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Chapter I The Formation of the Sex-cells


" Direct " Division of the Germ-cells.


Comparison of Spermatogenesis with Oogenesis.

Chapter II Polar Bodies and Fertilization

Extrusion of the First Polar Body and Egg-laying. The Jelly of the Egg, and the Second Polar Body. Entrance of Spermatozoon and Copulation of Pronuclei.

Chapter III Experiments in Cross-fertilization

Experiments of Pflūger and of Born on Frogs' Eggs. Experiments on Other Forms. Experiments of Rauber and of Boveri.

Chapter IV Cleavage of the Egg

Normal Cleavage.

Correspondence of the First Cleavage-plane and the Median-plane of the Embryo. Roux's Experiments with Oil-drops. Historical Account of the Cleavage of the Frog's Egg.

Chapter V Early Development of the Embryo

The Blastopore.

External Changes after the Closure of the Blastopore.

Chapter VI Formation of the Germ-layers

His's Experiments with Elastic Plates. The Formation of the Embryo by Concrescence. The Formation of the Archenteron. The Overgrowth of the Blastoporic Rim. The Origin of the Mesoderm.

Different Accounts of the Origin of the Archenteron and Mesoderm. Later Development of the Mesoderm and Origin of the Notochord.

Chapter VII The Production of Abnormal Embryos with Spina Bifida

Chapter VIII Pfluger's Experiments on the Frog's Egg

The Effect of Gravity on the Direction of the Cleavage.

The Relation of the Planes of Cleavage to the Axes of the

Embryo. Conclusions from the Experiments.

Chapter IX Experiments of Born and of Roux

Changes that take Place in the Interior of the Egg after Rotation. The Cleavage of the Egg in a Centrifugal Machine.

Chapter X Modification of Cleavage by Compression of the Egg Effect of Compressing the Segmenting Egg between Parallel Plates. Conclusions from the Experiments. The Distribution of the Nuclei in the Compressed Egg.

Chapter XI The Effect of Injuring One of the First Two Blastomeres Roux's Experiment of " Killing " One of the First Two Blastomeres. Further Experiments by Others (Hertwig, Endres and "Walter, Schultze, Wetzel, Morgan).

Chapter XII Interpretations of the Experiments; and Conclusions Roux's Mosaic Theory of Development. Theory of Driesch and of Hertwig of the Equivalency of the Early

Blastomeres. Roux's Subsidiary Hypothesis. Experiments on Other Forms. General Conclusions.

Chapter XIII Organs from the Endoderm

The Closure of the Blastopore, and the Formation of the Neuren teric Canal. The Digestive Tract and the Gill-slits.

Chapter XIV Organs from the Mesoderm

The Mesodermic Somites. The Heart and Blood-vessels. The Pronephros.

Chapter XV Organs from the Ectoderm

The Central Nervous System.

The Eyes.

The Ears.

The Nerves.

The Appearance of Cilia on the Surface of the Embryo.

Chapter XVI Effects of Temperature and of Light on Development

Appendix 171

Literature 173

Index 187