Talk:Timeline human development

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UNSW Embryology

Development Week by Week - Detailed

Introduction

This page is organised to show week by week human development features and approximate timing of key events with more detailed information about specific events in different systems. For a less detailed timeline see[weekbyweek.htm week by week]. The "weeks" refer to embryonic development and differ from clinical weeks (shown in brackets, from last menstrual period) and "stages" refer to Carnegie stages of development. The pull down menus below will take you to specific features and the small images are linked to pages with more specific information.


Week -2

(Clinical Week 1)


Day
Menstrual cycle
Event
1
Menstrual Phase File:Mcycle.GIFMenstrual cycle changes: Uterine endometrium (loss), Ovary (Follicle Development)
2
  File:Humensm.gif
3
   
4
   
5
Proliferative Phase File:Eprosm.gif File:Ovary20sm.jpgMenstrual cycle changes: Uterine endometrium (proliferation), Ovary (Follicle Development)
6
7
   

Week -1

(Clinical Week 2)


Day
  Event
8
Proliferative Phase
9
  File:Mprosm.gif File:Ovary5sm.jpgMid proliferative
10
   
11
   
12
   
13
  File:Lprosm.gif File:Ovary10sm.jpgLate Proliferative
14
Ovulation

Capacitation

File:Follicle.jpg File:Ovulation2sm.jpg[../../Notes/week1.htm ]File:1egghum.jpg

Week 1

(Clinical Week 3)


Day
Stage
Event
1
Secretory PhaseStage 1 File:2cell.gif File:1 2nuclei.jpg File:Secrsm.gif File:Husecsm.gifFertilization, Secretory Phase
2
Stage 2 File:CST2.gif File:Annemb.gif[../Movies/larsen/cleave.mov ]File:5 2cell.jpg[../Movies/larsen/cleave.mov ]File:Cleave.jpgMorula, Blastula
3
  File:Blastocystinvitrosm.jpg
4
Stage 3 CSt3.jpgBlastocyst Hatching (zona pellucida lost)
5
  File:CSt3.gif

Blastocyst (free floating)

6
Stage 4 Adplantation
7
Stage 5 File:2ndwk.jpg

Week 2

(Clinical Week 4)


Day
Stage
Event
8
File:2ndwk.jpgImplantation
9
   
10
   
11
   
12
   
13
Stage 6 File:Chorcav.jpg
14
   

Week 3

(Clinical Week 5)


Day
Stage
Event
15
16
Stage 7 File:CST7A.gif File:CST7B.gif
17
   
18
Stage 8 File:CST8.gif

[../Notes/neuron.htm Neural] – neurogenesis, neural groove and folds are first seen

19
  File:Stage8sem.jpg
20
Stage 9 File:CST9A.gif File:CST9B.gif

[../Notes/skmus6.htm Musculoskeletal] – somitogenesis, first somites form and continue to be added in sequence caudally

[../Notes/neuron.htm Neural] – the three main divisions of the brain, which are not cerebral vesicles, can be distinguished while the neural groove is still completely open

[../Notes/ncrest.htm Neural Crest] – mesencephalic neural crest is visible (PMID: 17848161)

21
  [../Notes/heart.htm Heart] ‚Äì cardiogenesis, week 3 begins as paired heart tubes.

Week 4

(Clinical Week 6)


Day
Stage
Event
22
Stage 10 File:CST10A.gif File:CST10B.gif

[../Notes/ncrest.htm Neural Crest] – differentiation at spinal cord level from day 22 until day 26

[../Notes/neuron.htm Neural] – neural folds begin to fuse near the junction between brain and spinal cord, when [../Notes/ncrest.htm Neural Crest] cells are arising mainly from the neural ectoderm

[../Notes/ncrest.htm Neural Crest] – trigeminal, facial, and postotic ganglia components visible (PMID: 17848161)

[../Notes/ncrest.htm Neural Crest] – migration of vagal level neural crest cells begins (7-10 somite stage)

[../Notes/neuron.htm Brain] – rostral neural tube forms 3 primary brain vesicles (week 4)

[../Notes/respire.htm Respire] – Week 4 - laryngotracheal groove forms on floor foregut.

