of the images however the other one is not explained at all.
  • Development of disease could use with some images, possibly the use of a table here could better summarize the information.
  • Diagnosis could use more information aswell as some images.
  • Recent research does not really contain much information, and I thought that the direction of future research could be commented on in this section also.
  • Glossary needs completing. Some of the referencing web sites should be fixed up.

Tetralogy of Fallot – Group 6

  • Introduction is rather disjunct. No images here also. Also no referencing.
  • History looks well detailed, however other groups have used a timeline or table to summarize this information. I think this would help it flow better and be more succinct.
  • Epidemiology needs some work. No images and the text does not really explain the epidemiology well.
  • Signs and symptoms looks well written, however maybe some more images here could be useful. Also a table might better summarize this information. The image used could be better explained also.
  • Other sections look well structured and highly detailed. Looks like a lot of work and research has been put in. Images are well explained and correctly referenced.
  • The future directions heading could also include some more detail current research projects as well as some comment on the overall direction that this future direction is taking.
  • Glossary needs a lot of work to be complete.

Angelman Syndrome – Group 7

  • Introduction very succinct and well written. Maybe there could be a little more detail here though and the use of an image in this section would look nice aswell.
  • History section has no images also, and doesn’t seem to use much referencing at all. Is this information reliable?
  • Epidemiology covers the basic information, but I think the point was to go beyond basic and make it very detailed. This section could use some work and addition of image would be good also.
  • Aetiology is well written. Good use of table and image. Some formatting issues with image to make the spacing correct.
  • Pathogenisis is highly detailed, some formatting issues in terms of spacing but otherwise well researched and written. Maybe some dot points in this section would help break it up. Use of images is excellent, but still a very text heavy section.
  • Signs and Symptoms heading not formatted correctly. And I found the table in this section a little confusing, can the referencing be put down the bottom of the page with the rest?
  • Is the complications section complete? It looks much shorter than the rest, maybe it would do better as a subheading of sugns and symptoms if there isn’t more to include. An image of these complications could look good.
  • Images in the diagnosis heading has no description or detailed information as to what the images show.
  • Current and Future research section is well written, however I though that you could possibly give a couple of current research projects and give a little more detail on these. It is a good overview and gives a bit of information but I thought more could be written here,
  • Glossary looks great, but not quite complete I don’t think.

Friedrich’s Ataxia – Group 8

  • Introduction well written. Good use of image and referenced well.
  • Timeline looks good. Is it a little short? Maybe there are some more events that you could include. The use of a table here could be good to summarize the timeline and center it.
  • Epidemiology seems to cover all the information required. I thought an image in this section could look nice.
  • Aetiology is highly detailed and well written. Subheadings help to give it more flow, but it is still very text heavy. Is there a way to incorporate a table or perhaps some dot points under some of these headings to make it a little more concise?
  • I thought pathogenesis was wall written, however not much is mentioned on the pathophysiology of the syndrome. This could be elaborated on and more detail given about the development. Good image in this section.
  • Neuropathology is very well written with excellent use of images. I though maybe a review of the formatting could improve this section just to give it a little more flow. Good use of dot points in this section.
  • Clinical presentation and diagnosis look excellent.
  • Treatment section is very text heavy, this could be improved with the use of an image and maybe a table to summarize the info.
  • Current research is a good start. Not much elaboration as to what this current research actually achieves though. I thought that a mention of future research prospects could improve this section
  • Glossary looks great and reasonably complete.
  • Overall this was a very good project. Just some improvements in formatting, inclusion of a few more images and work on the overall consistency of writing (i.e detailed in some sections, and a lot less in others) would improve it I think.

