Talk:Book - Buchanan's Manual of Anatomy including Embryology 16

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The eyeball is almost spherical. It consists of the segments of two spheres—namely, a large posterior or sclerotic segment, which is opaque, and a small anterior or corneal segment, which is transparent. The sclerotic segment forms five-sixths of the eyeball, and the corneal segment one-sixth. The centre of the corneal segment is called the anterior pole, and the centre of the sclerotic segment is known as the posterior pole. The sagittal (antero-posterior) axis, or axis of vision, of the eyeball is represented by a line connecting the anterior and posterior poles. The equator is represented by a line encircling the centre of the eyeball in a coronal plane, the diameter of the circle being about I inch. The plane of this circle would therefore divide the eyeball into two halves—an anterior half, consisting of the corneal and the front part of the sclerotic segment, and a posterior half, consisting of the back part of the sclerotic segment. The meridian is represented by a line encircling the eyeball horizontally at right angles to the equator, and passing through the anterior and posterior poles.

Posteriorly the eyeball receives the optic nerve, which pierces the sclerotic coat at a point about J inch to the inner side of and about -f T inch below the posterior pole.

The eyeball is composed of three coats concentrically arranged: (i) an external coat, consisting of an opaque part, called the sclera, and a transparent part, called the cornea; (2) a middle coat, which is vascular, pigmented, and muscular, and consists of (a) a posterior part, called the choroid coat, (b) an anterior part, the iris, and (c) an intermediate part, representing the ciliary body; and (3) an internal

coat , called the retina. .

These three coats enclose the following refracting media : (1) a fluid, called the aqueous humour, which lies between the cornea and the crystalline lens, where it occupies the anterior and posterior chambers, into which this region is divided by the iris; (2) a solid body, called the crystalline lens, which lies behind the aqueous humour, and (3) a soft gelatinous body, called the vitreous body, which occupies the laige space behind the crystalline lens.

Coats of the Eyeball.

External=sclera and cornea.

Middle =choroid, ciliary body, and iris. Internal = retina.

Refracting Media.

Aqueous humour. Crystalline lens. Vitreous body.




External Coat.

Sclera (or Sclerotic Coat).—The sclera (white of the eye) is a strong white fibrous coat of great density, which surrounds the posterior five-sixths of the eyeball, and maintains the shape of the organ. Anteriorly it unites, and becomes continuous with the cornea, which it slightly overlaps. The junction of the two is indicated by a slight groove, called the sulcus sclerce, and the union is known as the corneoscleral junction . Posteriorly, as has been shown above, the sclera is pierced by the optic nerve a little below and to' the inner side of the centre. The part of the sclera corresponding to the optic entrance

Levatoi Palpebras Superioris

Fornix Conjunctive

Fig. 1005.—Vertical Sagittal Section of the Eye and its Appendages (Hirschfeld and Leveille).

is pierced by a number of openings for the passage of the fasciculi of the optic nerve, and hence is called the lamina cribrosa.

Around the optic entrance there are numerous minute openings for the ciliary vessels and nerves, and here the dura matral sheath of the optic nerve blends with the sclerotic coat. About midway between the optic entrance and the corneo-scleral junction the sclera is pierced by four openings for the passage of the vence vorticosce of the choroid.

The sclera is thickest posteriorly around the optic entrance. It is also thick near the sclero-corneal junction, where it receives the insertions of the recti muscles.

The outer surface of the sclera is covered by a membranous investment, called the fascial sheath of the eyeball (fascia bulbi or capsule of Tenon), and between the two there is the episcleral lymph-space (or

Hyaloid Canal (Canal of Cloquet)

Hyaloid Membrane



Sinus Venosus Sclera?

Anterior Chamber \

. Choroid

Rectus Superior i „--Sclera

Arteria z Centralis

/ Retinas


Ciliary / y. Processes'’ ft

Zonuiar Space

Rectus Inferior



Tenon’s space), which is broken up into a reticulum by processes of connective tissue which pass between the sheath and the sclera. This space communicates with the subdural and subarachnoid spaces. The inner surface of the sclerotic coat is dark brown, and has grooves for the ciliary vessels and nerves. It is lined with connective tissue containing pigment-cells, forming the lamina fusca. Processes from this layer pass to the choroid coat, and these, together with vessels and nerves, traverse an interval, which represents the perichoroidal lymph-space. This space communicates with the episcleral lymphspace through the vascular openings in the sclera. Anteriorly the sclera blends with the cornea at the sclero-corneal junction, the sclera slightly overlapping the cornea. Posteriorly around the optic entrance the sclera blends with the dura matral sheath of the optic nerve.

Structure.—The sclera is composed of fibrous tissue mixed with elastic fibres, and contains many connective-tissue corpuscles. The fibres are arranged in bundles, which are disposed longitudinally and transversely, and interlace with one another. The connective-tissue corpuscles occupy spaces between the fibres, which may be regarded as lymph-spaces.

Arteries.—These are the short ciliary group of posterior ciliary arteries, and the anterior ciliary arteries, which are branches of the ophthalmic. The vessels belonging to the former group are disposed in the form of capillary networks; whilst the vessels derived from the latter form a ring near the sclero-corneal junction beneath the conjunctiva, to which ring they converge in the substance of the sclerotic coat.

The sclerotic veins open into the anterior ciliary veins, and into the vencB vorticosce of the choroid. There is also a slight drainage into the sinus venosus sclerce , a minute channel running deeply at the sclero-corneal junction.

Nerve-supply.—The ciliary nerves.

Cornea.—The cornea is the transparent part of the external coat of the eyeball, of which it forms the anterior sixth, and serves to transmit light. It is almost circular, its transverse measurement being slightly greater than the vertical. At its circumference it is continuous with the sclera, by which it is slightly overlapped. The anterior surface is convex. The posterior surface is concave, and forms the anterior boundary of the anterior chamber of the eye.

Structure.— The cornea consists of the following five layers, from

before backwards: .

1. The conjunctival epithelium.

2. The anterior elastic lamina.

3. The substantia propria.

4. The posterior elastic lamina.

5. A layer of endothelium.

The conjunctival epithelium is stratified, there being not less than five strata of cells, and is continuous with the epithelium, which covers



^ \ Stratified Epithelium of / Conjunctiva Membrane of Bowman or Anterior Elastic Lamina

the free surface of the conjunctiva. The cells of the deepest stratum are columnar; succeeding these there are layers of polygonal cells; and these in turn are overlaid by layers of squamous cells.

The anterior elastic lamina (Bowman) is probably of the same nature as the fibrous portion of the substantia propria. It is closely connected with the substantia propria, is thin, and contains no corpuscles.

The substantia propria is composed of modified connective tissue arranged in bundles which form superimposed laminae. These laminae amount in number to about sixty. The fibres of alternate laminae cross each other at right angles, and at the circumference of the cornea

they are continuous with

the fibres of the sclerotic. The successive laminae are connected by cement substance, and within this substance are branched spaces, called the corneal spaces or lacunae, which communicate with each other by very delicate canaliculi. Each of these spaces contains a nucleated connective-tissue corpuscle, called the corneal corpuscle. These corpuscles, like the spaces which they occupy, are branched, and the offsets of adjacent corpuscles communicate with one another. As seen in vertical sections of the cornea, the corpuscles are spindle - shaped, but in

Substantia Propria

Posterior Elastic Lamina or

Membrane of Descemet 'Single Layer of Squamous Epithelium lining Descemet’s Membrane

Fig. 1006.—Vertical Section of the Cornea

(magnified) .

horizontal sections they appear flattened out, and give off their branches.

The posterior elastic lamina (or membrane of Descemet) covers the posterior surface of the substantia propria. It is thicker than the anterior elastic lamina, and .is composed of an elastic homogeneous membrane, which is very brittle. When stripped from the substantia propria it comes away in shreds, and these curl up at their ends in such a manner that the anterior or attached surface of each shred is turned inwards. At the circumference of the cornea the posterior elastic lamina becomes broken up into fibres. The most posterior of these fibres pass in a radiating manner into the iris, and they form the ligamentum pectinatum iridis, the intervals between the fibres of which represent the spaces of the irido-corneal angle.

The layer of endothelium lines the posterior surface of the posterior

THE EYE 1645

elastic lamina, and consists of one stratum of cells. It is continued over the front of the iris, and into the spaces of the angle.

The cornea in the adult is non-vascular, except at the circumference, in which situation there are the conjunctival and sclerotic capillaries, which terminate in loops. Being destitute of blood-vessels, the nourishment of the cornea is maintained by the flow of lymph through its surface. It is about 1 mm. thick, slightly more peripherally.

Nerve-supply.—The nerves are derived from the ciliary nerves, and are very numerous. They enter the deep surface of the anterior part of the sclera, and form a plexus round the corneo-scleral junction. Offsets from this plexus enter the cornea, and form what is known as the plexus annularis. From this plexus delicate offsets are given off, which traverse the substance of the cornea and pass through the anterior elastic lamina. They then give rise to a fine plexus upon the surface of that lamina, called the subepithelial plexus. From this plexus, in turn, minute fibrils are given off, which pass amongst the cells of the conjunctival epithelium, and almost reach the surface, forming an intra-epithelial plexus.

Pectinate Ligament of Iris.—It has been seen that the posterior elastic lamina at its circumference breaks up into fibres. The most posterior of these pass in a radiating manner into the iris, constitute the ligamentum pectinatum iridis, and are covered by a prolongation of the endothelial layer of the cornea.

Spaces of Irido-corneal Angle (or Spaces of Fontana).—These spaces represent the irregular intervals which lie between the radiating fibres of the pectinate ligament. They are lined by a prolongation of the endothelial layer of the cornea, and they communicate internally with the anterior chamber and the lymph-spaces within the iris, and externally with the sinus venosus sclerae.

Sinus Venosus Sclerse.—This canal (formerly known as the canal of Schlemm) is situated deeply in the sclerotic, close to the corneo-scleral junction. It communicates internally with the anterior chamber through the spaces of the irido-corneal angle, and externally with anterior ciliary veins of the sclera. It encircles the outer margin of the cornea, and has a little projecting rim of sclerotic on its deep surface, called the ‘ scleral spur/ from which the ciliary muscle takes


Middle Coat.

1. Choroid Coat.— This is a very vascular, deeply pigmented tunic of a dark brown colour, which lies between the sclera and the retina. It extends over the posterior five-sixths of the eyeball, and reaches as far forwards as the ora serrata of the retina. Anteriorly it is connected with the circumference of the iris, and posteriorly it is pierced by the optic nerve. Its outer surface is connected to the inner surface of the sclera by means of the lamina fusca and its processes, as well as by vessels and nerves which cross the ‘ perichoroidal lymph-space. Its inner surface is in contact with the pigmentary- layer of the retina.



Structure.—The choroid coat consists of connective tissue, bloodvessels, and branched pigment-cells. It is composed of three layers, which are as follows, from without inwards: (1) the lamina supra choroidea; (2) the choroid proper; and (3) the lamina basalis, or membrane of Bruch.

The suprachoroid lamina is composed of delicate, non-vascular lamellae, each of which is made up of elastic fibres arranged in a reticular manner, and of branched pigment-cells.

The choroid proper consists principally of bloodvessels and pigmentcells supported by connective tissue. The bloodvessels are arranged partly as arteries and veins, and partly as capillaries. The choroid proper is therefore composed of two layers—external or lamina vasculosa, and internal or lamina chorio-capillaris.

The lamina vasculosa (arterio-venous layer) is composed of (1) branches of the short ciliary group of the posterior ciliary arteries, which pass forwards before they turn inwards to end in capillaries;

Suprachoroid Lamina

Arterio-Venous Layer

Membrana Chorio-capillaris

Basal Lamina (Bruch’s Memb.)

Pigmentary Layer of the Retina

Fig. 1007.—Vertical Section of the Choroid Coat.

The pigmentary layer of the retina is also shown.

and (2) veins, which form the chief part of the lamina vasculosa, and are called the vense vorticosae. These veins are very closely set, and are arranged in a whorled manner. They ultimately converge and form four or five vessels, which pierce the sclerotic nearly midway between the optic entrance and the corneo-scleral junction at points equally distant from each other. Scattered throughout the lamina vasculosa are branched pigment-cells.

The lamina chorio-capillaris is composed of a plexus of capillary bloodvessels, the arteries leading to it being derived from the short ciliary arteries.

The lamina vasculosa and lamina chorio-capillaris are connected by fine elastic fibres, which form what is known as the stratum intermedium.

The lamina basalis, or membrane of Bruch, is situated on the inner surface of the lamina chorio-capillaris, which it separates from the pigmentary layer of the retina. It is a very delicate membrane without any very definite structure.



Tapetum. —This is present in certain animals. It lies between the lamina vaseulosa and the lamina chorio-capillaris in the stratum intermedium, and it gives rise to an iridescent or rainbow-like appearance. In some animals it is fibrous in structure, and in others cellular.

2. Ciliary Body.—The ciliary body connects the anterior part of the choroid to the circumference of the iris. It is composed of (1) the orbicularis ciliaris, (2) the ciliary processes, and (3) the ciliary muscle.

The orbicularis ciliaris, or ciliary ring, is a narrow zone which lies immediately in front of the anterior part of the choroid, with which it is continuous. In it are folds which are radially disposed, and it separates the ciliary processes from the ora serrata of the retina.

The ciliary processes, about seventy in number, are infoldings (Fig. 1005) of the anterior part of the choroid, and consist of the choroid proper and the basal membrane (of Bruch). They constitute a series




Optic Nerve


Ciliary Body Iris

Cornea " Lens

'Anterior Chamber Posterior Chamber

— Sinus Venosus Scleras . Ora Serrata


Fig. 1008.—Diagram of Section through the Eyeball to show the Main Layers mentioned in the Description.

S, S, suspensory ligament of lens.

of rays arranged in a circular manner, and converge as they pass inwards and forwards to the periphery of the crystalline lens on its anterior aspect. They are somewhat conical in outline.. Their bases or free extremities, which are round and prominent, lie behind the circumference of the iris upon the anterior aspect of the periphery of the crystalline lens. Their apices are connected with the orbicularis ciliaris Anteriorly they are related to the posterior chamber of the eyeball at its circumference. Posteriorly they are related to and connected with the suspensory ligament of the lens.

Structure._The ciliary processes are similar in structure to the

choroid, but the pigment-cells are not so numerous. On their deep or posterior surfaces the processes are covered by the ciliary part of the retina, which is prolonged from the pigmentary layer of the retina, and is continuous with the pars iridica retinae (uvea) on the posterior surface of the iris.



The arteries of the ciliary processes are derived from those of the anterior part of the choroid, and from the anterior ciliary arteries. The veins pass to those of the choroid.

Ciliary Muscle. —This muscle is composed of unstriped fibres. It forms a greyish-white ring, about T V inch broad, which is situated at the anterior part of the choroid opposite the ciliary processes. The fibres are arranged in two sets—radial and circular. The radial fibres arise from the calcar sclerae close to the corneo-scleral junction and behind the sinus venosus of the sclera. From this origin they pass backwards in a radiating manner, and are inserted into the orbicularis ciliaris and the attached ends of the ciliary processes. The circular fibres form a ring around the circumference of the iris internal to the radial fibres.


Fig. 1009.—The Iris and Ciliary Processes (Posterior View)

(Hirschfeld and Leveille).

The ciliary muscle is supplied by the short ciliary nerves, which are branches of the ciliary ganglion, and derive their fibres from the motor oculi nerve.

Action. —The ciliary muscle is the muscle of accommodation , and adjusts the eye to the vision of near objects. When it contracts it draws forwards the choroid and the ciliary processes; the suspensory ligament of the crystalline lens is thereby relaxed, and, as a consequence, the anterior surface of the lens is rendered convex.

The circular fibres of the ciliary muscle are well developed in cases of hypermetropia, but are deficient in cases of myopia.

3. Iris. —The iris forms the anterior part of the middle coat of the eyeball. It is a coloured contractile diaphragm, which is suspended in the aqueous humour between the cornea and the crystalline lens. It is perforated by an almost circular aperture, called the pupil, which is situated slightly to the nasal or inner side of its centre, and serves for the transmission of light. The margin which surrounds the pupil is known as the pupillary margin. Its circumference is continuous



with the ciliary body, and is connected with the posterior elastic lamina of the cornea by means of the ligamentum pectinatum iridis

Anterior Wall of Capsule of Lens..(I

Sphincter Pupillae ...

Membrane of Descemet —

Epithelium . of Cornea

Sinus Venosus Scleras

Suspensory Ligament Middle Portion of Suspensory Ligament

Posterior Portion of Suspensory Ligament

Margin of Cornea

Conjunctiva —

Ciliary Muscle "Radiating Fibres)

Fig. ioio.—Meridional Section through the Anterior Portion of

the Eye (magnified 16X1) (Fuchs).

C.P., C.P., zonular spaces.

at the iridial angle. The circumference is known as the ciliary margin. The surfaces of the iris are anterior and posterior. The anterior




surface is directed towards the cornea. Its colour varies in different individuals, and it presents a striated appearance, the striae converging towards the margin of the pupil, and being produced by the underlying vessels. The posterior surface is directed towards the crystalline lens and ciliary processes. It has a purple colour, and is covered by two layers of columnar epithelium, the cells of which contain dark pigment. These two layers of pigmented cells constitute the pars iridica retinae (uvea), which is continuous with the pars ciliaris retinae.

_ The iris divides the space between the cornea and the crystalline lens into two compartments, the anterior chamber and posterior chamber, both of which contain the aqueous humour.

Structure. —The component parts of the iris are (1) a layer of endothelium; (2) a connective-tissue stroma, with branched pigmentcells; (3) muscular tissue; and (4) pigment.

The layer of endothelium covers the anterior surface of the iris, and is continuous with the endothelium which lines the posterior elastic lamina of the cornea.

Long Ciliary Artery

Fig. ioii.—The Arteries of the Choroid and Iris (Lateral View).

The connective-tissue stroma is composed of fibres which for the most part pass in a radiating manner towards the pupillary margin. Some, however, are disposed circularly at the ciliary margin. They support the bloodvessels and nerves, and scattered between their bundles there are branched cells. These cells contain pigment in darkcoloured eyes, but in blue eyes there is little pigment here.