23
  [../Notes/heart.htm Heart ]‚Äì begins to beat in Humans by day 22-23, first functioning embryonic organ formed.
24
Stage 11 File:CST11.gif

[endocrine8.htm Thyroid ]– thyroid median endodermal thickening in the floor of pharynx

[../Notes/neuron.htm Neural] – rostral (or cephalic) neuropore closes within a few hours; closure is bidirectional, it takes place from the dorsal and terminal lips and may occur in two areas simultaneously. The two lips, however, behave differently.

Optic ventricle appears

25
Stage 12 File:CST12.gif

[endocrine7.htm Pituitary ]Week 4 – hypophysial pouch, Rathke’s pouch, diverticulum from roof

[../Notes/git7.htm GIT - Liver] – septum transversum forming liver stroma and hepatic diverticulum forming hepatic trabeculae (PMID: 9407542)

[../Notes/neuron.htm Neural] – caudal neuropore takes a day to close (closure is approximately at future somitic pair 31/sacral vertebra 2)

[../Notes/neuron.htm Neural] – secondary neurulation begins

[../Notes/ncrest.htm Neural Crest] – cardiac crest, neural crest from rhombomeres 6 and 7 that migrates to pharyngeal arch 3 and from there the truncus arteriosus (PMID: 17848161)

[../Notes/ncrest.htm Neural Crest] – vagal neural crest enter the foregut (20-25 somite stage)

26
   
27
   
28
Stage 13 File:CST13.gif[../Notes/neuron.htm Neural] – the neural tube is normally completely closed, ventricular system now separated from amniotic fluid. Neural crest at spinal level is segregating, and spinal ganglia are in series with the somites. Spinal cord ventral roots beginning to develop. (PMID: 3354839)

telencephalon cavity appears

[../Notes/git7.htm GIT - Liver] – epithelial cord proliferation enmeshing stromal capillaries (PMID: 9407542)

[../Notes/nose.htm Sense - Smell] – Crest comes from the nasal plates (PMID: 15604533)

[../Notes/skin.htm Skin] – 4 weeks - simple ectoderm epithelium over mesenchyme

[../Notes/skin.htm Skin] – 1-3 months ectoderm- germinative (basal) cell repeated division of generates stratified epithelium; mesoderm- differentiates into connective tissue and blood vessels

Week 5

(Clinical Week 7)


Day
Stage
Event
29
[endocrine7.htm Pituitary ]Week 5 – elongation, contacts infundibulum, diverticulum of diencephalon

[../Notes/heart.htm Heart ]– Week 5 septation starts, atrial and ventricular

[../Notes/respire.htm Respire] – Week 5 - left and right lung buds push into the pericardioperitoneal canals (primordia of pleural cavity)

[../Notes/respire.htm Respire] – Week 5-17 lung histology - pseudoglandular

[../Notes/Ear.htm Sense - Hearing] – Week 5 - cochlear part of otic vesicle elongates (humans 2.5 turns)

30
   
31
   
32
Stage 14 File:CST14.gif

Ectoderm - sensory placodes, lens pit, otocyst, nasal placode, primary/secondary vesicles, fourth ventricle of brain

Mesoderm - continued segmentation of paraxial mesoderm (somite pairs), heart prominence

Head - 1st, 2nd and 3rd pharyngeal arch, forebrain, site of lens placode, site of otic placode, stomodeum

Body - heart, liver, umbilical cord, mesonephric ridge visible externally as bulges.

