Talk:Connective Tissue Development

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Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2024, April 25) Embryology Connective Tissue Development. Retrieved from


The growth and developmental of the myodural bridge and its associated structures in the human fetus

Sci Rep. 2023 Aug 17;13(1):13421. doi: 10.1038/s41598-023-40709-1. PMID: 37591924

Myodural bridge (MDB) is a dense connective tissue between suboccipital muscle and dura mater. However, there are few reports on the development and maturation of the human MDB. This study aims to explore the developmental relationship between suboccipital muscle and MDB. 30 head and neck specimens from human fetuses (F) ranging from the 12th to 41st week (W) were made into histological sections. The F12W sections showed evidence that the dura mater dominated by fibroblasts, attached to the posterior atlanto-axial membrane (PAAM) which completely sealed the atlanto-axial space. In the F13W stage, myofibrils of the suboccipital muscle fibers increased significantly in number. At the F14W stage, a gap was observed at the caudal end of the PAAM. Numerous myodural bridge-like structures were observed blending into the dura mater through the gap. At the F19W stage, muscle cells mature. Starting at the F21W stage, the MDB were observed as fibroblasts that cross the atlanto-axial interspace and attach to the dura mater. Therefore, the traction generated by the suboccipital muscles seems to promote the maturity of MDB. This study will provide new morphological knowledge to support future research on the function of the human MDB and regulating the development mechanism of MDB.



Orexin is required for brown adipose tissue development, differentiation, and function

Cell Metab. 2011 Oct 5;14(4):478-90.

Sellayah D, Bharaj P, Sikder D.


Metabolic Signaling and Disease Program, Diabetes and Obesity Research Center, Sanford-Burnham Medical Research Institute, 6400 Sanger Road, Orlando, FL 32827, USA.


Orexin (OX) neuropeptides stimulate feeding and arousal. Deficiency of orexin is implicated in narcolepsy, a disease associated with obesity, paradoxically in the face of reduced food intake. Here, we show that obesity in orexin-null mice is associated with impaired brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenesis. Failure of thermogenesis in OX-null mice is due to inability of brown preadipocytes to differentiate. The differentiation defect in OX-null neonates is circumvented by OX injections to OX-null dams. In vitro, OX, triggers the full differentiation program in mesenchymal progenitor stem cells, embryonic fibroblasts and brown preadipocytes via p38 mitogen activated protein (MAP) kinase and bone morphogenetic protein receptor-1a (BMPR1A)-dependent Smad1/5 signaling. Our study suggests that obesity associated with OX depletion is linked to brown-fat hypoactivity, which leads to dampening of energy expenditure. Thus, orexin plays an integral role in adaptive thermogenesis and body weight regulation via effects on BAT differentiation and function.

Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

PMID 21982708


The generation of adipocytes by the neural crest

Development. 2007 Jun;134(12):2283-92. Epub 2007 May 16.

Billon N, Iannarelli P, Monteiro MC, Glavieux-Pardanaud C, Richardson WD, Kessaris N, Dani C, Dupin E. Source Institut de Recherche, Signalisation, Biologie du Développement et Cancer, CNRS UMR 6543, Centre de Biochimie, Faculté des Sciences, Université Nice Sophia-Antipolis, Nice, France.


Fat cells (adipocytes) develop from adipocyte precursor cells (preadipocytes) that themselves derive from mesenchymal progenitors. Although the events controlling preadipocyte differentiation into mature adipocytes have been largely explored, the mechanisms that direct mesenchymal progenitors down the adipocyte pathway remain unknown. Similarly, although adipocytes are generally thought to derive from mesoderm, key information is lacking regarding the origin and the development of the adipose tissue during embryogenesis. The aim of this study was to gain insight into the ontogeny of fat cells, both in mouse embryonic stem (mES) cell-derived cultures and during normal development. We first used genetically engineered mES cells to produce and select ES cell-derived neuroepithelial progenitors and showed that neuroectoderm, rather than mesoderm, may be a source of adipocytes in mES cell-derived cultures. We then used primary and secondary cultures of developing quail neural crest (NC) cells to demonstrate that NC cells are able, upon stimulation with defined factors, to differentiate into adipocytes, thus providing a powerful system to study the earliest stages of adipocyte differentiation. Finally, we mapped NC derivatives in vivo using Cre-mediated recombination in transgenic mice and demonstrated that a subset of adipocytes originates from the NC during normal development.

PMID 17507398