The muscular tissue is of the unstriped variety, and its fibres are arranged in two sets, circular and radiating. The circular fibres form a ring round the pupil, and are nearer the posterior surface than the anterior. They are known as the sphincter pupillse. The radiating fibres converge from the ciliary margin of the iris towards the pupillary margin, where they blend with the circular fibres. The radiating fibres constitute the dilator pupillse. Some authorities regard the radiating fibres as elastic, and not muscular.

The pigment of the iris is variously situated, according to the colour of the eye. In the eyes of albinos there is no pigment. In other eyes pigment is contained in the cells of the two layers of columnar



epithelium which line the posterior surface of the iris, and form the pars iridica retinae (uvea). In blue eyes the pigment is largely confined to this region, but in other coloured eyes it is also present in the branched cells of the connective-tissue stroma.

Blood-supply—Arteries. —The arteries of the iris are derived from (1) the long ciliary, and (2) the anterior ciliary vessels.

The long ciliary arteries are two in number, and belong to the posterior ciliary group of branches from the ophthalmic artery. They pierce the back part of the sclera, one on each side of the optic nerve, and pass forwards between the sclera and the choroid towards the ciliary margin of the iris. Here each vessel divides into two branches, upper and lower, which anastomose with those of the opposite side to form an arterial ring round the ciliary margin of the iris, called the circuius arteriosus major. This ring is joined by some of the anterior ciliary arteries, and it gives offsets to the ciliary muscle



Fig. 1012. —The Choroid and Iris, showing the Ven,e Vorticose and Ciliary Nerves (after Hirschfeld and Leveille).

The sclera and cornea have been removed.

and iris. The branches which enter the iris are supported by the connective-tissue stroma, and converge towards the pupillary margin, near which they form by their anastomoses another arterial ring,' called the circulus minor.

The anterior ciliary arteries are about six in number, and are derived from the muscular and lacrimal branches of the ophthalmic artery. They are of small size, and pierce the anterior part of the sclera close to the corneo-scleral junction. Some of them supply the ciliary processes, and others join the circulus major (see Fig. ion).

The veins of the iris accompany the arteries, and are in communication with the sinus venosus sclerse.

Nerves of the Choroid Coat and Iris. —These are derived from the ciliary nerves, short and long, the former coming from the ciliary ganglion, and the latter from the naso-ciliary branch of the ophthalmic or first division of the fifth cranial nerve. They are about sixteen



in number, and pierce the back part of the sclera around the optic nerve. They then pass forwards between the sclerotic and choroid, giving branches to the latter coat, which become disposed in a plexiform manner amongst the bloodvessels. Having reached the corneoscleral junction, the nerves enter the ciliary muscle, in which they form a plexus. From this plexus branches enter the iris at the ciliary margin. These branches accompany the vessels, and by their subdivisions and communications they form a copious plexus of nonmedullated fibres in the connective-tissue stroma of the iris. The sphincter pupillse is supplied by fibres which are derived from the oculomotor or third cranial nerve by means of the motor root of the ciliary ganglion. The dilator pupillae is supplied by fibres which may be traced to the second thoracic ganglion through the sympathetic root of the ciliary ganglion (see p. 1637).

Membrana Pupillaris. —During intra-uterine life the pupil is closed by a delicate membrane, called the membrana pupillaris. This disappears shortly before birth, but remnants of it are sometimes found.

Internal Coat.

Retina.—The retina is the internal or nervous tunic of the eyeball. It is soft in consistence, translucent, and of a pinkish colour. Its internal surface is in contact with the hyaloid membrane, which

Fig. 1013.—The Posterior Portion of the Right Retina

(Anterior View).

encloses the vitreous body, and its external surface is in contact with the choroid coat. Posteriorly it receives the fibres of the optic nerve. Anteriorly it extends almost to the ciliary body, where there is a notched border, called the ora serrata. Here its nervous elements cease, but its pigmentary layer is continued over the deep or posterior



surfaces of the ciliary processes on to the posterior surface of the iris, forming, with the addition of a layer of columnar epithelial cells, the pars ciliaris retinae and pars iridica retinae (uvea) respectively. The retina diminishes in thickness from behind forwards.

The external surface is formed by a stratum of hexagonal pigmentcells, which send processes into the adjacent layer. When the choroid is separated from the retina these processes are torn, and the stratum of pigment-cells remains attached to the choroid, being apparently a part of it. The pigmentary layer, however, really belongs to the retina.

The internal surface shows, in the line of the visual axis of the eyeball, the macula lutea or yellow spot, where vision is most distinct. This spot is transversely oval, and measures about X V inch from side

Fig. 1014.—Longitudinal Section through the Head of the Optic

Nerve (14X1)

r. Retina

b. Centre of Porus Opticus ch. Choroid

s. Sclera

so. Outer Part of Sclera si. Inner part of Sclera ci. Ciliary Artery (in longitudinal section) sd. Subdural Space

nasal, Medial Side


sa. Subarachnoid Space n. Bundles of Nerve-fibres se. Septa between the Nerve-bundles a. Arteria Centralis Retinae v. Vena Centralis Retinae p. Sheath formed by Pia Mater ar. Sheath formed by Arachnoid du. Sheath formed by Dura Mater

temporal, Lateral Side

to side. At its centre is a slight depression, called the fovea centralis. In this situation the retina is thinnest, and the dark colour of the hexagonal pigment-cells is visible through it, giving it the appearance of a foramen. About inch to the inner side of the posterior pole of the eyeball, and about iucb below its level, is the porus opticus, or optic disc. This is circular in outline, and its circumference is slightly elevated. It is the point of entrance of the fibres of the optic nerve, and the centre of the disc is pierced by the arteria centralis retinae which immediately divides into two branches upper and lower. * The optic disc consists entirely of nerve-fibres, and is known as the ‘ blind spot,’ vision being absent in this situation.

Structure of the Retina.— The retina consists of eight superimposed layers, seven of which are nervous and one pigmentary.



In addition to these, there are sustentacular fibres. The eight layers are as follows, from within outwards:

1. Stratum opticum, or layer of nerve-fibres.

2. Ganglionic layer, or layer of nerve-cells.

3. Inner plexiform (inner molecular) layer.

4. Inner nuclear or granular layer.

5. Outer plexiform (outer molecular) layer.

6. Outer nuclear or granular layer.

7. Layer of rods and cones.

8. Pigmentary layer.

Pigmentary Layer

1 Layer of Rods and Cones

A. Membrana Limitans Externa

> Outer Nuclear Layer

„_Outer Plexiform Layer

. Inner Nuclear Layer

In addition to the foregoing layers, there are two very delicate membranes, which really belong to the sustentacular fibres of the

retina, but are known as the membrana limitans interna and externa. The membrana limitans interna covers the retina on its internal surface, and the membrana limitans externa intervenes between the outer nuclear layer and that of the rods and cones. The layers of the retina are supported by fibres called the sustentacular fibres.

1. Stratum Opticum.

—This layer consists of the fibres of the optic nerve, and it extends from the optic disc to the ora serrata. The fibres are non-medullated, and are chiefly centripetal, but some are centrifugal. The

centripetal fibres arise Fus ioi 5. Diagrammatic Section of the Human mainly as the axons of

• R =mIT LTZE) COPIED FR0M QUAIN ’ S the “ lls of the S an 8 lionic layer. The centrifugal fibres pass towards the inner plexiform and inner nuclear layers.

2. Ganglionic Layer.—This consists of large, somewhat flaskshaped, multipolar ganglion-cells, which for the most part form a single layer. In the macula lutea, however, they form several layers.

> Inner Plexiform Layer

Layer of Nerve-cells (Ganglionic Layer)

I Layer of Nerve-fibres

Membrana Limitans Interna



The round ends of the cells rest upon the stratum opticum, and from each of these ends an axon is given off, which enters the stratum opticum obliquely, and forms one of its component fibres. The tapering end of each cell sends off several dendrites, which enter the inner plexiform layer, within which they arborize.

3. Inner Plexiform (Inner Molecular) Layer contains the arborizations of the dendrites of (1) the cells of the ganglionic layer, and (2) the bipolar cells of the inner nuclear layer. The intercommunications between these two sets of dendrites give rise to five strata, according to Ramon y Cajal. Besides these, there are the arborizations. of the processes of the spongioblasts of the inner nuclear layer, which are likewise arranged in strata.

4. Inner Nuclear or Granular Layer.—This layer consists of cells which are arranged in three groups: (1) bipolar cells, (2) horizontal cells, and (3) spongioblasts, or amacrine cells. The bipolar cells are the most numerous, and are nucleated. Each cell gives off two processes—internal and external. The internal processes of the cells enter the inner plexiform layer, and end at different levels in arborizations. The external processes pass into the outer plexiform layer, and form arborizations in its outermost part, which are closely related to the terminal parts of the rods and cones of the bacillary layer. According to Cajal, the bipolar cells are of two kinds—rod-bipolars and conebipolars. The external processes of the rod-bipolars ramify round the terminal parts of the rod-fibres, and the internal processes arborize round the cells of the ganglionic layer. The external processes of the cone-bipolars form horizontal arborizations round the ends of the cone-fibres, and the internal processes terminate in arborizations in the inner plexiform layer at different levels.

The horizontal cells occupy the outer part of the inner nuclear layer. Their dendrites enter the outer plexiform layer, and come into relation with the terminal parts of the cone-fibres, whilst their

axons run in a horizontal direction. .

The spongioblasts are situated in the innermost part of the inner nuclear layer. They are destitute of axons, and ha\ e been called amacrine cells, because each cell is ‘ without a long fibre or process. Their dendrites enter the inner plexiform layer, and end in arboriza

tions, which are arranged in strata.

=; Outer Plexiform (Outer Molecular) Layer.—This layer is composed of the following structures: (i) the external processes of the rod-bipolars and cone-bipolars of the inner nuclear layer; (2) the dendrites of the horizontal cells of the inner nuclear layer; and (3) the terminal parts of the rod-fibres, and filaments from the foot-plates

of the cone-fibres. ,

6 Outer Nuclear or Granular Layer.—This consists of granules,

which are of two kinds—rod-granules and cone-granules. The rodgranules are the more numerous, and are oval enlargements m the course of the rod-fibres, as these pass to the outer plexiform layer'• Each rod-fibre has only one rod-granule, and the granules lie at different



levels. Each granule has a nucleus, which has transverse striations, there being at least two clear bands. The external process of each rod-granule is continuous with one of the rods of the bacillary layer, and the internal process passes into the outer plexiform layer, where it comes into relation with the arborizations of the external process of a rod-bipolar.

The cone-granules are larger than the rod-granules, but not so numerous, and each contains an oval nucleus. Situated in the outermost part of the outer nuclear layer, they lie close to the membrana limitans externa. The outer end of each granule is continuous with one of the cones of the bacillary layer. The inner end is prolonged into a cone-fibre, which passes into the outermost part of the outer

Fig. 1016. —Scheme of the Horizontal Cells and Spongioblasts of the

Retina (Ramon y Cajal).

A. Rod-fibres

B. Cone-fibres

1. Outer Plexiform Layer a, b. Horizontal Cells, with arborizations c. Horizontal Cell, with deep processes

2. Inner Plexiform Layer /» S, h , f Spongioblasts extending to j, l. 1 different depths m, n. Spongioblasts with diffuse processes o. Ganglionic Nerve-cell

plexiform layer, where it expands into a foot-plate, from which filaments are given off. These filaments come into relation with the arborizations of the external process of a cone-bipolar cell.

7. Layer of Rods and Cones consists of rods and cones, the former being cylindrical, and the latter flask-shaped. The rods are much more numerous, longer, and narrower than the cones, and both are placed perpendicularly.

Each rod and cone consists of two segments—outer and inner. In the case of the rods the two segments are of almost equal length the inner segment being rather larger than the outer. The outer segment is the only seat of the colouring matter known as visual purple or rhodopsin In the case of the flask-shaped cones, the inner segment of each forms two-thirds of the cone, and is of large size; whilst the



outer forms one-third, is narrow, and represents the tapering part of the flask. The outer segments of both rods and cones have faint transverse striations. The inner segments of both are subdivided. The outer part is composed of delicate fibrils longitudinally arranged, and therefore presents a longitudinally striated appearance. The inner part is faintly granular. The rods and cones are continued at their inner ends through the membrana limitans externa into the rod-fibres and cone-fibres, which belong to the outer nuclear layer. The outer ends of the rods project into the pigmentary layer.

8 . Pigmentary Layer.—The most external layer of the retina is in close contact with the choroid coat. It consists of a single layer of hexagonal epithelial cells, which contain pigment. The deep surfaces of the cells give off processes which extend into the intervals between the outer ends of the rods and

Layer of Rods and Cones

Membrana Limitans Externa

Outer Nuclear Layer

Outer Plexiform Layer Inner Nuclear Layer

Inne’ Plexiform Layer

Ganglionic Layer

1 1 Nerve-fibre Layer ■/.Membrana Limitans Interna

Fig. 1017.—Section of the Retina as seen



Sustentacular Fibres (or Fibres of Muller).—

These fibres form the supporting tissue of the retina, and extend from its internal surface to the boundary-line between the outer nuclear layer and the layer of rods and cones. The inner ends of the fibres are expanded, and blend at their edges to present the appearance of a distinct retinal layer, which is called the membrana limitans interna. Their outer ends, which are very numerous owing to the breaking up of the fibres, also expand and form the membrana limitans externa, which lies between the outer nuclear layer and the layer of rods and cones. (The membrana limitans interna and externa are sometimes considered layers of the retina, under which circumstances the retinal layers would be ten in number, instead of eight.) From the membrana limitans externa delicate offsets enter the layer of rods and cones, in the innermost part of which they form fibre-baskets in connection with the deep ends of the rods and cones. As the sustentacular fibres pass through the inner nuclear layer each has an oval nucleus, which contains a nucleolus. This nucleus is variously described as being situated on one side of the fibre, or as involving its whole circumference. Throughout their course the sustentacular fibres give off lateral offsets, which increase in number from within outwards.



Structure of the Macula Lutea and Fovea Centralis.—The chief structural characters of the macula lutea and fovea centralis may be stated in the following tabular manner:

Macula Lutea.

1. Cones only.

2. Outer nuclear layer has only cone fibres disposed obliquely.

3. Ganglionic layer very thick, cells being

several layers deep.

4. Stratum opticum not continuously



Fovea Centralis.

1. Thinnest part of the retina.

2. Pigmentary layer thick.

3. Cones only.

4. Outer nuclear layer has only


5. Ganglionic layer absent.

6. Stratum opticum absent.


Membrana Limitansv Externa N, “

Fibrous Basket-work

Outer Plexiform Layer

Nucleus of one of Sustentacular Fibres

Inner Plexiform_


Sustentacular Fibres' Limitans Interna 1 ' Membrana

Centrifugal Nerve-fibre

Rods and Cones

Outer Nuclear Layer



Stellate Ganglioncell

Bipolar Q.anglioncell



Multipolar Ganglion-cell Layer of Nervefibres

Fig. 1018.—Diagram of the Elements of the Retina (Wiedersheim,


A, nervous elements; B, supporting elements.

Structure of the Ora Serrata.—At the ora serrata the nervous elements of the retina end, and its pigmentary layer is continued over the deep or posterior surfaces of the ciliary processes. Here is added to its deep or posterior surface a layer of columnar epithelial cells, and the two layers form the pars ciliaris retinas, which is continued into the pars iridica retinae (uvea). In the latter the cells of both layers are pigmented.

Blood-supply of the Retina.—The retina is supplied with blood by the arteria centralis retinae, a branch of the ophthalmic artery. Within the orbit the artery pierces the under aspect of the optic nerve a little behind the eyeball, and passes forwards in the centre of the nerve. At the centre of the optic disc it divides into two branches, upper and lower. Each of these breaks up into two branches, nasal or medial,



and temporal or lateral. The temporal branches keep clear of the macula lutea, but give small twigs to it, which, however, do not enter the fovea centralis, this part being non-vascular. As the branches pass inwards and outwards respectively towards the periphery of the retina they ramify freely, and end at last in capillary networks. The arteries do not extend farther outwards than the inner nuclear layer. No anastomoses take place between the branches of the arteria centralis retinae.

Fig. 1019._Scheme of the Retina, showing the Connection between

the Layer of Rods and Cones and the Ganglionic Layer (Ramon

y Cajal).

A. Layer of Rods and Cones

B. Outer Nuclear Layer

C. Outer Plexiform Layer

E. Inner Nuclear Layer

F. Inner Plexiform Layer

G. Ganglionic Layer

H. Layer of Nerve-fibres M. Sustentacular fibre

a. Rods

b. Cones

c. Granule of Cones

d. Granule of Rods

e. Bipolar Cells of Rods

f. Bipolar Cells of Cones

g, h, i, \ Ganglionic Corpuscles ramifying at different j, k. f levels in Inner Plexiform Layer r, r'. Deep arborizations of Bipolar Cells

s. Centrifugal Nerve-fibre

t. Nucleus of Sustentacular Fibre

X. Deep ends of Rod-fibres amongst superficial arborizations of Bipolar Cells Z. Meeting of arborizations of Cones and Bipolar Cells

In the foetus the arteria centralis retinae sends a branch to the posterior part of the capsule of the crystalline lens, which reaches it through the ‘ canal of Cloquet in the vitreous body.

The veins are ultimately collected into two vessels, upper and lower, which pass through the optic disc, one above and the other below' the artery. They then form one vessel which opens into the superior ophthalmic vein. The veins of the retina are destitute of muscular tissue, the wall of each being formed by a single layer of endothelial cells, external to which there is a perivascular lymph



space, this in turn being limited by another layer of endothelial cells. These lymph-spaces are in communication with those of the optic nerve.

Relation of the Retinal Layers to One Another.—The only two layers which are in direct continuity are the stratum opticum and ganglionic layer, some fibres of the former being the axons of the cells of the latter. As regards most of the strata, the constituent elements of successive layers are brought into communication by means of the interlacements which take place between the arborizations formed by their various processes. These interlacements occur in the inner and outer plexiform layers.