Limb - upper and lower limb buds growing

[../Notes/neuron.htm Neural] – first appearance of the future cerebral hemispheres. Cerebellar plate differentiated to an intermediate layer, and future rhombic lip identifiable (PMID: 3377191)

[../Notes/git7.htm GIT - Liver] – hepatic gland and its vascular channels enlarge, hematopoietic function appears (PMID: 9407542)

33
Stage 15 File:CST15.gif

[../Notes/neuron.htm Neural] – cranial nerves (except olfactory and optic) are identifiable in more advanced embryos (PMID: 3213956)

34
 
35
  Eye - 35 to 37 days retinal pigment present

Week 6

(Clinical Week 8)


Day
Stage
Event
36
[../Notes/endocrine7.htm Pituitary ]Week 6 - connecting stalk between pouch and oral cavity degenerates

[../Notes/endocrine17.htm Parathyroid] Week 6 - diverticulum elongate, hollow then solid, dorsal cell proliferation

[../Notes/endocrine13.htm Thymus] Week 6 - diverticulum elongate, hollow then solid, ventral cell proliferation

[../Notes/endocrine9.htm Adrenal ]Week 6 – fetal cortex forms from mesothelium adjacent to dorsal mesentery, medulla neural crest cells from adjacent sympathetic ganglia

[../Notes/respire.htm Respire] – Week 6 - descent of heart and lungs into thorax. Pleuroperitoneal foramen closes

[../Notes/tongue.htm Tongue] – Week 6 - descent of heart and lungs into thorax. Pleuroperitoneal foramen closes gustatory papilla, caudal midline near the foramen caecum (week 6 to 7 - nerve fibers approach the lingual epithelium)

37
Stage 16 File:CST16.gif[../Notes/neuron.htm Neural] first parasympathetic ganglia, submandibular and ciliary, are identifiable (PMID: 2751117)

[../Notes/skmus7.htm Limbs] – upper limb bud nerves median nerve, radial nerve and ulnar nerve entered into hand plate, myoblasts spindle shaped and oriented parallel to limb bud axis.

[../Notes/heart.htm Heart] – outflow tract elliptical configuration with four cushions, the two larger fusing at this stage. Semilunar valve leaflets form at the downstream end of the cushions

[../Notes/head.htm Head] – lip and palate components of the upper lip, medial nasal prominence and maxillary process present, median palatine process appears.

38
   
39
   
40
   
41
Stage 17 File:CST17.gif

[../Notes/neuron.htm Neural] – telencephalon areas of the future archicortex, paleocortex, and neocortex, visible. Beginning of future choroid plexus (PMID: 2802187)

[../Notes/nose.htm Sense - Smell] – olfactory nerve fibres enter the brain (PMID: 15604533)

[../Notes/neuron.htm Neural] – primordium of the epidural space appears first on the ventral part of the vertebral canal and develops rostro-caudally (PMID: 15478101)

42
  [../Notes/head.htm Heart] ‚Äì separation of common cardiac outflow (aortic arch and pulmonary aorta)

Week 7

(Clinical Week 9)


Day
Stage
Event
43
[../Notes/endocrine10.htm Pancreas] Week 7 to 20 – pancreatic hormones secretion increases, small amount maternal insulin

[../Notes/respire.htm Respire] – Week 7 - enlargement of liver stops descent of heart and lungs

44
Stage 18 File:CST18.gif

[../Notes/skmus7.htm Limb] – [../Notes/skmus9.htm bones] form by endochondrial ossification and throughout embryo replacement of cartilage with bone (week 5-12).

