Talk:Hearing - Middle Ear Development

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Incudomalleal joint formation: the roles of apoptosis, migration and downregulation. Amin S, Matalova E, Simpson C, Yoshida H, Tucker AS. BMC Dev Biol. 2007 Dec 5;7:134. PMID: 18053235

"The malleus and incus first appear as a single united condensation expressing early cartilage markers. The incudomalleal joint region forms by cells in the presumptive joint region switching off cartilage markers and turning on joint markers. Failure in this process may result in fusion of this joint, as observed in human syndromes such as Branchio-Oto-Renal Syndrome or Treacher Collins Syndrome."