Levator Palpebrae Superioris

Hyaloid Canal >

(Canal of Cloquet)

Hyaloid Membrane


Sinus Venosus S clerae

Posterior Chamber

Anterior Chamber


Rectus Superior s „ Sclera


, l /Centralis

  • ' '■ / Retinae


Ciliary / y.


Zonular Space

Rectus Inferior

Fornix Conjunctivas

Fig. 1020.—Vertical Sagittal Section of the Eye and its Appendages (Hirschfeld and Leveille).

In the inner plexiform layer there are several strata of interlacements, by means of which the dendrites of the cells of the ganglionic layer are brought into communication with the internal processes of the bipolar cells of the inner nuclear layer. In the outer plexi orm layer there is a free intermingling between the external processes of the bipolar cells of the inner nuclear layer and the rod-fibres and conefibres.

Nerve-cells of the Retina.—These are arranged in three strata, and communicate with one another through interlacing arborizations. The outermost stratum consists of the rods and cones; the middle stratum is formed by the bipolar cells; and the innermost stratum represents the cells of the ganglionic layer. The axons of the gang



lionic cells enter the stratum opticum as centripetal fibres, which pass in the optic nerve to the brain. The centrifugal fibres of the stratum opticum ramify in the inner plexiform or inner nuclear layer.

Refracting Media.

Aqueous Humour and Chambers of the Eye.—The aqueous humour occupies the space between the cornea and the front of the crystalline lens, which is divided by the iris into two chambers, anterior and posterior. It is a clear fluid having an alkaline reaction, and is composed of H ? 0 , holding in solution a very small amount of sodium chloride and traces of albumen.

The anterior chamber is bounded anteriorly by the cornea, and posteriorly by the iris and the central portion of the crystalline lens enclosed within its capsule. The anterior chamber communicates with the irido-corneal spaces, through them with the sinus venosus sclerae, and through this canal with the veins of the sclera.

The posterior chamber, which is of limited extent, is bounded anteriorly by the iris, and posteriorly by the peripheral part of the crystalline lens and its suspensory ligament, and by the ciliary processes. The anterior and posterior chambers communicate with each other through the pupil; with lymph-spaces in the iris; and through the latter spaces with the perichoroidal lymph-space.

Crystalline Lens.—The crystalline lens is situated directly behind the pupil and iris, from which latter it is separated by the posterior chamber. It is a solid, transparent, biconvex disc, the posterior surface being more convex than the anterior, and is enclosed within a A ’ 0 fi n br e e 4° e f ) . th ^°L ( man homogeneous, transparent envelope, called the fibres (seen on end). capsule of the lens. The centre of the anterior

surface is called the anterior pole, and that of the posterior surface the posterior pole. The line connecting these two poles constitutes the axis of the lens, and a line surrounding the periphery represents the equator. The transverse measurement of the lens, is about •it inch, and its axis measures about inch. The . anterior surface at its central part faces the pupil. External to this, the pupillary margin of the iris rests upon it, and external to this again is the posterior chamber, with part of the aqueous humour. The posterior surface is received into the ‘ patellar fossa on the anterior aspect of the vitreous body. The periphery is related to the suspensory ligament, the zonular spaces present in this ligament, and the ciliary processes. From the anterior and posterior poles delicate lines radiate

Fig. 1021.—Fibres of the Crystalline Lens (highly magnified) (after Kolliker).



towards the equator. In early life these are three on each surface. Those on the posterior surface form an inverted while those on the anterior form an erect Y. These lines represent the free margins of septa within the lens upon which the ends of the lens-fibres terminate.

Structure.—The lens is laminar in structure. The outer laminae are soft in consistence, but the succeeding ones gradually become firmer, and the central portion, which constitutes the nucleus, is very firm and hard. The laminae are arranged concentrically, and after boiling or immersion in alcohol they may be peeled off, like the coats of an onion. The fibres of which the laminae are composed terminate upon septa within the lens, of which the radiating lines on the surfaces, already referred to, are the free margins. The concentric laminae are therefore not continuous all round, but are split up along these lines. The lens-fibres, which are disposed in a curved manner, are of small size, and have serrated edges, which fit closely to each other. In transverse section the fibres appear as hexagonal prisms. The fibres are the elongated cells which line the posterior part of the ectodermal vesicle (lens vesicle) from which the lens is developed. In early life each fibre has a nucleus, but after the lens has attained its full development only the outermost fibres are nucleated.

Capsule of the Lens.—This is a transparent, homogeneous, elastic and brittle membrane, which surrounds and encloses the lens. Its anterior wall is thicker and more elastic than the posterior. In the adult the lens and its capsule are non-vascular, but in the foetus they receive the hyaloid branch of the arteria centralis retinae, which reaches it through the hyaloid canal in the vitreous body.

Epithelium of the Lens.—The posterior surface of the lens is devoid of epithelium, and is in direct contact with the posterior wall of the capsule. The anterior surface is covered by a single layer of columnar cells, which intervenes between the anterior surface and the anterior wall of the capsule. Towards the equator these cells become elongated, and pass into short fibres, which become continuous with the superficial lens-fibres.

Crystalline Lens at Different Ages.—The characters of the lens at different ages are as follows:

Foetal Lens.

Almost spherical. Pinkish colour. Semitransparent. Soft in consistence.

Adult Lens.




Firm in consistence.

Lens in Old Age.


Amber colour.

Opaque, more or less. Very firm in consistence.

Vitreous Body.—This body occupies about four-fifths of the space within the eyeball, and is situated between the crystalline lens and the retina. It is transparent and gelatinous, and is composed of water, holding in solution a small quantity of sodium chloride and albuminous matter. It is surrounded by a transparent, homogeneous envelope, called the hyaloid membrane. This membrane is in contact with the retina, except anteriorly, where there is an excavation called the fossa


THE EYE 1663

patellaris , into which the posterior surface of the crystalline lens is received.

Anterior Wall of Capsule of Lens __I

Sphincter Pupillae_

Membrane of Descemet

Epithelium of Cornea

Suspensory Ligament Middle Portion of Suspensory Ligament

Posterior Portion of Suspensory Ligament

Sinus Venosus Sclera

Margin of Cornea


Ciliary Muscle 'Radiating Fibres)

Fig. 1022.—Meridional Section through the Anterior Portion of

the Eye (magnified 16X1) (Fuchs).

C.P., C.P., zonular spaces.

Towards its circumference the vitreous body is laminated, the laminae being arranged concentrically. Laminae are also said to radiate



from its antero-posterior axis towards the circumference. Scattered throughout the vitreous body there are some amoeboid corpuscles, and it is traversed from behind forwards by a minute passage called the hyaloid canal (canal of Cloquet, canal of Stilling). This extends from the centre of the optic disc to the posterior wall of the capsule of the lens, and posteriorly it communicates with the lymph-spaces of the optic nerve. In the foetus the canal transmits a branch of the arteria centralis retinae, called the hyaloid artery , which supplies the lens.

No vessels enter the vitreous body, its nutrition being derived from the vessels of the retina and ciliary processes.

Zonula ciliaris, or zonule of Zinn, is the thickened portion of the hyaloid membrane which is situated in front of the ora serrata of the retina. From this point it extends inwards behind the ciliary processes towards the periphery of the crystalline lens. Behind the ciliary processes are radial folds with intervening depressions. The depressions receive the ciliary processes, and the radial folds are separated from the intervals between the ciliary processes by lymphspaces, which communicate with the posterior chamber of the eye.

Suspensory Ligament of the Lens, and Zonular Spaces.—The ciliary zonule, as it approaches the periphery of the lens, divides into three layers—posterior, middle, and anterior. The posterior layer lines the fossa patellaris in front of the hyaloid membrane. The middle layer consists of a few scattered fibres which pass to the equator of the lens. The anterior layer is the thickest, and forms the suspensory ligament of the lens, which is attached to the anterior wall of its capsule not far from the equator (see Fig. 1022). When the radiating fibres of the ciliary muscle contract the suspensory ligament is relaxed, and the convexity of the anterior surface of the lens is increased.

Behind the suspensory ligament of the lens there is a sacculated lymph-space, called the zonular space, which surrounds the equator of the lens.

Development of the Eye.

The retina, optic nerve, and crystalline lens are developed from the ectoderm, the retina and optic nerve being derived from the ectoderm of the anterior primary cerebral vesicle, whilst the crystalline lens is developed from the ectoderm of the side of the head. The accessories of the eye— e.g., the sclera, cornea, choroid, ciliary body, and iris—are all developed in mesoderm, but ectoderm, as will be seen, is also employed in some of these. The vitreous body, though developed to a certain extent from the mesoderm, is principally formed from the ectoderm.

The earliest indication of the future eye is in the form of a shallow marginal groove on each side in the widely open cerebral plate of embryos with a few somites. As the region grows these grooves become deepened by the upgrowth of the lateral margins, which ultimately fuse in the middle line, in continuity with the fusion of the edges of the medullary folds further back. In this way the open grooves are converted into recesses or lateral pockets of the closed fore-brain, each pocket being in contact from the beginning with the ectoderm of the surface.

The pocket formed in this way is termed the optic recess, and becomes the optic vesicle very soon by its rounded enlargement under the surface ectoderm; such enlargement is mainly at its distal part, its connection with the brain

THE EYE 1665

being slightly constricted, forming a ' neck ' for the vesicle. As the development goes on this neck is drawn out into a definite stalk, which connects the vesicle with the fore-brain. Stages in these changes can be seen in Fig. 1025. The vesicle is hollow, its cavity being carried into the stalk, and, through this, communicating with that of the fore-brain, which will be the third ventricle. The

Lens Pit



Optic Stalk

Optic Vesicle


ilM /


Cavity of Vesicle a?- m

6i ; w'sn'j.;! . ..£31 « 

Optic Stalk

Pigmentary Layer of I Optic Cup Retinal Layer of Optic Cup

Fig. 1023.—Development of Crystalline Lens and Optic Vesicle


The lens is lying in the optic cup.

enlargement formed by the optic vesicle lies deep to, and in contact with, the ectoderm of the lateral surface of the head (Fig. 1025).

The ectoderm in relation with the optic vesicle becomes thickened and depressed, this depressed portion constituting the lens area. The depressed ectoderm is deepened and converted into a kind of cup, and, the mouth of the fossa becoming constricted, its lips unite. In this manner the lens area becomes transformed into a closed ectodermic sac, called the lens vesicle, from which the

Fig. 1024.—Diagram showing (see Text) the Conversion of Optic

Vesicle into Optic Cup.

crystalline lens is differentiated. The lens vesicle now becomes completely separated from the surface ectoderm, with which it was originally continuous

^ Fl The outer wall of the vesicle, facing the rudiment of the lens, is invaginated so as to obliterate the cavity of the vesicle, which is now converted into the oi>tic cut> Fig 1024 gives diagrammatic sections which may help in the comprehension of this change. The middle vertical row of figures here shows sections




along the length of the optic outgrowth; the simple optic vesicle is seen at the top, the commencing invagination of its lower lateral wall is seen next, while the completed invagination is shown in the lowest section. It can be seen that the invagination extends into the optic stalk also. On the left side the invagination is shown by transverse sections of the vesicle, corresponding more or less with the stages of the middle column. Observe that the cavity (V) of the optic

Fig. 1025.—Different Stages in the Development of the Eye (from Reconstruction Models at St. Mary’s Hospital).

A piece of the wall of the optic vesicle has been removed in the first specimen, showing the cavity of the vesicle ; the lens thickening of the ectoderm is beginning to be depressed. In the second the optic outgrowth is entire, and the lens depression is projecting into the cavity of the optic cup. In the third figure removal of part of the wall has opened the cavity of the vesicle,and also the cavity of the cup, in which the lens vesicle is lying, still attached to the ectoderm, its cavity opened by the section. The figures also show the formation of the stalk of the vesicle and the extension into it of the cleft continuous with the cavity of the optic cup.

vesicle is being obliterated, replaced by the cavity (C) of the optic cup, which is still open in front and below; the last section in the middle column has gone along this interval between the two sides of the cup. The interval is termed the choroidal or foetal fissure, and extends into the stalk. It closes later by the apposition and rapid fusion of its lips, so completing the optic cup. The righthand column of sections is made from the distal end towards the brain; they show the concavity in the vesicle, and in the stalk, lost in the last section.



The lens vesicle, when it separates from the surface ectoderm, lies in the opening of the optic cup. Vascular mesoderm extends into the cavity of the cup through the choroidal fissure, behind and below the lens vesicle; when the fissure closes, the mesoderm within the cavity of the cup loses its connection with the outer mesoderm, except at the end of the fissure, where a relatively large vessel persists, and becomes ultimately the central artery of the retina. Since the end of the fissure is in the optic stalk, which becomes the optic nerve, this artery passes in the terminal piece of the nerve to enter the eye. The artery, when first formed, is known as the hyaloid artery, and is distributed over the posterior surface of the lens.

In cases of non-closure of the choroidal fissure the region of the fissure remains unpigmented, and one of two congenital deficiencies in the eye is met with, each being known by the general term coloboma. If the patent fissure affects the ventral wall of the optic cup, then the deficiency in pigment affects the choroid, and the condition is known as coloboma choroidea. If the patent fissure affects the lower margin of the optic cup, then the deficiency affects the lower part of the iris, and the condition is known as coloboma iridis.

As stated, the wall of the optic cup consists of two layers. The outer layer, which is comparatively simple, gives rise to the pigmentary layer of the retina. The inner layer is, on the other hand, very complicated. After much differentiation it gives rise to all the other layers of the retina. The mesodermic tissue, which invests the optic cup, gives rise to the sclera, cornea, choroid, ciliary body (including the ciliary processes and ciliary muscle), and iris. The ciliary processes are covered by layers from the (ectodermal) walls of the cup.

Crystalline Lens. —The lens is of ectodermic origin. The surface ectoderm on the lateral aspect of the head opposite the optic vesicle becomes thickened and depressed to form, as stated, the lens area. The depressed ectoderm is deepened and converted into a kind of cup. The mouth of the cup becomes constricted, and its lips unite. In this manner the lens area becomes transformed into a closed ectodermic sac, called the lens vesicle, from which the crystalline lens is differentiated. The lens vesicle becomes completely separated from the surface ectoderm, with which it was originally continuous. It is now received into the optic cup, which has been formed in connection with the optic vesicle, its position being just within the mouth of the cup, the circumference of the margin projecting slightly in advance of the vesicle.

The anterior and posterior walls of the lens vesicle at this stage consist of several layers of cylindrical cells, and the vesicle contains a small central cavity. The anterior wall becomes gradually thin, and is ultimately formed of one layer of flattened cells, these cells constituting the anterior epithelium of the adult crystalline lens. The cells of the posterior wall become elongated in a forward direction, obliterating the cavity of the vesicle, and coming into contact with the anterior wall. By this process of cell elongation the lens-fibres are formed. At the equator of the lens the cells of the anterior and posterior walls merge gradually into one another through the medium of a transitional zone of columnar cells.

At this stage in its development the crystalline lens consists of (1) an anterior epithelial wall, and (2) a posterior wall composed of elongated cells forming the lens-fibres.

As development proceeds, additional lens-fibres are formed by the proliferation of cells at the equator of the lens. These fibres are laid down in successive layers, which are arranged concentrically.

Capsule of the Crystalline Lens.— At an early period in its development the lens becomes invested by a mesodermic capsule, freely supplied with bloodvessels derived from the hyaloid artery and anterior ciliary arteries. This capsule is known as the tunica vasculosa. It persists throughout the period of active growth of the lens, and then undergoes retrogression to form the permanent lens capsule. The portion of the tunica vasculosa which covers the front part of the lens is called the membrana papillaris, but this usually disappears prior to birth. It may, however, be present at birth, giving rise to the condition



known as atresia pupillce. Towards the end of intra-uterine life the tunica vasculosa undergoes retrogression and becomes transformed, as stated, into the permanent lens capsule, which is a transparent, homogeneous, elastic membrane.

This mesodermal pupillary membrane is a continuation across the open mouth of the cup of the plane of the choroidal layer. It is, therefore, on the outer surface of the developing iris, of which it forms the mesodermal base, the muscles being derived from the actual ectodermal or retinal layer itself.

Development of the Optic Cup and Optic Stalk. —The optic cup, as stated, is formed by the invagination of the distal or outer wall of the optic vesicle, the invagination also affecting the ventral wall of the optic vesicle and the ventral wall of the part of the optic stalk which is adjacent to the optic vesicle, thereby giving rise to the choroidal fissure. The mouth of the optic cup is directed towards the lateral aspect of the head, and the lens vesicle lies just within the mouth. That the invagination of the optic cup is not caused by the growth of the lens vesicle has been proved by experimental transplantations on amphibian embryos. The margin of the cup projects slightly over the lens vesicle, and the circumference of this margin represents the outline of the pupil. The wall of the cup consists of two layers —namely, inner and outer, the inner representing the distal or outer wall of the optic vesicle, which has now become invaginated, or folded inwards. The cup is divisible into two regions—namely, (i) the ciliary region, adjoining the margin of the cup; and (2) the fundus. The line of separation between these two regions corresponds to the ora serrata of the adult eye.

The ciliary region of the optic cup is associated with the ciliary body (including the ciliary processes and ciliary muscle) and the iris, which are developed from the thickened anterior part of the choroid. The outer layer of the ciliary portion, as elsewhere, forms the pigmentary layer of the retina. The inner layer of the ciliary portion, which is very thin, forms (1) the pars ciliaris retinae on the posterior surfaces of the ciliary processes, and (2) the pigmented pars iridica retinae [uvea) on the posterior surface of the iris.

The fundus of the optic cup is the proper retinal region. The outer layer forms, as in the ciliary region, the pigmentary layer of the retina. The inner or retinal layer becomes differentiated into all the layers of the retina except the pigmentary layer. The changes which it undergoes are very complicated. Its thickness is considerably increased, and it subdivides into two layers— outer and inner—from which the various retinal strata (except the outer pigmentary layer) are specialized.