[../Notes/nose.htm Sense - Smell] – vomeronasal fibres and nervus terminalis (PMID: 15604533)

[../Notes/git7.htm GIT - Liver] – obturation due to epithelial proliferation, bile ducts became reorganized, continuity between liver cells and gut (PMID: 9407542)

[../Notes/neuron.htm Neural] – duramater appears (PMID: 15478101)

45
   

[../Notes/git7.htm GIT - Liver] (stage 18 to 23) – biliary ductules developed in periportal connective tissue

produces ductal plates that receive biliary capillaries (PMID: 9407542)

46
   
47
   
48
Stage 19 File:CST19.gif[../Notes/neuron.htm Neural] – accessory olivary nucleus appears (PMID: 2268071)
49
   

Week 8

(Clinical Week 10)


Day
Stage
Event
50
Stage 20 File:CST20.gif

[../Notes/head.htm Head] – scalp vascular plexus visible

[../Notes/skmus7.htm Limb] – upper limbs begin to rotate ventrally

[../Notes/neuron.htm Neural] – amygdaloid body has at least four individual nuclei (PMID: 2268071)

oculomotor nerve shows a dorsolateral and a ventromedial portion

rhombic lip (rhombencephalon) formation of the cerebellum (intermediate layer) and of the cochlear nuclei

cerebellum cell layer (future Purkinje cells) develops

choroid plexuses of the fourth and lateral ventricles

51
  [../Notes/git.htm Gastrointestinal Tract] ‚Äì anal membrane perforates
52
Stage 21 File:CST21.gif

[../Notes/neuron.htm Neural] – cortical plate appears in the area of future insula (PMID: 2252222)

[../Notes/skmus7.htm Limb] – upper and lower limbs rotate

[../Notes/coelom.htm Intraembryonic Coelom] – pericardioperitoneal canals close

53
   
54
Stage 22 File:CST22.gif[../Notes/neuron.htm Neural] – neocortical fibres project to epithalamus, to dorsal thalamus, and to mesencephalon (PMID: 2252222)

[../Notes/skmus7.htm Limb] – fingers and toes lengthen

[../Notes/nose.htm Sense - Smell] – Stage 22 to early fetal period - migratory streams of neurons from the subventricular zone of the olfactory bulb towards the future claustrum (PMID: 15604533)

55
[../Notes/genital.htm Genital ]8 Weeks – Testis - mesenchyme, interstitial cells (of Leydig) secrete testosterone, androstenedione

[../Notes/genital.htm Genital ]8 to 12 Weeks - hCG stimulates testosterone production

[../Notes/tongue.htm Tongue] – Week 8 - nerves penetrate epitheilai basal lamina and synapse with undifferentiated, elongated, epithelial cells (taste bud progenitor cell)

56
Stage 23 File:CST23.gif[../wwwhuman/Stages/Stage23L.htm ]Stage 23 defines the end of the embryonic (organogenesis) period

Mesoderm – heart prominence, ossification continues

[../Notes/head.htm Head] – nose, eye, external acoustic meatus, eyelids, external ears, rounded head

Body - straightening of trunk, heart, liver, umbilical cord, intestines herniated at umbilicus

[../Notes/skmus7.htm Limb] – upper limbs longer and bent at elbow, hands and feet turned inward, foot with separated digits, wrist, hand with separated digits

Extraembryonic Coelom – chorionic cavity is now lost by fusion with the expanding amniotic cavity

[../Notes/neuron.htm Neural] – rhombencephalon, pyramidal decussation present, nuclei and tracts similar to those present in the newborn cerebellum present as only a plate connected to midbrain and hindbrain through fibre bundles (PMID: 2244584)

[../Notes/skmus8.htm Axial Skeleton] – vertebral column 33 or 34 cartilaginous vertebrae (20-33 mm in total length), vertebral pedicles, articular and transverse processes identifiable (no spinous processes) (PMID: 7216919)

 
Week 8 [../Notes/git10.htm GIT - Stomach] - Week 8 - Gastrin containing cells in stomach antrum. Somatostatin cells in both the antrum and the fundus.