Williams – Beuren Syndrome – Group 9

  • Introduction seems very conscise and clear. Use of an image would improve this section.
  • History of the disease is great. Seems well detailed and reference. Use of the timeline is great. This could be put into a table so it can be centered and improve the overall look of the project. Another image could be included in this section as well, maybe of J. Williams?
  • I thought the Genetic Factors and Etiology section was great. Well written and good use of images. Table was fantastic. I though maybe another section dealing the pathogenesis and pathophysiology would be more informative.
  • Some of your images don’t have a good detailed explanation of what they are showing. I think this would greatly improve your use of images.
  • Epidemiology seems good, covers all the necessary information. I thought an image here could be good, maybe a graph of incidence rates in certain countries.
  • Phenotype is very informative and well written however doesn’t seem to be any referencing. Is this information reliable?
  • Cardiac Conditions is incomplete, “other problems” subheading.
  • More images in Genitourinary and Endocrine headings., and a few others This will help break up the text. Seems quite text heavy in a few sections.
  • Current research and future developments seems incomplete. Not much is mentioned about future research prospects in regards to what we are trying to discover and what direction it is taking etc. This would improve this section. The projects that are mentioned could be elaborated on and their importance explained.
  • Glossary needs completing.
  • Otherwise very well done. Looks like a lot of work has been put in with some very interesting information presented.

Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy – Group 10

  • Excellent introduction and good use of image. Is there some referencing missing in the first few sentences? Some formatting should be done on the image either to make it within the intro section or more shared between the history sections. Looks a little out of place.
  • History is well written but very text heavy. Use of a timeline good improve this section and make it more succinct. Also I thought an image could be good.
  • Epidemiology seems to cover all necessary information and is well referenced. Maybe an image or graph here could be good.
  • I like the student drawn image in the etiology section, maybe the sizing could be improved though? Also some a more detailed description of what the image shows would also be good.
  • Pathogenesis section is very informative. Maybe the pathophysiology could be covered in this section as well? Image could be added.
  • General signs and symptoms would perhaps look better in a table. Otherwise it is quite brief, maybe some more elaboration aswell.
  • I think diagnosis looks incomplete. Not much detail is given about how the diagnosis actually works. Very little referencing. Addition of an image would improve this section.
  • Treatment looks great. I like how you have included current and future prospects. Just wondering if there was room for a heading for current and future research, as Im sure there is more research being undertaken than just in the area of treatment. This could make this project more informative, and perhaps could be another heading.
  • Glossary needs improving.
  • Some issues with referencing such as multiple entries for the same article and some issues with web page referencing.

Cleft Palate and Lip – Group 11

  • Introduction very brief. No use of referencing or image included. This could be improved greatly.
  • History is great and well covered, thought this could be included in one section though rather than breaking it up for the timeline.
  • Diagnosis is well done. Really like the tables. Maybe an image in this section could improve it.
  • Good use of images in Syndromes and Anomalies. Maybe a table could improve the flow of writing? Seems quite broken up with all the dot points.
  • Development/Aetiology section seems to lack referencing. Is this information reliable? Where was it collected?
  • Some formatting issues in the next section “Types” with the images and headings. Thought a table could present this information well also
  • Pathophysiology is excellent, however again seems to be missing some references.
  • Genetic Configuration and Neuro Embryology very well done. Excellent images in Neuro, maybe an image included in the genetic configuration?
  • Some formatting issues in the treatment section with the images. I thought that a more detailed description of these images would be good. Aswell as there being NO references. Where did this info come from? This is the same for the next section ”problems associated”. No referencing at all. This needs to be fixed otherwise you may get done for plagiarism.
  • Current and future research section needs completing. A comment on the general direction of future research and the aims of current research is important. More detail required not just listing of papers. Image could also be included in this section.
  • Glossary incomplete.
  • Some issues with referencing such as multiple entries appearing for same paper, and some sites note referenced correctly.

--Z3288196 10:52, 29 September 2011 (EST)

Lab 9 Assessment

--Z3288196 12:27, 29 September 2011 (EST)

Lab 10 Assessment

--Timothy Ellwood 11:39, 6 October 2011 (EST)