The optic stalk is transformed into the optic nerve. The stalk is at first hollow, its cavity communicating with that of the optic vesicle on the one hand, and with the third ventricle of the brain on the other. As stated, the choroidal fissure involves the under surface of the optic stalk near the optic vesicle, as well as the under surface of the optic vesicle itself. When the choroidal fissure undergoes closure, the hyaloid artery, which passed through that fissure, becomes enclosed within the optic stalk, and forms the arteria centralis retincc of adult life. By the closure of the choroidal fissure, and the consequent enclosure of the hyaloid artery, the cavity of the distal portion of the optic stalk becomes obliterated. Inasmuch as the ventral or lower wall of this part of the stalk has been previously invaginated, the wall of the stalk is now composed of two layers—outer and inner—the inner being formed by the invaginated ventral or lower wall. The outer layer of the optic stalk is now continuous with the outer layer of the optic cup, whilst the inner layer of the optic stalk is continuous with the inner layer of the optic cup. As regards the proximal part of the optic stalk, its cavity becomes gradually closed. The wall of the optic stalk becomes thickened, its cells proliferate, and they give rise to the neuroglial or sustentacular tissue of the future nerve. The nerve-fibres which build up the optic nerve are regarded as having two sources. The majority of them represent the axons of the ganglion cells of the retina, which pass in the optic stalk to the diencephalon and mesencephalon. These are therefore centripetal fibres. Other fibres are regarded as being centrifugal, these arising in connection with the diencephalon and mesencephalon.



Vitreous Body. —This body is formed within the optic cup, for the most part posterior to the lens vesicle. It is principally developed from the ectoderm, but the mesoderm also takes part in its formation. The ectodermic fibres are derived from those cells which pertain to the sustentacular fibres of the retina.

These ectodermal fibres form a very delicate reticulum (Fig. 1026) connecting the lens vesicle and the inner layer of the optic cup. Mesodermal ingrowth through the choroidal fissure brings in vessels which ramify to some extent between the ectodermal connecting strands, but for the most part pass forward to the back of the growing lens, over which the vessels spread, with their thin mesodermal surrounding. The main vessel thus reaching the lens is the hyaloid artery, and this with its surrounding fine mesoderm occupies at first a large part of the small cavity of the cup, enclosed by ectodermal processes, more or less avascular in the more peripheral parts of the cup. This is the state known as the primary vitreous, characterized by ectodermal formations connected in origin with both retina and lens, and associated fairly intimately with vascular mesoderm. The central hyaloid artery is distributed over the back of the lens, its terminal branches meeting, at the periphery of this structure, vessels which enter the cup from the outside, turning round its rim.

The primary vitreous is gradually succeeded and replaced by the secondary vitreous. The time of the beginning of the change is usually considered to be about the fifth to sixth week, when the posterior hyaloid capsule of the lens makes its appearance; after this the slowly increasing ectodermal element can be produced only by the retina. It is this element which, by its growth, occupies the extra space resulting from the increasing size of the eyeball, so that it gradually comes about that the original vascu- C, wall of fore-brain ; OP.V., points to lar mesodermo-ectodermal formation cavity of optic vesicle; OC, to cavity

Fig. 1026.—Vertical Section through Eye in 5 Mm. Embryo.

of optic cup; L.P., lens pit; ECT., surface ectoderm. Protoplasmic processes connect the lens pit with the inner wall of the cup.

(primary vitreous) is surrounded and enclosed by an increasing mass of ectodermal secondary vitreous ; this is largely non-vascular, but does not become completely avascular until the hyaloid artery atrophies. The vessels are contained in a central funnel-shaped ‘ space ’ in this stage, surrounded by the secondary vitreous, which does not compress them in any way; the broad end of the funnel is behind the lens, over which the vessels extend as before, making a vascular capsule for the structure, and joining round the periphery with vessels reaching its anterior surface. The anterior part of this tunica vasculosa has been seen already to form the pupillary

m The bloodvessels atrophy and disappear in the latter part of foetal life, when the interval in which they lay persists as the hyaloid (or vitreous) canal, or canal of Cloquet, the remaining ectodermal substance, now avascular, being the

definite vitreous. r , r J ,

About the end of the third month the growth forward of the nm of the optic

cup (to form the ectodermal portion of the iris) is accompanied by the appearance of a more fibrillar vitreous formation corresponding with it; this is sometimes referred to as the tertiary vitreous, and the fibrils of the suspensory ligament of the lens are developed in this formation.



That part of the hyaloid artery which lies in the fissure in the optic stalk remains as the extra-ocular part of the arteria retinae centralis. The actual arteries of the retina are secondary and late branches which extend into that layer from the hyaloid artery as this enters the eyeball; when the lentine part of the vessel atrophies, these retinal branches remain and enlarge.

Derivatives of the Mesodermic Envelope of the Optic Cup. —These are as follows: (1) Sclera, (2) cornea, (3) choroid, (4) ciliary body (including the ciliary processes and ciliary muscle), and (5) iris.

The mesoderm which invests the outer surface of the optic cup is disposed in two layers —outer and inner. The outer layer has a fibrous character, and gives rise to the sclera, of which the cornea is a forward extension. The inner layer is vascular, and gives rise to the choroid, and mesodermal bases of the ciliary body and iris. The outer dense fibrous layer of the mesoderm of the outer surface of the optic cup, as stated, gives rise to the sclera. From its anterior margin a thick lamina of mesoderm is prolonged between the lens vesicle and the surface ectoderm. This lamina shows two layers—superficial and deep. The superficial layer becomes differentiated into the cornea, which is thus genetically continuous with the sclera. The deep layer becomes the pupillary membrane (see above). Between these two layers there is an interval, which represents the aqueous chamber.

The inner vascular layer of the mesoderm of the outer surface of the optic cup, as stated, gives rise to the choroid. The anterior margin of the choroid, which adjoins the margin of the optic cup (ciliary region) becomes thickened, and gives rise to the ciliary body, in connection with which the ciliary processes and ciliary muscle are developed. The ciliary processes become covered posteriorly by the pars ciliaris retince, which is a thin retinal expansion from the ciliary region of the optic cup. The iris is also developed at the anterior margin of the choroid in the form of a ring of mesoderm. In this mesoderm the fibres forming the dilator pupillce and sphincter pupillce muscles are formed by proliferation of the ectodermal cells of the edge of the optic cup, which has extended forward in front of the lens, and the back of the iris receives a pigmentary covering {uvea) from the pars iridica retince.




The organ of hearing is divided into three parts—the external, middle, and internal ear.

External Ear.

The external ear consists of the auricle (or pinna) and the external auditory meatus. The former has been already described (see p. 1294)* The external auditory meatus extends from the bottom of the concha to the membrana tympani, and is about 1 inch in length. It consists of two parts—outer, or cartilaginous, and inner, or osseous. The cartilaginous part, which is also fibrous, is about J inch in length, and the osseous part, which lies within the petrous portion of the temporal bone, is about § inch long. The widest part of the meatus is its orifice, which is oval, the long measurement being vertica . The narrowest part is situated in its osseous portion, about T mch from the tympanic membrane, and it is known as the isthmus. There is another constriction of the canal situated near the deep end of t e cartilaginous part, and produced by a projection which is placed antero-inferiorly. The chief direction of the canal is inwards and slightly forwards. At first it is also inclined upwards, then backwards,

and finally downwards. . ,

The cartilaginous part is continuous with the cartilage of the auricle, and is attached to the external auditory process of the temporal bone. Its cartilage is folded so as to form a deep groove which is open at its upper and back part, the cartilaginous deficiency being completed by fibrous tissue. In the anterior wall of the cartilaginous part are two clefts (called the fissures of Santorini ) which are occupied by fibrous Ssuf In important and close inferior relation of the cartilaginous

meatus is the parotid gland (see Fig. 1027). ,

The osseous part has been described in connection with the temporal hone (d IQ4) At its deep end there is a narrow groove, called the sulcus tvmianicus, which forms about five-sixths of a circle, the

deficiency being placed superiorly, at the V^femporaf^The rinp- ic completed by the squamous part of the temporal bone, me

tympanic membrane is set obliquely within the tympanic sulcus being inclined in such a way that its front part is nearer the nudd line of the body than its back, and its lower part nearer the middle line than the upper. The floor and anterior wall of the meatus consequently longer than the roof and posterior wall.

^ 1671



The meatus is lined with skin, which is continuous with that of the auricle. In the osseous part of the canal the skin is very thin, and is provided with vascular papillae, but is destitute of glands and hairs.. It is reflected over the outer surface of the membrana tympani, of which it forms the outer layer. In the cartilaginous part of the canal the skin is thicker, and is provided with hairs, connected with the follicles of which are sebaceous glands. In addition to these there are convoluted tubular glands, similar in structure to sweat-glands, and called the ceruminous glands, which secrete the ear-wax.

Blood-supply.—The arteries are derived from the posterior auricular of the external carotid, the deep auricular of the first part of the maxil

Upper Part ofHelix

Lateral Ligament of the Malleus



Semicircular Canals


External Auditory Meatus

Malleus Vestibule __ Cochlea x , Tympanum

Tensor Tympani Muscle

Apex of Pet. Portion of Temporal Bone

_Anterior Lig. of

the Malleus

-Internal Carotid



Pharyngotympanic Tube

Parotid Gland

Tip of Styloid Process of Temporal Bone

Tympanic Membrane

Iug. 1027. General View of the Right Organ of Hearing (after

Hirschfeld and Leveill£).

The external ear and middle ear are seen in section.

iary, and the anterior auricular branches of the superficial temporal. The veins follow the course of the arteries.

Lymphatics. These pass to the mastoid glands and to the preauricular lymphatic glands.

Nerves. The auriculo-temporal nerve gives two branches to the meatus, upper and lower, which enter it by passing between the cartilaginous and osseous walls. The upper branch supplies the skin covering the upper part of the membrana tympani, while the auricular branch (Arnold s nerve) of the vagus supplies that of the osseous part of the canal in its lower and back part, and also that covering the lower part of the membrana tympani.

Early Condition of the Meatus.—At birth the osseous part of the

canal is represented by the tympanic annulus and a small portion of



the squamous part of the temporal bone. It is connected by fibrous tissue to the cartilaginous framework of the auricle, and within this fibrous tissue the osseous canal is formed by two outgrowths from the tympanic annulus.

Middle Ear.

I he middle ear, or tympanum, is an irregular space within the petrous part of the temporal bone, which lies between the membrana tympani externally and the outer osseous wall of the internal ear or labyrinth internally. It is lined with mucous membrane, and it communicates with the naso-pharynx by means of the pharyngotympanic tube, through which it receives air. It has three parts: (1) the tympanum proper, or cavum tympani; (2) the attic, or epitympanic recess; and (3) the tympanic or mastoid antrum.

The tympanum proper (or cavum tympani) is situated between the tympanic membrane and the outer wall of the internal ear. Its contents are as follows:

1. A chain of ossicles (malleus,

incus, and stapes), with their ligaments.

2. Muscles.

The vertical and antero-posterior diameters (inclusive of the attic) are fully \ inch. The transverse measurement is from | to £ inch, except opposite the centre of the membrana tympani, where it is only T V inch, and the shape of its cavity may, perhaps, be visualized by likening a cast of it to a biconcave disc about the size of a threepenny piece.

The tympanic cavity has six walls—lateral, medial, roof, floor, anterior, and posterior.

The lateral wall is formed chiefly by the tympanic membrane, which has the handle of the malleus fixed to it, and slightly by the tympanic annulus, within the circumference of which there is a groove, called the tympanic sulcus, in which the membrane is set. The tympanic annulus and sulcus are interrupted superiorly by a notch, called the tympanic notch. In front of the tympanic annulus is the open, inner extremity of the squamo-tympanic fissure, which lodges the processus gracilis of the malleus, and transmits the tympanic branch of the internal maxillary artery. At the inner end of the fissure is the opening of the iter chordce anterius, by which the chorda tympani nerve leaves the tympanum.

The (medial) wall (see Fig. 1028) separates the tympanum from the internal ear or labyrinth. It is very irregular, and is formed by the following parts :

1 The fenestra vestibuli. 3 - The promontory.

2. Projection of the facial canal. 4 - The fenestra cochleae.

5. The sinus tympani.

3. Nerves.

4. Bloodvessels.

5. Air.



The fenestra vestibuli is situated in a depression, called the fossa ovalis, at the upper part of the inner wall, and it leads into the cavity of the vestibule. It is irregularly oval, and is elongated from before backwards. It is occupied by the foot-piece of the stapes, and the annular ligament which connects the circumference of the foot-piece to the margin of the opening, the margin being covered by cartilage.

The projection of the facial canal lies above the fenestra ovalis. The canal, which contains the facial nerve, is here directed backwards, and has walls of a paper-like thinness.

The promontory is seen below the fossa ovalis, between it and the fossa rotunda, and slightly in front of both. It is a rounded promin



Sinus Tympam Outlet of Facial Canal at Stylo-mastoid Foramen

kiG. 1028. Section through the Petrous and Mastoid Portions of the Temporal Bone, showing the Tympanum and Mastoid Cells.

ence made by the first turn of the cochlea, and is grooved by the nerves of the tympanic plexus.

The fenestra cochlese is situated in a funnel-shaped depression called the fossa rotunda, below and behind the promontory. It leads into the scala tympani of the cochlea, and in the recent state is closed by the secondary membrane of the tympanum.

1 he sinus tympani is a depression behind the promontory, and between the fossa ovalis and fossa rotunda. In close relation to this is the ampulla of the posterior semicircular canal.

The roof of the tympanum is a thin plate of bone, called the tegmen tympani, which forms part of the anterior surface of the petrous part of the temporal bone.

The floor, narrower than the roof, is a thin plate of bone which separates the tympanum from the jugular fossa.



The anterior wall is narrow, owing to the descent of the roof, and the inclination towards each other of the outer and inner walls. In it are the openings of two canals, the upper of which lodges the tensor tympani muscle, whilst the lower is the osseous part of the pharyngotympanic tube. The two orifices are separated by the margin of the processus cochleariformis. The carotid canal lies just in front of the lower part of the anterior wall.

Fig. 1029.—Diagrammatic Outline of Tympanum and Associated


The posterior wall is formed by the anterior or tympanic surface of the petrous part of the temporal bone. From above downwards the following parts are seen: (1) the opening of the mastoid antrum, which communicates with the attic of the tympanum, or epitympanic recess; (2) a depression called the fossa incudis, receiving the short process of the incus* (3) a small conical projection, called the pyramid, at the summit of which is an opening for the tendon of the stapedius muscle (posteriorly the canal within the pyramid, which contains the

Mastoid Antrum

Lateral Semicirc.C. ~ * Pyramid • Sinus Tympanum —

-Epitympanic Recess

-Site of Geniculate Ganglion

Fenestra Vestibuli


Fenestra Cochleae

Fir jo^o_ Diagram to show Course and Relations of Facial Canal on

' 'the Medial and Posterior Walls of the Tympanum.

stapedius muscle, passes downwards in the posterior wall of the tympanum, and communicates with the descending part of the canal which contains the facial nerve; this explains how the branch of that nerve to the stapedius reaches the muscle); and (4) the iter chordae

posterius, for the chorda tympani nerve. .

Tympanic Membrane.-This is the membrane which closes the inner extremity of the external auditory meatus. It is situated on the outer wall of the tympanum, of which it forms the chief part, and it is set for the most part in the sulcus tympamcus, which marks the



inner surface of the tympanic annulus. Superiorly, however, where the ring is wanting, the membrane is attached to the tympanic notch (of Rivinus). This part of it is thinner and looser than the rest, and is called the membrana flaccida, or Shrapnell’s membrane. The attachment of the membrana tympani to the sulcus is by a thickened ring of fibres, called the annulus fibrosus. This annulus passes from the extremities of the notch to the short process of the malleus in the form of two bands, the anterior and lateral ligaments of the malleus, which form the lower boundary of the membrana flaccida. The membrane is set obliquely in the tympanic sulcus, so that its lower part forms an acute angle with the floor of the meatus externus, and its upper part an obtuse angle with the roof of the passage.

Superior Ligament of Malleus

Head of Malleus Insertion of Tensor Tympani

Chorda Tympani Nerve

Pharyngo-tympanic Tube

Superior Ligament of Incus Body of Incus

Attic of Tympanum

^ Short Process of Incus

L ’\ST ^Posterior Liga^ ment of Incus

s ^_Long Process of

_Processus Orbicu 1 & • laris of Incus

y ' 0 _Handle of Malleus

_Membrana Tympani

Fig. 1031.—The Right Membrana Tympani, Malleus, and Incus (Internal, Posterior, and Superior View) (Spalteholz).

The tympanic membrane is somewhat oval. In the vertical direction it measures about 10 mm., and horizontally from 8 to 9 mm. The handle of the malleus lies between the mucous and fibrous layers of the membrane, and descends to a point a little below its centre, where it ends in a small knob, from which the radiating fibres of the membrane proceed. This knob is firmly attached, and, being directed inwards, the membrane is consequently drawn inwards at that point, and its outer surface presents a slight conical depression, the deepest part of which is called the umbo.

Structure.— The membrane consists of three layers—external, middle, and internal.

The external or cutaneous layer is very thin, and is derived from the skin of the external meatus. It contains no glands, is freely provided with bloodvessels and nerves, and is covered by stratified squamous epithelium.




The middle or fibrous layer forms the proper substance of the membrane, and consists of fibrous tissue. The fibres are radial and circular. The radial fibres lie beneath the cutaneous layer, and radiate from the handle of the malleus to the annulus fibrosus. The circular fibres are deep to the radial fibres, and are most numerous towards the circumference of the membrane. Both sets of fibres are absent from the membrana flaccida.

The internal or mucous layer is continuous with the mucous membrane of the tympanum, and is covered by a single layer of squamous epithelium.

The membrana flaccida, pars flaccida, or Shrapnell’s membrane, has cutaneous and mucous layers only. These are united by connective tissue, which is so loosely arranged that the membrane is flaccid. This part is very liable to perforation.

Cone of Light.—Extending from the knob, in which the handle of the malleus terminates, downwards and inwards to the antero-inferior margin of the membrana tympani there is seen a specially bright reflection, triangular in outline, with the apex towards the umbo. This is called the cone of light.