Week 9

(Clinical Week 11)


Day
Stage
Event
57
Fetal Period File:EFsizeactual.jpg

[../Notes/Ear.htm Sense - Hearing] – Week 9 - mesenchyme surrounding membranous labrynth (otic capsule) chondrifies

[../Notes/nose.htm Sense - Smell] – Embryonic/Fetal transition - localized incomplete lamination of the olfactory bulb (PMID: 15604533)

58
   
59
 
60
   
61
 
62
   
63
Week 9 - CRL 43 mm, femur length 6 mm

9 weeks CRL 50 mm - genitalia in both sexes look identical (PMID: 17875485)

uterus - paramesonephric ducts come into apposition with the urorectal septum and begin to fuse

Week 10

(Clinical Week 12)


Day
Stage
Event
64
File:EFsizeactual.jpg

[../Notes/git.htm Gastrointestinal Tract] – Week 10 intestines in abdomen

[../Notes/endocrine7.htm Pituitary ]– growth hormone and ACTH detectable

[../Notes/endocrine10.htm Pancreas] – Week 10 glucagon (alpha) differentiate first, somatostatin (delta), insulin (beta) cells differentiate, insulin secretion begins

[../Notes/tongue.htm Tongue] – Week 10 shallow grooves above the taste bud primordium

[../Notes/git10.htm GIT - Stomach] - Week 10 - Glucagon containing cells in stomach fundus.

65
   
66
 
67
   
68
 
69
   
70
Week 10 - CRL 55 mm, femur length 9 mm, biparietal diameter 17 mm

Week 11

(Clinical Week 13)


Day
Stage
Event
71
File:EFsizeactual.jpg

[../Notes/endocrine8.htm Thyroid ]– colloid appearance in thyroid follicles, iodine and thyroid hormone (TH) synthesis

[../Notes/git10.htm GIT - Stomach] - Week 11 - Serotonin containing cells in both the antrum and the fundus.

72
   
73
 
74
   
75
 
76
   
77
Week 11 - CRL 68 mm, femur length 12 mm, biparietal diameter 20 mm

Second Trimester

(Clinical Week 14)


Week
Stage
Event
12
Clinical second trimester File:Headbone.jpgWeek 12 - CRL 85 mm, femur length 15 mm, biparietal diameter 25 mm

[../Notes/Ear.htm Sense - Hearing] – Week 12-16 - Capsule adjacent to membranous labrynth undegoes vacuolization to form a cavity (perilymphatic space) around membranous labrynth and fills with perilymph

[../Notes/genital.htm Genital] – male and female external genital differences observable

[../Notes/respire.htm Respire] – Month 3-6 - lungs appear glandular, end month 6 alveolar cells type 2 appear and begin to secrete surfactant

[../Notes/tongue.htm Tongue] – Week 12 - first differentiated epithelial cells (Type II and III)

female genital canal (80 days) formed with absorption of the median septum

13
  [../Notes/tongue.htm Tongue] ‚Äì Week 12 to 13 - maximum synapses between cells and afferent nerve fibers

 

14
[../Notes/tongue.htm Tongue] – Week 14 to 15 - taste pores develop, mucous
15
  [../Notes/endocrine10.htm Pancreas ]‚Äì glucagon detectable in fetal plasma
16
14 cm [../Notes/Ear.htm Sense - Hearing] – Week 16-24 - Centres of ossification appear in remaining cartilage of otic capsule form petrous portion of temporal bone. Continues to ossify to form mastoid process of temporal bone.

[../Notes/endocrine7.htm Pituitary ]– adenohypophysis fully differentiated

[../Notes/respire.htm Respire] – Week 16 to 25 lung histology - canalicular

[../Notes/skin.htm Skin] – 4 months - basal cell- proliferation generates folds in basement membrane; neural crest cells- (melanocytes) migrate into epithelium; embryonic connective tissue- differentiates into dermis, a loose ct layer over a dense ct layer. Beneath the dense ct layer is another loose ct layer that will form the subcutaneous layer. Ectoderm contributes to nails, hair follictles and glands. Nails form as thickening of ectoderm epidermis at the tips of fingers and toes. These form germinative cells of nail field. Cords of these cells extend into mesoderm forming epithelial columns. These form hair follocles, sebaceous and sweat glands.