Arterial Supply of the Tympanic Membrane.—(1) Deep auricular branch of the maxillary artery. This vessel, which passes through the anterior wall of the external meatus, supplies the cutaneous layer. It descends from the skin of the roof of the meatus along the course of the handle of the malleus to the umbo, where it divides into branches which radiate towards the circumference of the membrane. (2) The stylo-mastoid branch of the posterior auricular; and (3) the tympanic branch of the maxillary. The former artery enters the tympanum from the facial canal, and the latter through the squamo-tympanic fissure. Branches from them supply the mucous layer, and form an anastomotic ring around the circumference of the membrane. The fibrous layer receives its arterial supply from the vessels of the cutaneous and mucous layers.

The veins join the external and internal jugular.

Nerve-supply.—(1) The auriculo-temporal of the mandibular, (2) the auricular branch of the vagus, and (3) branches from the tympanic plexus.

Secondary Membrane of the Tympanum.—This membrane closes the fenestra cochleae on the inner wall of the tympanum, and separates the tympanic cavity from the scala tympani of the cochlea. It is concave towards the tympanum, and, like the membrana tympani, consists of three layers. The external layer is formed by the tympanic mucous membrane; the middle layer is fibrous; and the internal layer is formed by the lining membrane of the cochlea.

The mastoid antrum and mastoid air-cells are described with the temporal bone on p. 188, while the Eustachian or pharyngo-tympanic tube is dealt with on p. 1378.



Lateral Process Long Process




Fig. 1032.—The Malleus.

1. anterior view; 2, posterior view.

Ossicles of the Tympanum.

The tympanum contains three small bones, arranged in the form of a chain which extends from the membrana tympani to the fenestra vestibuli. The bones are the malleus, the incus, and the stapes. The malleus is related to the membrana tympani, the stapes to the fenestra, and the incus occupies an intermediate position between these two.

The malleus is so named from its resemblance to a hammer. It is composed of a head, neck, handle, and two processes, long and short.

T 2 The head is the upper, enlarged,

Facet for incus rounded end. Posteriorly it has

a saddle-shaped facet, directed obliquely downwards and inwards, for articulation with the incus in a synovial joint. The neck is the constricted part below the head. The handle (; manubrium) is directed downwards, inwards, and backwards from the neck; it is compressed from before backwards, slightly curved, and ends in a knob. It lies between the fibrous and mucous layers of the membrana tympani, descending to a point a little below the centre of the membrane. It is firmly attached to the fibrous layer by its periosteum. The tensor tympani muscle is inserted into the inner part close to its root. The long or anterior process (processus gracilis ), which is slender, springs from the front of the neck, and is directed forwards and downwards to the petro-tympanic fissure, where it is embedded in fibres which form part of the anterior ligament of the malleus, and connect it to the margins of the fissure. The long process is in the adult for the most part replaced by fibrous tissue except close to the neck of the malleus. In early life it is continuous with Meckel’s cartilage. The short or lateral process is situated immediately below the long process. It is directed laterally to the upper part of the membrana tympani, with which it is connected by the annulus fibrosus. It is also connected with the extremities of the notch by the anterior and posterior malleolar ligaments.

Ihe incus resembles an anvil. It consists of a body and two processes—short and

long. The body is thick, somewhat four- ^ ~ Head ° f Sta fu

sided, and laterally compressed. Anteriorly y^ 08 '

it presents a saddle-shaped articular surface

for the head of the malleus, with which it forms a synovial joint. The short process is directed backwards, is tipped with cartilage, and articulates with the fossa incudis on the posterior wall of the tympanum. The long process is directed downwards and medially, behind


for Malleus

/ Short Process


Long Process

'*■' Lentiform Nodule for Head of Stapes



and parallel to the handle of the malleus. Its lower extremity is bent inwards, and becomes narrowed into a neck, upon which is placed a disc-like knob of bone, called the os orbiculare, which is covered by cartilage for articulation with the head of the stapes. In early life, and up to the sixth month of intra-uterine life, this process forms a separate ossicle.

The stapes resembles a stirrup. It has a head, neck, two crura, and a foot-piece or base. The head is directed laterally, is concave and covered by cartilage, and articulates with the processus lenticularis of the incus. The neck is the constricted part which lies immediately internal to the head. Posteriorly it gives insertion to the stapedius muscle. The crura are anterior and posterior respectively, and spring from the neck. They diverge as they pass inwards, and are attached to the foot-piece near its extremities. The anterior crus is straighter and shorter than the

posterior. The foot-piece or base is some- Malleus what oval, is directed medially, and occupies incus,, the fenestra ovalis, which it almost completely fills; its circumference is covered by cartilage, being attached to the margins of the fenestra by annular ligamentous fibres. Stapes- The arch formed by the crura and foot-piece _ ~

is occupied by a delicate membrane, which tympanic Os is attached to a slight groove on the inner sicles in Position. aspect of the arch.

Development of the Tympanic Ossicles— The malleus and incus are usually regarded as being developed from the proximal end of Meckel’s cartilage, which forms the cartilaginous bar of the first or mandibular arch. According to some authorities, however, the incus is developed from the hyoid bar. The stapes is developed from the dorsal part of the hyoid bar of the second visceral arch.

Ligaments of the Ossicles.—The synovial joints between the malleus and incus and between the incus and stapes are provided with thin capsular ligaments. The ligaments which connect the ossicles to the walls of the tympanic cavity are five in number, three of them belonging to the malleus, one to the incus, and one to the stapes.

The ligaments of the malleus are anterior, lateral, posterior, and superior. The anterior ligament is arranged as a fibrous band which extends from the root of the long process to the petro-tympanic fissure, through which it passes to be attached to the spine of the sphenoid bone. The lateral ligament (or malleolar fold) extends from the short process to the anterior extremity of the tympanic notch. The posterior ligament extends from the short process to the posterior extremity of the notch. The superior ligament extends from the head of the malleus to the roof of the attic or epitympanic recess.

The ligament of the incus connects the short process, near its posterior extremity, to the fossa incudis.



The annular ligament of the stapes connects the circumference of the foot-piece, which is covered by cartilage, to the margin of the fenestra vestibuli, which is also covered by cartilage.

Muscles of the tympanum are the tensor tympani and the stapedius.

Tensor Tympani— Origin .—(i) The cartilaginous part of the pharyngo-tympanic tube; (2) the apex of the petrous part of the temporal bone; and (3) the wall of the osseous canal through which the muscle passes.

Insertion, —The medial aspect of the handle of the malleus close to its root.

Nerve-supply.—A branch from the otic ganglion, and through it from the internal pterygoid branch of the mandibular division of the fifth cranial nerve.

The muscle consists of a fleshy belly, about inch long, and a delicate tendon. In passing backwards to the tympanum it lies in a canal, the entrance to which is situated within the petro-squamous angle of the temporal bone. The canal is placed above the osseous part of the tube, from which it is separated by the processus cochlearifor mis. On entering the tympanum the tendon of the muscle bends sharply over the edge of the processus cochleariformis, and then passes laterally to reach its insertion. The tendon forms very nearly a right angle with the fleshly belly.

Action. —To render tense the membrana tympani by drawing inwards the handle of the malleus, and along with it the membrane.

Stapedius Origin. —The wall of the canal within the pyramid, and of the continuation of this canal in front of the descending part of the facial canal.

The tendon emerges from the canal within the pyramid through a small orifice on the apex.

Insertion. —The posterior aspect of the neck of the stapes.

Nerve-supply. —The facial nerve.

Action. To draw the head of the stapes backwards. The result is that the front part of the foot-piece of the stapes is tilted away

from the vestibule, and its back part is pressed inwards towards the vestibule.

Movements of the Ossicles.—The malleus and incus both act as levers of the first kind, the fulcra of which are represented by an axis passing backwards from the slender process of the malleus. When a sound-wave presses the tympanic membrane inward, the handle of the malleus travels inward with it, and the head of the malleus, or short arm of the lever, moves outward. The upper part, or short arm of the incus lever, must move out too, since it is attached to the head of the malleus, and the long process moves inward, thus pressing the

stapes into the fenestra ovalis and compressing the perilymph in the cochlea.

Ihe secondary membrane of the tympanum, stretched across the fenestra rotunda, is bulged outward by the perilymph, thus allowing vibrations to travel through that fluid.




Mucous Membrane of the Tympanum.—The tympanic mucous membrane is continuous anteriorly with that of the naso-pharynx through the pharyngo-tympanic (or Eustachian) tube. Posteriorly it is prolonged into the mastoid antrum, and thence into the mastoid cells. It forms the internal layer of the tympanic membrane, and the external layer of the secondary membrane of the tympanum. It also furnishes sheaths for the tendons of the tensor tympani and stepedius muscles, and for the chorda tympani nerve. Two folds extend downwards from the roof of the attic or epitympanic recess, one in front of and the other behind the superior ligament of the malleus. The former is connected with the head of the malleus, and the latter (sometimes described as the superior ligament of the incus) with the incus.

Attic or Epitympanic Recess and its Pouches.—The part of the tympanic cavity which lies above the level of the upper margin of the tympanic membrane is called the attic or epitympanic recess, as distinguished from the atrium or tympanum proper. It contains the head and neck of the malleus, and the body and short process of the incus. These divide it incompletely into two compartments—outer and inner. The outer attic is subdivided into two pouches—superior and inferior. The superior pouch is partially separated from the inner attic by the two mucous folds which have been already referred to as descending from the roof of the attic in front of and behind the superior ligament of the malleus. The inferior pouch of the outer attic is known as the pouch of Prussak. It is bounded laterally by the membrana flaccida, superiorly by the lateral ligament of the malleus, which partially separates it from the superior pouch, and internally by the neck of the malleus. The pouch communicates posteriorly with the tympanic cavity by an opening which is situated a little above the level of the bottom of the pouch. If fluid, therefore, should accumulate in Prussak’s pouch, it may readily lead to perforation of the membrana flaccida.

Two other pouches are present—namely, the anterior and posterior recesses or pouches of Troltsch. These lie one in front of and the other behind the handle of the malleus, and are produced by the fold of mucous membrane which invests the chorda tympani nerve.

The tympanic mucous membrane is covered for the most part by columnar ciliated epithelium, except over the ossicles and membrana tympani, where the epithelium consists of a single layer of squamous, non-ciliated cells.

The tympanic or mastoid antrum is supplementary to the tympanum proper, or cavum tympani, behind which it is situated. It communicates by a large irregular opening with the attic, and is lined with mucous membrane, which is continuous with that of the attic and cavum tympani. Opening from the antrum there are the mastoid cells, which are lined with mucous membrane, continuous with that of the antrum.

The average measurements of the antrum are as follows: vertical, about Q millimetres; antero-posterior, about n millimetres; and




transverse, about 8 millimetres. The roof is formed by the thin tegmen tympani, which enters into the formation of the middle fossa of the base of the skull, and is consequently related to the temporal lobe of the cerebrum and its meninges. The genu and descending limb of the sigmoid sinus lie behind the antrum, and a little farther back is the cerebullum. The facial nerve, as it traverses the descending part of its canal, lies in the posterior wall of the cavum tympani, close to the medial wall and in front of the mastoid antrum. This part of the nerve is on a plane anterior to the mastoid process, and is nearly flush with the opening of the antrum. The ampulla of the lateral semicircular canal of the internal ear gives rise to a slight eminence on the medial wall at its anterior part.

The lateral wall corresponds on the surface with the area of the suprameatal triangle of Macewen, and is formed by the postmeatal plate of the squamous portion of the temporal bone. For a description of this triangle, which is the region selected for mastoidectomy , and also for the mastoid cells, see the description of the temporal bone.

Summary of Important Structures closely related to the Mastoid Antrum.

1. Temporal lobe of cerebrum and its meninges (roof).

2. Genu and descending limb of sigmoid sinus, and farther back the cerebellum (posterior wall).

3 - Facial nerve (posterior wall of cavum tympani, close to medial wall and nearly flush with antral opening).

4 - Lateral semicircular canal (anterior part of medial wall).

The upper part of the antrum communicates, as stated, with the attic of the cavum tympani, but the lower part is shut off by bone from the cavity of the cavum tympani.

The mucous membrane of the mastoid antrum is continuous with that which lines the mastoid cells. Anteriorly it is also continuous with the mucous membrane of the attic and cavum tympani or tympanum proper. The mucous membrane of the cavum tympani is continuous anteriorly with that of the pharyngo-tympanic tube, and the mucous membrane of the tube is continuous with that of the naso-pharynx. This extensive and continuous tract of mucous membrane is covered by columnar ciliated epithelium except in the following regions: (1) the promontory; (2) the tympanic ossicles; (3) the tympanic membrane; (4) the mastoid antrum; and (5) the mastoid cells. In these regions the epithelium consists of a single layer of squamous, non-ciliated cells.

It is of considerable importance to note that micro-organisms may pass from the naso-pharynx through the tube into the cavum tympani and attic, and thence into the mastoid antrum and mastoid cells. Purulent affections of these regions may therefore readily be caused in this manner. Such affections may subsequently involve (1) the temporal lobe of the cerebrum and its meninges, (2) the genu and descending limb of the sigmoid sinus, and (3) the internal ear or labyrinth.




Arteries of the Tympanum. —The principal arteries are: (1) the tympanic branch of the maxillary, and (2) the stylo-mastoid branch of the posterior auricular. The tympanic artery enters through the petro-tympanic fissure, and supplies the membrana tympani and front part of the tympanum. The stylomastoid artery enters the facial canal through the stylo-mastoid foramen, and passes from the descending part of the canal into the tympanum. It supplies the back part of the cavity and the mastoid cells, and it forms, with the tympanic artery, a ring round the circumference of the membrana tympani.

In addition to the foregoing two arteries, the following three arteries enter the tympanic cavity: (1) the petrosal branch of the middle meningeal, which enters from the facial canal, into which it passes through the hiatus; (2) the tympanic branch of the ascending pharyngeal, which accompanies the nerve through the tympanic canaliculus; and (3) the tympanic branch of the internal carotid, which enters by a minute foramen on the posterior wall of the ascending part of the carotid canal in company with a sympathetic twig from the carotid plexus.

The veins of the tympanum pass to the pterygoid plexus, the superior petrosal sinus, the internal jugular vein, and the pharyngeal plexus.

Nerves of the tympanum are described on pp. 1325 and 1400.

Internal Ear.

The internal ear is the essential part of the organ of hearing, and is known as the labyrinth from its remarkable complexity. It consists of two parts—namely, the osseous labyrinth and the membranous labyrinth.

Osseous Labyrinth.

The osseous labyrinth is a cavity situated within the petrous part of the temporal bone, and is divided into three parts—namely, the vestibule, the semicircular canals, and the cochlea. These divisions are lined with a delicate periosteum, between which and the contained membranous labyrinth there is a clear fluid, called the perilymph.

Vestibule.—The vestibule is the central division of the osseous labyrinth. The semicircular canals lie behind it, and the cochlea is situated in front of it. In the lateral wall is the fenestra vestibuii, which is occupied by the foot-piece of the stapes and its annular ligament. The medial wall has anteriorly a depression called the fovea spherica or spherical recess, which corresponds to the lamina cribrosa at the deep end of the meatus auditorius internus. It is pierced by apertures for the passage of filaments of the auditory nerve to the saccule. Behind and above the fovea spherica there is a ridge, called the vestibular crest, which lies obliquely. Posteriorly it bifurcates, and between its two divisions there is a small depression, called the cochlear recess, in which are openings for nerve filaments to the canalis cochlese. Anteriorly it becomes somewhat triangular, and forms a pyramid, which is pierced by nerves to the utricle.

The roof of the vestibule, behind and above the crista vestibuii, has an oval depression, called the elliptical recess, which encroaches on the inner wall and lodges the recess of the utricle. It is pierced by nerves to the ampulke of the superior and external semicircular canals. Below the fovea elliptica is the opening of the aqueduct of the vesti



bule, which leads to the posterior surface of the petrous part of the temporal bone about J inch external to the orifice of the meatus auditorius internus. It transmits the ductus endolymphaticus and a minute vein.

Anteriorly the vestibule communicates with the scala vestibuli of the cochlea, and posteriorly are the five openings of the semicircular canals.

Semicircular Canals.—The osseous semicircular canals are situated behind the vestibule. They are three in number—superior, posterior,

Cupola of Cochlea Petrous part of Tern- 5

poral Bone

Facial Canal A

Superior Semicircular Canal

Fenestra Vestibuli

Lateral Semicircular Canal

Posterior Semicircular Canal


Fenestra Cochleae

_ Superior Semicircular Canal

Inner Wall of Canal ' of Cochlea


Lamina Spiralis

Crus Commune of Sup. and Post. SemicircularCanals

Posterior Semicircular Canal

Lateral Semicircular Canal Elliptical Recess \ Crista Vestibuli Spherical Recess

1 \ .

1 '

> Orifice of Aqueductus Vestibuli Recessus Cochlearis

Fenestra Cochleae Scala T.ympani Scala Vestibuli

Fig. 1035. —The Osseous Labyrinth of the Left Side (Lateral View). A, entire; B opened (Hirschfeld and Leveille; B, modified).

and lateral—and they open into the vestibule by five circular apertures, the contiguous ends of the superior and posterior canals having a common orifice. Each canal forms about two-thirds of a circle, and each presents at one end an enlargement, called the ampulla. The superior semicircular canal occupies a vertical position, and lies transversely as regards the long axis of the petrous part of the temporal bone, giving rise to the eminentia arcuata on its superior surface. Its ampullary end (antero-external) opens independently into the upper part of the vestibule above the ampullary orifice of the external canal.



Its non-ampullary end unites with the non-ampullary end of the posterior canal to form the crus commune, and the two open by a common orifice into the vestibule. The posterior semicircular canal arches backwards towards the posterior surface of the pars petrosa, with which it is almost parallel, and, like the superior, it occupies a vertical position. Its ampullary end (inferior) opens independently into the lower and back part of the vestibule, and its non-ampullary end, as just stated, joins that of the superior canal. The lateral semicircular canal arches outwards, and occupies a horizontal position. Its extremities are independent of those of the other two canals, and they open by separate apertures into the upper and back part of the vestibule. Its ampullary end is in front.

Cochlea.—The osseous cochlea is situated in front of the vestibule. It consists of a tube coiled spirally upon itself, like a snail s shell,

Fig. 1036. _Median Section of the Left Osseous Cochlea of Man

from Apex to Base (Arnold).

S.V. Scala Vestibuli S.T. Scala Tympani

L.S.O. Lamina Spiralis Ossea C.C. Central Canal of Modiolus

M.A.I. Internal Auditory Meatus

and is conical. Its base is opposite the lamina cribrosa at the deep end of the meatus auditorius interims; and its apex, known as the cupola is directed outwards and slightly forwards towards the canal which contains the tensor tympani muscle. Its length from base to apex is about i inch. It consists of (1) a winding tube, called the spiral canal of the cochlea ; (2) a central pillar, called the modiolus, round which the spiral canal turns; and (3) a thin plate of bone, called the osseous spiral lamina, which winds spirally round the modiolus and projects into the spiral canal of the cochlea. . .

The spiral canal of the cochlea (cochlear canal or tube) winds round the modiolus which forms its inner wall. It describes two and threenuarter turns, and its basal turn or coil gives rise to the promontory on the inner wall of the tympanum. At the cupola it ends in a blind extremity. It gradually diminishes in size from base to cupola; its



length is about 32 millimetres; and its diameter is about 2 millimetres at the base, where it is greatest.

The modiolus is the central pillar round which the spiral canal of the cochlea turns, and it forms the inner wall of that canal. It commences at the cochlear area of the lamina cribosa at the deep end of the internal auditory meatus, and extends almost to the cupola, gradually tapering. It is traversed by minute canals for branches of the cochlear division of the auditory nerve. One of these canals occupies the centre of the modiolus, and is called the central canal of the modiolus. This canal begins at the foramen centrale of the cochlear area of the lamina cribrosa, and it transmits the nerve-filaments for the apical coil. The other canals, which have no special name, commence at the tractus spiralis foraminosus of the cochlear area of the lamina cribrosa, and they transmit the nerve-filaments for the other coils— middle and basal. At successive levels these canals change their direction, and pass outwards to the attached margin of the lamina spiralis, to be presently described. Here they coalesce and form a winding canal, called the spiral canal of the modiolus, which lodges the spiral ganglion or ganglion of Corti. From this canal secondary canals for nerve-filaments pass into the lamina spiralis.

The osseous spiral lamina is a thin plate of bone, which winds spirally round the modiolus, to which it is attached. It projects from the modiolus into the spiral canal of the cochlea throughout the windings of the latter, and it extends for about half-way towards the outer wall of the cochlear canal. It divides that canal incompletely into two passages or scalar —an upper or scala vestibuli, and a lower or scala tympani, the commencement of which is at the fenestra cochleae. Close to the cupola the lamina spiralis terminates in a hook-like process, called the hamulus. The spiral lamina consists of two plates of bone, between which there are canals for nerve-filaments, these canals being offsets of the spiral canal of the modiolus, which, as has been said, contains the spiral ganglion or ganglion of Corti. They extend to the free margin of the spiral lamina. The free margin of the lamina spiralis is, in the recent state, attached to the outer wall of the spiral canal of the cochlea by means of the basilar membrane or basilar lamina, and the scala vestibuli and scala tympani are now completely separated, except in the region of the hamulus, where they communicate through an opening, called the helicotrema.

The lamina cribrosa, at the deep end of the internal auditory meatus, will be found described in connection with the temporal bone (p. 190).

At the lower end of the scala tympani is the upper opening of the aqueductus cochleae, which passes downwards and medially to the posterior border of the petrous part of the temporal bone. It transmits a small vein to the inferior petrosal sinus, and establishes a communication between the scala tympani and the subarachnoid space.



Membranous Labyrinth.

The membranous labyrinth is situated within the osseous labyrinth, and its constituent parts receive the terminal branches of the auditory nerve. It is separated from the periosteal lining of the osseous labyrinth by the perilymph, and it contains the fluid known as the endolymph. In the case of the vestibule and the osseous semicircular canals the. membranous labyrinth corresponds more or less with them; but in the case of the osseous cochlea it forms part of the septum between the scala tympani and scala vestibuli, and contains a passage called the membranous canal of the cochlea (ductus cochleae).

Fig. 1037. —Diagram of Membranous Labyrinth.

Vestibular Part of the Membranous Labyrinth.—The vestibule contains two membranous sacs—namely, the utricle and the saccule

_which are in close contact, but do not communicate with each other

directly. These sacs contain endolymph.

The utricle is the larger of the two sacs, and into it the membranous semicircular ducts open. It occupies the upper and back part of the vestibule, a portion of it, known as the recessus utriculi, lying in the fovea elliptica. Near the crista vestibuli the wall of this recess receives fibres of the auditory nerve and is thickened, this part of it being called the macula utriculi. From the anterior and medial part of the utricle a minute canal, called the ductus utriculi («ductus utriculo-saccularis ), passes to join the ductus sacculi, and so form the ductus endolymphaticus (see Fig. 1037).



The saccule, which is somewhat oval, lies in front of the utricle, and occupies the fovea spherica, where it is near the opening leading into the scala vestibuli of the cochlea. Through the openings of the fovea spherica it receives filaments of the auditory nerve, and this portion of the saccule, being thickened, is known as the macula sacculi. Interiorly the saccule is connected with a small canal, called the ductus reuniens, which opens into the canal of the cochlea, or ductus cochlearis, not far from its closed vestibular end. From the posterior part of the saccule a minute canal, called the ductus sacculi, passes off, which is soon joined by the ductus utriculi, and so the ductus endolymphaticus is formed. This latter duct traverses the aqueductus vestibuli, and, having reached the posterior surface of the petrous part of the temporal bone, it ends in a small blind dilatation, called the saccus endolymphaticus , which lies beneath the dura mater. The saccule and utricle are thus indirectly connected by means of the ductus sacculi and ductus utriculi; and the saccule communicates with the ductus cochlearis by means of the ductus reuniens.

Semicircular Ducts.—The membranous semicircular ducts correspond in outline to the osseous semicircular canals, within which they lie; they form about two-thirds of a circle, and each has an ampulla at one end, which is situated within the ampulla of the osseous canal. They are elliptical in transverse section, and open into the utricle by five orifices, the non-ampullated ends of the superior and posterior canals being united, so that these two open by a common orifice forming the crus commune. The convex wall of each canal is attached to the periosteal lining of the osseous canal, whilst the concave wall is practically free from the osseous wall, and is bathed by the perilymph. These canals contain endolymph.

Structure.—The walls of the utricle, saccule, and membranous semicircular canals consist of three layers: an outer or fibrous layer, which is vascular; a middle layer, or membrana propria, which is translucent; and an inner or epithelial layer. In each ampulla the middle layer, or membrana propria, projects into the cavity of the canal from the peripheral wall, this projecting part being known as the septum transversum. It partially divides the interior of the ampulla into two compartments, and its free margin, which is covered by the auditory epithelium, is called the crista acustica or ampullaris. The epithelial layer consists of a single stratum of squamous cells, except in those regions to which the filaments of the auditory nerve are distributed. These regions are as follows: (i) the macula (acustica) utriculi; (2) the macula (acustica) sacculi; and (3) the crista of each ampulla.

The macula utriculi is the thickened part of the antero-inferior wall of the recessus utriculi, and is lined with auditory epithelium. The macula is covered by calcareous particles, called otoconia, which consist of crystals of calcium carbonate. The macula sacculi is the thickened part of the anterior wall of the saccule, and is also lined with auditory epithelium covered by otoconia. The crista ampullaris, as



we have seen, is the free margin of the septum trailsversum in each ampulla, and is covered by auditory epithelium.

The auditory epithelium is of the columnar variety, and consists of two kinds of cells, auditory and sustentacular. The auditory cells are nucleated, and each is provided at its free extremity with a slender, tapering, hair-like filament, which projects into the cavity. These filaments are sometimes spoken of collectively as auditory hairs, and the cells are hence called hair-cells. Their deep extremities fall short of the membrana propria. The sustentacular cells lie between the haircells, and are elongated and nucleated. Their deep extremities are attached to the membrana propria, and their free extremities give rise to a kind of limiting membrane. The auditory nerve-fibres pierce the membrana propria, and, having lost their medullary sheaths, the axons end in arborizations round the deep ends of the auditory or hair cells.

Superior Semicircular Duct

Lateral Semicircular Duct i

Posterior Semicircular Duct

Facial Nerve

Crus Commune of Superior and ' l Posterior Semicircular Ducts

j r Ampulla

_ l Nerve to Ampulla Nerve to Utricle ~ . Nerve to Saccule _ Cochlear Nerve

Fig. 1038. —The Membranous Semicircular Ducts, showing the Distribution of the Branches of the Auditory Nerve to their Ampullae


Membranous Cochlea.—The membranous cochlea is situated within the osseous cochlea, and fills the gap which is left by the lamina spiralis. It consists of two membranes, the basilar membrane and the vestibular membrane (membrane of Reissner, Fig. 1040), which enclose between them the ductus cochlearis, or scala media. 1 he osseous cochlea in the recent state is therefore divided into three spiral passages—the scala tympani, the scala vestibuli, and the ductus cochlearis. The scala vestibuli is continuous with the scala tympani at the cupola through an aperture, called the helicotrema ; and at the base of the cochlea it opens upon the anterior wall of the vestibule. The scala tympani begins at the fenestra cochleae, and in the recent state is separated from the tympanic cavity by the secondary membrane of the tympanum. The scala media, or ductus cochlearis, communicates near its lower end with the saccule by means of the ductus reuniens. The scala vestibuli and scala tympani contain perilymph, which is continuous with the perilymph of the vestibule and osseous semicircular canals. The scala media contains endolymph, which is continuous with that of the saccule,



Basilar Membrane.—The basilar membrane extends from the free margin of the lamina spiralis to the crista basilaris, or lower part of the spiral ligament, a thickening of the periosteum of that part of the outer wall of the cochlea which forms the outer wall of the scala media, or ductus cochlearis. It separates the ductus cochlearis from the scala tympani, and is divisible into two zones, inner and outer. The inner is called the zona arcuata, and supports the spiral organ. The outer is known as the zona pectinata, and extends from the foot-plates of the outer rods of this organ to the crista basilaris. The basilar membrane consists of a homogeneous membrana propria, with fibres embedded in it, the fibres being most numerous in the zona pectinata.

Vestibular Membrane, or Membrane of Reissner.—This is a delicate membrane which extends from the upper surface of the lamina spiralis a short distance from its free margin to the outer wall of the cochlea, where it is attached to the periosteum a little above the outer attachment of the basilar membrane. It separates the cochlear duct from the scala vestibuli, and consists of very delicate connective tissue lined on each side with a single layer of squamous epithelium.

Osseous Spiral Lamina

Vestibular Membrane Basilar Membiane

Scala Vestibuli

Ductus Cochlearis

Sc' NYll ESy/: ,'-.;

| Scala Tympan*

Fig. 1039.

-Vertical Section of the Cochlea of a Fcetal Calf, showing THE SCALAE AND MODIOLUS (KoLLIKER).

The scala media, or ductus cochlearis, is situated between the basilar membrane and the vestibular membrane. It is triangular in transverse section, and has a roof, an outer wall, and a floor. The roof is formed by the vestibular membrane (see Fig. 1040). The outer wall is the wall of the cochlea and its periosteum, between the external attachments of the basilar membrane and the vestibular membrane. The periosteum in this region is much thickened, and forms the spiral ligament of the cochlea, the lower part of which gives rise to the crista basilaris. The floor is formed by the basilar membrane, and a part of the upper surface of the lamina spiralis. It has been seen that the basilar membrane separates the ductus cochlearis from the scala tympani. The ductus ends above in a closed extremity at the cupola, and it has a similar ending at the base of the cochlea. Near its lower blind extremity it receives the ductus reuniens, by which it communicates with the saccule.

It has just been shown that part of the floor of the cochlear duct is formed by some of the lamina spiralis. In the recent state it is of some thickness, which is due to a thickening of its periosteal




covering. This fibrous thickening forms the limbus laminae spiralis (see Fig. 1040).

Its outer margin is crescentic, the deep notch being called the sulcus lamince spiralis. The sulcus has two lips, upper and lower. The upper is called the labium vestibulare, the upper surface of which is marked by several interlacing prominences and grooves. At the free margin of this labium the prominences assume the form of tooth-like projections, which are known as the auditory teeth. The lower lip of the sulcus is called the labium tympanicum. It is continued into the basilar membrane, and is perforated by a great number of apertures for the branches of the cochlear division of the auditory nerve.

Spiral Organ (of Corti).—Over the upper surface of the inner part (zona arcuata) of the basilar membrane the epithelium undergoes

Fig. 1040.—The Organ of Corti (Wiedersheim, after Lavdowsky).

1. Spiral Ligament

2. Limbus

3. Sulcus Spiralis

4. Inner Rod of Corti

5. Outer Rod of Corti

6. Tunnel of Corti

7. Phalangeal Process of Outer Rod

8. Inner Hair-cells

9. Outer Hair-cells

10. Cells of Deiters

11. Lamina Reticularis

12. Cells of Hensen

13. Cells o Claudius

14. Spiral Ganglion

15. Cochlear Nerve

16. Nerve-fibres to Hair-cells

remarkable modification, and gives rise to the spiral organ or organ of Corti. The constituent parts of this very complicated organ are as


1 The rods of Corti. 4. The cells of Hensen and of Claudius.

2 The auditory or hair cells. 5 - The lamina reticularis.

3! The cells of Deiters. 6. The membrana tectona.

The rods of Corti are arranged in two rows, inner and outer (see Fig 1041). Each rod consists of a foot-plate or base, an intermediate portion, and a head. The foot-plate, which is expanded, rests upon the zona arcuata of the basilar membrane, and the foot-plates of the inner rods are separated from those of the outer rods by a slight interval. As the rods rise the intermediate portions of the inner and



outer rods incline towards each other, and the heads of the two sets of rods come into contact. In this manner a triangular tunnel is enclosed between the two sets of rods and the basilar membrane, which is called the tunnel of Corti. This extends along the entire length of the ductus cochlearis.





The inner rods are more numerous than the outer, there being from 5,000 to 6,000 of the former and about 4,000 of the latter. They incline upwards and outwards. The head of each has a concavity on its outer side, above and below which there is a projecting portion, so

that it resembles the upper extremity of the ulna, with its great sigmoid cavity and olecranon and coronoid processes. The concavity on the head of the inner rod receives the round head of the outer rod. Finally, the tic. 1041. A Pair of Rods of inner rods are shorter than the outer. Corti from the Rabbit’s Coch- The ou + pr rn d<? lpcc nnmprrmQ

lea (Side View, highly mag- An ? ouler * oas j ^ re . Aess nui ? e 5 , 0US

nified) (Schafer, in Quain’s ? nd lon § er than the inner, and they

‘Anatomy’). ~ incline upwards and inwards. The

head of each is divisible into two parts—inner and outer. Ihe inner part is round, and is received mto the concavity on the outer aspect of the head of the inner rod. The outer part is prolonged into a beak-like projection, called the phalangeal process, which forms part of the lamina reticularis, to be presently described.

The auditory or hair cells are arranged in two sets—inner and outer. Ihe inner hair-cells lie internal to the row of inner rods, and form a single row. They are from 3,000 to in number. Their

free extremities, which lie close to the heads of the inner rods, are each provided with a tuft of short, hair-like filaments. The deep, nucleated ends of the cells are related to the terminal arborizations of nervefibres. Internal to the row of inner hair-cells there are two or more rows of columnar cells, which are continuous with the columnar epithelium of the sulcus spiralis laminae. The outer hair-cells are disposed in three or four rows external to the outer row of rods. They are much more numerous than the inner hair-cells. Their free extremities, like those of the inner cells, are each provided with a tuft of short, hair-like filaments, and their deep, nucleated ends are related to the terminal arborizations of nerve-fibres.

1 he cells of Deiters, which are sustentacular, are situated between the rows of outer hair-cells. Each cell is nucleated and contains a slender filament, known as the sustentacular filament or phalangeal process. This filament is attached by its base to the basilar membrane, and is prolonged into the tapering upper end of the cell. It terminates in an expansion, which forms a phalanx of the lamina reticularis, to be presently described.

The cells of Hensen are disposed as a continuous layer external to the lamina reticularis.

THE EAR 1693

External to the cells of Hensen there are the cubical or columnar cells of Claudius: these are merely an epithelial lining layer.

The reticular lamina extends between the heads of the rods of Corti and the cells of Hensen. It consists of phalanges, which are arranged in two (or more) rows—inner and outer. The phalanges of the inner row are formed by the phalangeal processes of the heads of the outer rods of Corti. The phalanges of the outer row (or rows) are formed by the phalangeal processes of the cells of Deiters. Between the phalanges there are openings through which the outer ends of the outer hair-cells, with their crescentic tufts of hair-like filaments, project.

The membrana tectoria, or membrane of Corti, which is elastic, is the most superficial structure in connection with the spiral organ. It extends from the limbus spiralis near, and external to, the attachment of the vestibular membrane to the region of the outer hair-cells. It covers (1) the limbus laminae spiralis; (2) the labium vestibulare,

- Hehcotrema

Scala Vestibuli

Membranous Spiral Lamina

Scala Tympani



Expansion of Cochlear Nerve

Fig. 1042.—Section of the Cochlea, showing the Distribution of the Cochlea Branch of the Auditory Nerve (magnified) (Hirschfeld and Reveille).

and the auditory teeth; (3) the sulcus laminae spiralis; (4) the inner hair-cells; (5) the inner and outer rods of Corti; (6) the cells of Deiters; and (7) the lamina reticularis.

Auditory Nerve.—The auditory nerve, within the meatus auditorius internus, breaks up into two divisions—vestibular and cochlear.