primary follicles begin to form in the ovary and are characterized by an oocyte

glandular urethra forms and skin folds present

17
 
18
[../Notes/tongue.htm Tongue] – Week 18 - substance P detected in dermal papillae, not in taste bud primordia

[../Notes/skin.htm Skin] – vernix caseosa covers skin

[../Notes/git8.htm Spleen] - α-SMA-positive reticulum cells increase in number and begin to form a reticular framework. PMID: 1925578

19
   
20
  [../Notes/endocrine7.htm Pituitary ]‚Äì week 20 to 24 ‚Äì growth hormone levels peak, then decline

[../Notes/skin.htm Skin] – lanugo, skin hair

[../Notes/skin.htm Skin] – 5 months - Hair growth initiated at base of cord, lateral outgrowths form associated sebaceous glands; Other cords elongate and coil to form sweat glands; Cords in mammary region branch as they elongate to form mammary glands.

21
   
22
  [../Notes/neuron.htm Neural] ‚Äì brain cortical sulcation - sylvian fissure, interhemispheric fissure, callosal sulcus, parietooccipital fissure, and hippocampic fissures present(PMID:11158907

[../Notes/git8.htm Spleen] - antigenic reticular framework diversity, T and B lymphocytes segregated in the framework PMID: 1925578

23
   
24
  [../Notes/respire.htm Respire] ‚Äì Week 24 to 40 lung histology - terminal sac

Earliest potential survival expected if born

ovarian follicles can consist of growing oocytes surrounded by several layers of granulosa cells

25
  [../Notes/respire.htm Respire] ‚Äì end month 6 alveolar cells type 2 appear and begin to secrete surfactant

Third Trimester

(Clinical Week 28)


Week
Stage
Event
`
Clinical third trimester File:EFsizeactual.jpg[../Notes/Ear.htm Sense - Hearing] – 3rd Trimester - vibration acoustically of maternal abdominal wall induces startle respone in fetus.
27
 
28
  [../Notes/respire.htm Respire] ‚Äì Month 7 - respiratory bronchioles proliferate and end in alveolar ducts and sacs
29
 
30
   

[../Notes/genital.htm Genital] – male gonad (testes) descending

31
 
32
   
33
  [../Notes/neuron.htm Neural] ‚Äì brain cortical sulcation - primary sulci present (PMID:11158907)
34
  [../Notes/neuron.htm Neural] ‚Äì brain cortical sulcation - insular, cingular, and occipital secondary sulci present (PMID:11158907)
35
   
36
 
37
   
38
Birth File:Birthsm.gif Clinical Week 40

[../Notes/heart.htm Heart ]– pressure difference closes foramen ovale leaving a fossa ovalis

[../Notes/endocrine8.htm Thyroid ]– TSH levels increase, thyroxine (T3) and T4 levels increase to 24 h, then 5-7 days postnatal decline to normal levels

[../Notes/endocrine9.htm Adrenal] - zona glomerulosa, zona fasiculata present



Postnatal

Week
Stage
Event
+1
 
+2
 
+3
 
+4
 
+5
   
Year
 
Year1
  Hearing - (6 months to 5 years) thalamocortical afferents to the deeper cortical layers mature and are the first source of input to the auditory cortex (PMID: 12018354)
Year 2
   
Year 3
  [../Notes/endocrine9.htm Adrenal] - Year 3 ‚Äì zona reticularis present
4
   
5
  Hearing - (5 to 12 years) commissural and association axons in the superficial cortical layers allows communication between subdivisions of the auditory cortex (PMID: 12018354)
37
   
38

Comments

This page is a week by week coverage of human development. Timing, dates and staging are "ideal" and there is significant variability in the general timing of events. PMID refers to the original Pubmed reference data source (links to be added). The timing is also based from fertilization, not gestational age from LMP (add 2 weeks).Copyright: Dr Mark HillCreated: 26.02.2008Updated: 20.07.2009 UNSW CRICOS Provider Code No. 00098G