The vestibular nerve, as it traverses the meatus auditorius internus, has a gangliform enlargement, the vestibular ganglion, and divides into three branches. These enter the vestibule through the foramina in the superior vestibular area of the lamina cribrosa at the deep end of the internal meatus. They are distributed to the macula utriculi and to the cristae acusticas of the ampullae of the superior and external semicircular canals.

The cochlear nerve in the meatus auditorius internus divides into two branches—one to the macula sacculi, and the other to the crista of the ampulla of the posterior semicircular canal. The filaments of the former, which has a gangliform enlargement, pass through the foramina in the inferior vestibular area of the lamina cribrosa, and the



latter passes through the foramen singulare in the lamina cribrosa. The cochlear nerve, having parted with these two branches, breaks up into filaments which pass through the foramina of the cochlear area of the lamina cribrosa, and so reach the base of the modiolus of the cochlea. They traverse the canals of the modiolus, from which they pass into the canals between the two layers of the lamina spiralis. In doing so they have to cross the spiral canal of the modiolus, which is situated close to the attached margin of the lamina spiralis. This canal contains a ganglion, called the spiral ganglion, which follows the windings of the canal, and contains bipolar nerve-cells. As the auditory fibres pass from the canals of the modiolus into those of the lamina spiralis the course of each fibre is probably interrupted by a bipolar cell of the spiral ganglion. The nerve-fibres, leaving these bipolar cells, traverse the canals between the two layers of the lamina spiralis. Having lost their medullary sheaths, they pass through the foramina of the labium tympanicum on the outer margin of the limbus spiralis, and enter the basilar membrane, where they end in arborizations which are connected with the inner and outer hair-cells.

Blood-supply of the Labyrinth.—The labyrinth derives its blood from the internal auditory, which is a branch of the basilar artery or of the anterior inferior cerebellar. The vessel traverses the meatus auditorius internus, and divides at its deep end into two branches— vestibular and cochlear. The vestibular artery supplies the utricle, saccule, and semicircular canals, and the cochlear artery supplies the cochlea.

The veins of the labyrinth ultimately join to form one vessel, called the internal auditory vein, which opens into the inferior petrosal sinus. The aqueductus cochleae and the aqueductus vestibuli each transmit a vein; that which passes through the former joins the inferior petrosal sinus or the bulb of the internal jugular vein, and that which passes through the latter opens into the superior petrosal sinus.

Development of the Ear.

Internal Ear—Membranous Labyrinth. —The membranous labyrinth is developed from the surface ectoderm in a manner similar to the development of the crystalline lens. Over a circumscribed area, corresponding to the upper end of the first visceral cleft, and upon the side of the hind-brain, the ectoderm becomes thickened and invaginated. A depression is thus formed, which is called the auditory pit. This pit becomes deepened, its mouth becomes constricted, and its lips, coming together, unite. The auditory pit then becomes transformed into a closed sac, called the auditory or otic vesicle, or otocyst. The auditory vesicle now becomes isolated from the surface ectoderm, and sinks into the adjacent mesoderm, taking up a position close to the side of the hindbrain.

The auditory vesicle, which is at first almost spherical, soon becomes pyriform, this being due to the formation of a process, called the recess of the labyrinth or vestibule, which is prolonged from its dorsal wall. As this process lengthens it gives rise to the ductus endolymphaticus, which occupies the aqueductus vestibuli of the petrous portion of the temporal bone. The expanded terminal



part of the ductus endolymphaticus is called the saccus endolymphaticus, and it lies underneath the dura mater. The ventral aspect of the vesicle gives off a tapering diverticulum, which gives rise to the ductus cochlearis, or scala media, of the cochlea. This duct describes a bend, within which lies the cochlear ganglion of the cochlear division of the auditory nerve. As the duct elongates it continues to bend in a spiral manner, and so the ductus cochlearis is formed. The cochlear ganglion elongates, and follows the spiral turns of the duct, from which circumstance the ganglion is known as the ganglion spirale.

The three semicircular ducts are developed from the upper or cephalic part of the auditory vesicle, this part representing the future utricle. This portion of the vesicle presents two folds—vertical and horizontal. From the vertical fold the superior and posterior semicircular canals are formed, whilst the horizontal fold gives rise to the lateral semicircular canal.

The auditory vesicle now becomes transversely constricted, and is divided into two sacs—large and small. The large sac is called the utricle, from which the semicircular ducts have just been developed. The small sac is called the saccule, from which the ductus cochlearis has been developed. The portion of this duct which communicates with the saccule becomes constricted, and forms the canalis reuniens of Hensen.

The constriction which completely divides the auditory vesicle into utricle and saccule also involves the vesicular end of the ductus endolymphaticus, and divides it into two ducts, called the ductus utriculi and ductus sacculi. This arrangement constitutes the only communication which now exists between the utricle and the saccule.

As stated, the cochlear ganglion, or ganglion spirale, of the cochlear division of the auditory nerve lies within the spiral turns of the ductus cochlearis. As the osseous cochlea becomes formed, the ganglion spirale comes to occupy the spiral canal of the modiolus. The vestibular ganglion of the vestibular division of the auditory nerve lies in the internal auditory meatus after the completion of ossification.

The membranous labyrinth, hitherto considered, is entirely epithelial. Certain of its epithelial cells undergo important specializations to fit them for sensorial purposes. These cells form six groups in definite regions. These groups are as follows: (1) The crista acustica ampullaris, of which there are three, one in the ampulla of each of the three epithelial semicircular canals; (4) the macula (1 acustica) utriculi’, (5) the macula ( acustica) sacculi', and (6) the spiral organ {of Corti), specialized from the epithelial ductus cochlearis. The groups connected with the ampullae of the semicircular canals, the utricle, and the saccule, receive their nerve-fibres from the vestibular ganglion of the vestibular division of the auditory nerve. The organ of Corti receives its nerve-fibres from the cochlear ganglion, or ganglion spirale, of the cochlear division of the auditory nerve.

Osseous Labyrinth. —The membranous labyrinth is surrounded by mesodermic tissue, which becomes disposed in four layers. These layers, from within outwards, may be spoken of as (1) the connective-tissue layer, (2) the gelatinous layer, (3) the perichondrial layer, and (4) the cartilaginous layer. The connectivetissue layer forms the connective tissue of the various parts of the epithelial labyrinth. The fibrous tissue of the gelatinous layer acquires vacuoles, and gives place to the various perilymphatic spaces, which contain a fluid called the perilymph. In the case of the cochlea, the scala vestibuli and scala tympani alone contain perilymph, the cochlear duct containing endolymph. The perichondrial layer forms the lining perichondrium of the periotic cartilaginous capsule, and subsequently becomes the lining periosteum of the osseous labyrinth. The cartilaginous layer forms the periotic cartilaginous capsule, which undergoes ossification, and gives rise, amongst other parts, to the osseous labyrinth, which jg q£ i ar ger size than the membranous labyrinth. The osseous semicircular canals conform in shape to the membranous semicircular ducts, but are of larger size. The osseous vestibule differs from the membranous vestibule in being a single osseous case, whereas its contents are the utricle and the saccule.

Whilst the perilymph lies external to the membranous labyrinth, the interior



of the semicircular ducts, utricle, saccule, and scala media contain endolymph, the latter being in communication with the saccule by means of the canal is reuniens.

The middle ear or tympanum and pharyngo-tympanic tube (see p. 73 et seq.)

are developed from the tubo-tympartic recess of the pharynx. This is the widest part of the early pharynx, opposite the second and third arches, and by the time the embryo has reached the second month of development the recess is definitely indicated; it projects laterally with its contained cavity, compressed dorso-ventrally, widely open into the general pharyngeal cavity. Its roof supports the otic capsule, while the outer parts of the first two visceral grooves are seen in its floor, with the second arch between them. It is bounded in front by the first arch, and caudally by the third arch. The first lateral pouch, on its lateral edge, is in contact with the persistent upper end of the first outer groove; the second pouch, which has lost contact, is at its postero-lateral angle. The recess deepens, and the third arch grows forward, cutting off the outer part of the cavity from the pharynx and narrowing the anterior part, which still remains continuous with the pharynx; the outer and larger part is the early tympanum, and the constricted front portion becomes the tube.

The otic capsule enlarges and chondrifies, and as it grows depresses the inner part of the tympanum, slightly rotating it, so that its former roof now becomes its inner wall, applied to the surface of the capsule. Its floor, also rotated, now slopes downwards and medially, and is in close relation with the meatal plate, a cellular ingrowth from the upper end of the first outer groove; this has grown in below the tympanum, and by a later process of hollowing forms the ectodermal lining of the outer meatus and membrane.

Meckel’s cartilage develops in the mesoderm of the first arch, therefore antero-lateral to the recess, in front of the position of the first pouch. It sends an extension over the pouch to invade the second arch area behind this, passing under the floor between the endoderm and the meatal plate; this extension forms the basis of the tympanic membrane and the manubrium, and its upper part probably also forms the incus. The hyoid bar (Reichert’s cartilage), the bar of the second arch, is behind this, immediately in front of the second pouch; an exten sion from its upper end over the roof gives rise to the stapes. The stapes becomes associated with the cartilaginous capsule, which has enlarged considerably; the enlargement extends postero-laterally, and leads to the fusion of Reichert’s bar with the capsule (tympano-hyal) and the position of the remnant of the second pouch in the fossula rotunda (fenestra cochleae).

The chorda tympani crosses the first pouch; the level of the early tympanum might roughly be taken as extending up to this nerve. The higher level of the adult cavity is attained by a later extension. In the early condition of the tympanum, the malleus, incus, stapes, and chorda tympani nerve lie embedded in the mesodermic tissue which intervenes between the epithelial or mucous roof of the membranous tympanum and its osseous roof. This mesodermic tissue disappears, and the mucous (originally epithelial) lining of the tympanum now comes into direct contact with the malleus, incus, stapes, and chorda tympani nerve, all of which it encloses within folds. Though these structures apparently lie within the tympanic cavity, this is not their actual position. They are really outside the cavity, inasmuch as they lie external to the mucous lining of the cavity. This may be illustrated by stating that the handle or manubrium of the malleus and the chorda tympani nerve do not lie in the tympanic cavity, but are placed between the middle, or fibrous, layer and the internal, or mucous, layer of the membrana tympani.

External Ear.— AThe external ear consists of (1) the external auditory meatus, including the membrana tympani, and (2) the pinna.

The external auditory meatus is developed from the upper part of the first external or ectodermic furrow, which corresponds in position to the first internal visceral cleft.

The membrana tympani is developed from the closing membrane which separates the first internal visceral cleft from the first external ectodermic furrow.



This closing membrane is a trilaminar structure. Its inner layer consists of entoderm; its middle layer of mesoderm; and its outer layer of ectoderm. The membrana tympani, which is developed from it, is therefore trilaminar. The outer layer is ectodermic, and is continuous with the cuticular lining of the external auditory meatus; the middle layer is mesodermic, or fibrous; and the inner layer is entodermic, or mucous, and is continuous with the mucous lining of the tympanic cavity.

The component parts of the pinna are developed from six projections, consisting of mesoderm, covered by ectoderm. These appear on the upper ends of the first and second visceral arches, where these bound the upper part of the first external ectodermic furrow, which gives rise to the external auditory meatus. The helix is developed from two of these tubercles, and each of the other four gives rise to the antihelix, tragus, antitragus, and lobule. The mesodermic tissue of the projections becomes differentiated into connective tissue and cartilage, and the ectoderm covers these.



Terms still in common use, though now ‘discardedare included in this list, with a certain number of proper names coming in the same category.

Abdomen, a word of uncertain derivation, but possibly from abdo, I hide or conceal.

Aberrant, wandering from the normal source.

Acervulus, a little heap.

Acervulus cerebri, brain-sand.

Acetabulum, a vessel for holding vinegar; a juggler’s cup. But used by Pliny to signify hipsocket.

Acinus, any juicy berry with stones — e.g., the grape; the kernel in the berry.

Acrocephalous, having a pointed or conical head.

Acromion, the point or summit of the shoulder.

Acusticus, a, um, pertaining to sound, or to the sense of hearing.

Adamantoblast, enamel germ cell.

Adductor canal, subsartorial canal.

Adenoid, glandular.

Aditus, an approach or access.

Adrenal, near to the kidney.

Advehens, carrying to.

Afferent, carrying to.

Agger, a mound or rampart.

Agminated, disposed in columns.

Ala, a wing.

Ala cinera, vagal triangle.

Albicans, white.

Albuginea, whitish.

Alcock’s canal, pudendal canal.

Allantois, sausage-like.

Alveolus, a little trough.

Alveus, a trough.

Amacrine, without a long fibre.

Ambiguus, dark, obscure.

Ameloblast, enamel germ.

Ammonis, cornu, horn of Ammon, who was represented as having the head of a ram.

Amphiarthrosis, literally, articulation on both sides. Secondary cartilaginous joint (fibro-cartilage).

Ampulla, a flask.

Amygdala, an almond.

Anastomosis, literally, an outlet; the communication of branches of vessels with one another.

Anconeus, pertaining to the elbow.

Ankylosis, bony union between two bones which are normally separate.

Annulus, a little ring.

Ansa, a handle, loop, or brace.

Ansa cervicis, ansa hypoglossi.

Anserinus, pertaining to a goose.

Antecubital, in front of the elbow.

Antibrachium, forearm.

Anticubital fossa, cubital fossa.

Anticus, in front, anterior.

Antinion, opposite to the inion.

Antrum, a cave or cavity.

Antrum of Highmore, maxillary sinus.

Antrum, mastoid, tympanic antrum.

Anus, a ring.

Aorta, literally, the lower end of the trachea; a carrier.

Apertura piriformis, anterior aspect of nose.

Aponeurosis, an expansion from a tendon.

Aponeurosis, lumbar, lumbar fascia.

Aponeurosis, pharyngeal, pharyngobasilar fascia.

Apophysis (‘ grow from ’), a process or swelling on a bone.

Appendix ventriculi laryngis, saccule.

Aqueductus cerebri, aqueduct of


Aqueductus Fallopii, facial canal. Arachnoid, like a spider’s web.



Arantii, corpus, nodule (in cusps of aortic and pulmonary valves).

Archenteron, primitive intestine.

Arcuatus, curved.

Area acustica, vestibular area.

Areola, a small open place.

Arnold’s ganglion, otic ganglion.

Arnold’s nerve, tympanic nerve.

Artery, literally, an air vessel; the trachea was known as the arteria aspera; a bloodvessel which carries the blood from the heart.

Arthrodia, from the Greek word meaning * a joint ’; applied to a gliding joint.

Arthrosis, plane joint.

Arytenoid, pitcher-like.

Ascending frontal convolution, precentral convolution.

Ascending parietal convolution, postcentral convolution.

Aspera, rough.

Asterion, a star.

Astragalus, the ankle-bone; a die (pi. dice); talus.

Atlas, a support; refers to Atlas, who carried the earth on his neck.

Atresia, imperforation.

Atrium, the hall in a Roman house.

Attic, epitympanic recess.

Attollens, raising up, elevating.

Attrahens, drawing to or towards.

Auditory, pertaining to the organ, or sense, of hearing.

Auerbach’s plexus, myenteric plexus.

Auricle, the external ear.

Auricle (O.T.), atrium (heart).

Auricular appendix (O.T.), auricle.

Azygos, without a pair, single.

Bacillary, pertaining to a small staff or rod.

Balanus, an acorn.

Barba, a beard.

Bartholin’s duct (great duct of Rivini),

principal sublingual duct.

Basilar, belonging to the base.

Basilic, royal, important.

Basion, base.

Bechterew, nucleus of, superior vestibular nucleus.

Bell, nerve of, nerve to serratus anterior.

Bellini, ducts of, terminal collecting tubules of kidney.

Biceps, having two heads.

Bicornis, two-horned.

Bicuspid (teeth), pre-molar.

Bigelow, Y-shaped ligament of, iliofemoral ligament.

Biventer, having two bellies.

Bowman’s capsule, capsule of glomerulus.

Bowman’s membrane, anterior elastic lamina of cornea.

Brachium, the arm.

Brachium conjunctivum, superior cerebellar peduncle.

Brachium pontis, middle cerebellar peduncle.

Brachycephalic, short-headed.

Bregma, from a Greek verb meaning ‘ to moisten/

Broca, area of, parolfactory area.

Broca, band of, diagonal band.

Bronchiole, a little bronchus.

Bronchus, literally, a draught; the windpipe.

Bryant’s triangle, (1) horizontal line from anterior superior spine; (2) vertical line from top of great trochanter; (3) line joining anterior superior spine to top of great trochanter.

Bubonocele, a variety of tumour in the groin.

Buccinator, a trumpeter.

Bulla, a knob; a bubble.

Burdach, fasciculus of, fasciculus cuneatus.

Burns, falciform process of (ligament of Hey), superior cornu of saphenous opening.

Burns’ space, suprasternal space.

Bursa, a sac containing fluid.

Bursa omentalis, lesser sac.

Cacumen, tip, peak, or end.

Caecum, blind.



Caeruleus, dark blue.

Calamus, a reed-pen.

Calcaneum, the heel.

Calcar, a spur.

Calcination, reduction to a powder (or line) by heat.

Calcis, of the heel.

Calix, a cup or goblet.

Callosal convolution, gyrus cinguli.

Calloso-marginal fissure, sulcus cinguli.

Callosum, hard, thick.

Calvaria ( calva , the bald scalp), the upper part of the skull.

Canalis reuniens, ductus reuniens.

Cancellated, lattice-formed, reticulated.

Canthus, the angle of the eye.

Capillary, pertaining to the hair; a vessel of hair-like minuteness.

Capitellum, a small head.

Capsular, suprarenal.

Caput gallinaginis, urethral crest.

Caput medusae, varicose veins radiating from umbilicus in portal obstruction.

Cardia, the opening of the stomach; the heart.

Cardiac, pertaining to the heart (originally to the stomach).

Cardinal, principal or chief.

Carina, a keel.

Carneae, pertaining to flesh.

Carotid, stupefying; or perhaps from two Greek words meaning ‘ head ’ and ‘ ear.’

Carpus, the wrist.

Cartilages, alar, lower lateral cartilage.

Cartilages, lateral, upper lateral cartilage (of nose).

Cartilages, Santorini, of, corniculate cartilage.

Cartilages, Wrisberg, of, cuneiform cartilage.

Caruncula, a little piece of flesh.

Caruncula sublingualis, sublingual papilla.

Carunculae myrtiformes, carunculae hymenales.

Cauda, a tail.

Caudate, tailed.

Caudate lobe (O.T.), tail of caudate lobe.

Cavernous, full of hollows or cavities.

Centimetre (cm.), § of an English inch.

Cephalic, pertaining to the head. Cerato, horny.

Ceruminous, pertaining to wax. Chiasma, two lines placed like an X. Choana, a funnel.

Choanse, posterior apertures of nose. Choledochus, bile-receiving. Chondral, pertaining to cartilage.

Choroid (Chorioid), like skin. Cinereus, ash-coloured.

Cingulum, a small girdle. Circumflexus, bent around. Circumvallate papillae, vallate papillae.

Cisterna, a cistern or reservoir. Clarke, posterior vesicular column of,

thoracic (dorsal) nucleus. Claustrum, a bulwark, barrier, or inclosure.

Clava, a club; gracile tubercle. Clavicle, from clavis, a key, or possibly a hoop-stick.

Cleido-, pertaining to the clavicle. Clinoid, like the knob of a bedpost. Clitoris, from a Greek verb meaning ‘ I shut up ’ or ‘ enclose.’

Clivus, a slope.

Cloaca, a sewer or drain.

Coccyx, a cuckoo.

Cochlea, a snail.

Cochlea, membranous, duct of cochlea.

Cochleariformis, spoon-like.

Coeliac, pertaining to the belly. Colliculus, a little hill.

Colliculus, quadrigeminal body. Colliculus seminalis, urethral crest. Colon, the great gut.

Columns, rectal (Morgagni), anal columns.

Comes, a companion.

Comma tract, semilunar tract.


Complexus, literally, folded together; encompassing.

Concatenatae, chained together. Concatenate glands, deep cervical (lymph) glands.

Concha, a shell.

Condyle (‘ knuckle ’), a small round prominence covered by cartilage. Coni vasculosi, lobules of epididymis. Conjunctiva, connecting. Conniventes, winking or blinking. Conoid, cone-like.

Conoid tubercle, coracoid tuberosity. Conus arteriosus, infundibulum. Conus elasticus, crico-vocal membrane.

Convoluta, rolled together.

Coracoid, like a crow or raven.

Cord, vocal, false, vestibular folds. Cord, vocal, true, vocal fold. Cordiform, heart-shaped.

Cords (gangliated, lumbo-sacral, etc.), trunks.

Cornea, horny.

Corniculum, a little horn.

Cornu ammonis, hippocampus. Coronal, literally, pertaining to a crown; transverse.

Coronary, encircling.

Coronoid, like a crooked beak. Corpora albicantia (brain), corpora mamillaria.

Corpus (of long bone), shaft.

Corpus adiposum buccae, buccal pad. Corpus arantii, nodule (aortic and pulmonary valves).

Corpus cavernosum penis, corpus cavernosum.

Corpus cavernosum urethrae, corpus spongiosum.

Corrugator, a wrinkler.

Cortex, the bark or outer covering. Costal, pertaining to a rib.

Cotyloid, cup-like.

Cowper’s gland, bulbo-urethral gland. Coxa, the hip.

Cranium, the skull.

Crassum, thick, dense, or bulky. Cremaster, a suspender.

Cribriform, sieve-like.


Cribrosa, perforated with sieve-like pores.

Cricoid, like a ring.

Crista tuberculi majoris, lateral lip of bicipital groove.

Crista tuberculi minoris, medial lip of bicipital groove.

Crucial, pertaining to, or shaped like, a cross.

Crural, pertaining to the leg.

Crural canal, femoral canal.

Crural ring, femoral ring.

Crural septum, femoral septum.

Crus, cerebral peduncle.

Crusta, basis pedunculi.

Cryptorchismus, concealment of the testis.

Cryptozygous, hidden arches.

Cubitum, the elbow.

Cucullaris, pertaining to a cowl or hood.

Culmen, the top or summit.

Cuneate, wedge-shaped.

Cuneiform bone (hand), triquetrum.

Cuneus, a wedge.

Cupola, a dome.

Cymba, a boat or skiff.

Cystic, pertaining to the gall-bladder. The condition of a thin-walled swelling containing fluid or semifluid.

Cytoplasm, formative yolk; protoplasm in a cell.

Dacryon, a tear.

Dartos, skinned or flayed.

Deciduous, falling away.

Decussation of lemnisci (fillet), sensory decussation.

Deferens, carrying away.

Deiters, nucleus of, lateral vestibular nucleus.

Dens, odontoid process.

Dens serotinus, wisdom tooth.

Dentate fascia, dentate gyrus.

Descemet’s membrane, posterior elastic lamina of cornea.

Detrusor, from detrudo, I drive away.

Deutoplasm, literally, wet plasm; nutritive yolk.



Dia-, through or between.

Diaphragm, a partition.

Diaphysis grow between ’), the shaft of a bone, or the part which grows between the epiphyses.

Diarthrosis, an ‘ apart ’ joint— i.e., a ‘ free ’ joint (the articular surfaces being free to play upon each other); synovial joint.

Diencephalon, the ’tween-brain or inter-brain; thalamencephalon.

Digastric, having two bellies.

Diploe, a doubling.

Discus proligerus, cumulus ovaricus.

Diverticulum, from diverto, ‘ I separate/ or ‘ part/ or ‘ go a different way.’

Dolichocephalic, long-headed.

Dorsal, pertaining to the back aspect.

Dorsum, the back.

Douglas, pouch of, recto-uterine or recto-vaginal pouch.

Douglas, semilunar fold of, arcuate line.

Duct, nasal, naso-lacrimal duct.

Ductus deferens, vas deferens.

Ductus perilymphaticus, aqueduct of cochlea.

Duodenum, twelve (probably fingerbreadths) .

Ebur, -oris, ivory.

Eburnea, pertaining to ivory.

Ectopia, a displacement.

Efferent, carrying out.

Embolif ormis, beak-shaped or wedgeshaped.

Emissary, sent out.

Emulgent, milking, straining out.

Enarthrosis, ball-and-socket joint.

Encephalon, the contents of the head or skull.

Endocardium, ‘ within the heart ’; the lining membrane of the cardiac chambers.

Endognathion, literally, inner jaw.

Endosteum, ‘ within a bone ’; the medullary membrane.

Ensiform, sword-like.

Ensiform process, xiphoid process.

Entomion, a notch.

Ependyma, from Greek words meaning ' clothing upon/

Ephippium, a saddle.

Epi-, upon or over, above.

Epicardium, upon the heart.

Epididymis, upon the testicle.

Epiglottis, cushion of, tubercle of epiglottis.

Epiotic, upon or over the ear.

Epiphysis (‘ grow upon ’); a process of a bone which has a secondary centre of ossification.

Epiploon, from a Greek verb meaning ‘ to float upon/

Epipteric, upon a wing.

Epipteric bone, sutural bone at pterion.

Epistropheus, axis.

Epoophoron, above the egg-bearing organ.

Erythroblast, red (cell) germ.

Ethmoid, like a strainer.

Eustachian cushion, tubal elevation.

Eustachian spine (of medial pterygoid plate), processus tubarius.

Eustachian tube, pharyngo-tympanic tube.

Eustachian valve, valve of inferior

vena cava.

Exognathion, literally, outer jaw.

Exomphalos, out of the navel.

Facet (French, facette, a little face), a small plane surface, usually articular.

Falciform, sickle-like.

Fallopian tube, uterine tube.

Falx, a sickle.

Falx aponeurotica inguinalis, conjoint tendon.

Fascia, a bandage, or a bundle of reeds.

Fascia bulbi, fascial sheath of eyeball.

Fascia, Camper’s, superficial layer of superficial fascia of anterior abdominal wall.

Fascia, Colies’, deep layer of superficial fascia of perineum.




Fascia, coraco-clavicular, clavi-pec toral fascia.

Fascia infundibular, internal spermatic fascia.

Fascia intercolumnar, external spermatic fascia.

Fascia, Scarpa’s, deep layer of superficial fascia of anterior abdominal wall.

Fascia, Sibson’s, suprapleural membrane.

Fasciculus, a small bundle.

Fasciola cinerea, splenial gyrus.

Fastigium, a roof.

Fauces, the throat.

Fauces, anterior pillar, glosso-palatine arch.

Fauces, posterior pillar, pharyngopalatine arch.

Fel, the gall-bladder.

Femur, the thigh.

Fenestra, an opening, a window.

Fenestra ovalis, fenestra vestibuli.

Fenestra rotunda, fenestra cochleae.

Ferruginea, pertaining to iron-rust.

Fibula, a buckle, clasp, or brace.

Fillet, lemniscus.

Filum, a thread.

Fimbria, a fringe.

Fimbriatum, fringed.

Fissure, a cleft or slit.

Fistula, .a pipe or tube.

Flechsig, tract of, posterior spinocerebellar tract.

Flocculus, a little lock of wool.

Fold, bloodless (Treves), ileo-caecal fold.

Fold, ileo-colic, vascular fold of caecum.

Fold, recto-vesical, sacro-genital fold.

Follicle, a small bag or sac.

Fontana, spaces of, spaces of iridocorneal angle.

Fontanelle, a small spring.

Foramen, an aperture or a hole.

Forceps, a claw of a beetle.

Fornicatus, pertaining to an arch.

Fornix, an arch or a vault.

Fossa, a ditch or trench.

Fossa, antecubital, cubital.

Fossa ovalis, saphenous opening.

Fossa, rhomboid, floor of fourth ventricle.

Fossa, spheno-maxillary, pterygopalatine fossa.

Fourchette, a fork.

Fovea, a small pit.

Foveola, a very small pit.

Frenulum, a small bridle.

Frenum, a bridle.

Frontal, pertaining to the forehead.

Frontal spine (of frontal), nasal spine.

Fundiform, sling-like.

Funicular, pertaining to a cord.

Funiculus, a slender rope, a cord.

Furcalis, pertaining to a two-pronged fork.

Furcula, a small two-pronged fork.

Fusca, dark or dusky.

Galactophorous, milk-carrying.

Galea, a helmet.

Galea aponeurotica, epicranial aponeurosis.

Galen, great vein of, great cerebral vein.

Galen, veins of, internal cerebral veins.

Gallinaginis, of a woodcock.

Gallus, a cock.

Ganglion, a swelling or excrescence.

Ganglion, aortico-renal, lower part of coeliac ganglion.

Ganglion, Gasserian, trigeminal ganglion.

Ganglion, jugular (O.T.), superior ganglion of ninth.

Ganglion, jugular (B.N.A.), superior ganglion of tenth.

Ganglion, lenticular, ciliary ganglion.

Ganglion, Meckel’s, spheno-palatine ganglion.

Ganglion nodosum (B.N.A.), inferior ganglion of tenth.

Ganglion, ophthalmic, ciliary ganglion.

Ganglion, petrous (O.T. and B.N.A.),

inferior ganglion of ninth.

Ganglion, semilunar, trigeminal ganglion.



Ganglion, stellate, first thoracic ganglion.

Ganglion, submaxillary, submandibular ganglion.

Gartner’s duct, duct of epoophoron. Gastric, pertaining to the stomach.

Gastrocnemius, the belly of the leg.

Gemellus, paired or double.

Geminus, twin or twofold.

Geniculate, knee-like.

Genio-, pertaining to the chin. Gennari, stria of, visual stria.

Genu, the knee.

Gerota’s capsule, renal fascia. Giacomini, banderella or frenulum, tail of dentate gyrus.

Gimbernat’s ligament, pectineal part of inguinal ligament.

Ginglymus, a hinge.

Ginglymus, hinge-joint.

Giraldes, organ of, paradidymis. Glabella, without hair; smooth. Gladiolus, a small sword.

Gladiolus, body of sternum.

Gland, Bartholin’s, greater vestibular gland.

Gland, Cowper’s, bulbo-urethral gland.

Glenoid, like a shallow socket. Glisson’s capsule, hepato-biliary capsule.

Globosus, round or spherical. Globus, a globe or sphere. Glomerulus, a small ball of thread. Glosso-, pertaining to the tongue. Glottis, the mouthpiece of a flute. Gluteal, pertaining to the buttock.

Gnathic, pertaining to the jaw. Gnathion, the jaw.

Gomphosis, a bolting together. Gonion, an angle.

Gracilis, slender.

Grisea, grey.

Gubernaculum, a rudder.

Gula, the gullet.

Gustatory, pertaining to taste. Guttural, pertaining to the throat. Gyrus, a circle; a crook.

Habenula, a small thong or rein. Hsemorrhoidal, associated with haemorrhoids.

Hallux, the great toe.

Ham, a thing bent or crooked. Hamular, hook-shaped.

Harmonia, a fitting together. Hartmann’s pouch, sacculation at junction of neck and body of gallbladder.

Hassall, corpuscles of (thymus), concentric corpuscles.

Haustrum, a machine for drawing water.

Heister’s valves, spiral valve. Helicine, spiral.

Helicotrema, hole of a spiral.

Helix, a coil or spiral.

Hepar, the liver.

Hepatic, pertaining to the liver. Hernia, a sprout; a rupture. Hesselbach’s triangle, inguinal triangle.

Hiatus, a gap.

Hiatus Fallopii, hiatus for superficial petrosal nerve.

Highmore, antrum of, maxillary sinus.

Hilum, a little thing; a trifle.

Hippocampus, a seahorse. Hippocampus major, hippocampus. Hippocampus minor, calcar avis. Hircina, pertaining to a goat.

His, bundle of, atrio-ventricular bundle.


Homogenesis see Chapter I. Homologous )

Houston’s valves, horizontal folds of rectum.

Huguier, canal of, anterior canaliculus for chorda tympani.

Humerus, the upper part of the arm; the shoulder.

Hunter’s canal, subsartorial canal. Hyaline, glassv.

Hyaloid, like glass.

Hydatid, a watery vesicle.

Hydrocele, a watery tumour.

Hymen, the marriage deity.




Hyoid, like the Greek letter upsilon.

Hypo-, beneath or under.

Hypophysis, ‘ grow beneath.’

Hypothenar, beneath the palm of the hand.

Ileum, implying twists or coils.

Ilium, literally of the soft parts— i.e., of the flank; os ilium, the bone of the flank.

Ima, lowest.

Impar, dissimilar (in number), unequal.

Incisivus, cutting into.

Incisura jugularis, suprasternal notch.

Incisura scapularis, suprascapular notch.

Incisura semilunaris (ulna), trochlear notch.

Infundibuliform, funnel-shaped.

Infundibulum, a funnel.

Inguinal, pertaining to the groin.

Inion, literally, the occiput.

Innominatum, unnamed.

Insula, an island.

Intercalary, inserted.

Internodium, the space between two knots or joints.

Interparietal bone, membranous part of occipital as a separate bone.

Interpositum, placed between.

Interstitial, belonging to interstices or small parts between the main parts of bodies.

Intertubercular sulcus, bicipital groove.

Intumescentia, enlargement (spinal cord).

Iris, the rainbow.

Ischiatic, pertaining to the hip.

Ischium, the hip.

Isthmus, faucium, oro-pharyngeal isthmus.

Isthmus rhombencephali, upper constricted end of fourth ventricle.

Iter, a passage or road.

Jacobson, cartilage of, sub-vomerine cartilage.

Jacobson, organ of, vomero-nasal organ.

Jacobson’s nerve, tympanic nerve.

Jejunum, empty or hungry.

Jugal, yolking.

Jugular, pertaining to the throat.

Jugular notch (B.N.A.), suprasternal notch.

Jugum, a yolk.

Kerckring, ossicle, occasional centre in posterior margin of foramen magnum.

Key and Retzius, foramina of

(Luschka), lateral apertures of fourth ventricle.

Kobelt’s tubes, epoophoron.

Labbe, vein of, inferior anastomotic vein (connects superficial middle cerebral with transverse sinus).

Labrum, a basin.

Lacertus fibrosus, bicipital aponeurosis.

Laciniosum, full of folds, indented, jagged.

Lacrimal, pertaining to tears.

Lacteal, pertaining to milk.

Lactiferous, milk-carrying.

Lacuna, a hollow or cavity.

Lacunee (of sagittal sinus), lacunae laterales.

Lacunar, pertaining to a hollow or gap.

Lacunar ligament, pectineal part of inguinal ligament.

Lamella, a small plate.

Lamina, a plate.

Lamina cinerea, lamina terminalis.

Lamina cribrosa, medial boundary of internal auditory meatus.

Lamina papyracea, orbital plate of ethmoid.

Lamina quadrigemina, tectum.

Lateral, on the side of. Used in reference to the sagittal plane of the body.

Lateral mass (ethmoid), labyrinth.

Lateral sinus, transverse sinus.

Latissimus, broadest.

Latum, broad.

Lemniscus, a ribbon.



Leptorhine, having small narrow nostrils.

Levator, a lifter or raiser.

Lien, the spleen.

Lieno-, pertaining to the spleen. Ligament, a band or bandage.

Ligula, a little tongue.

Limbic lobe, gyrus fornicatus. Limbous, pertaining to a border. Limbus, a border.

Limbus fossae ovalis (or limbus ovalis), annulus ovalis.

Limen, a threshold.

Linea, a line.

Lines, oblique (tibia), soleal line. Lines, oblique internal (jaw), mylohyoid line.

Lines (occiput), nuchal lines.

Lines, popliteal, soleal line.

Lingual, pertaining to the tongue. Lingula, a little tongue.

Lister’s tubercle, dorsal tubercle of radius.

Longissimus, longest.

Longitudinal sinus, sagittal sinus. Lower, tubercle of, intervenous tubercle (heart).

Lumbar, pertaining to the loin. Lumbricalis, like an earth-worm. Lunar, pertaining to the moon. Lunula, a little moon; a crescent. Luteum, of a yellow colour.

Luys’ nucleus, subthalamic body. Lymphatic, from lympha, pure or spring water; lymph.

Lyra, a lyre; hippocampal commissure.

McBurney’s point (base of appendix),

junction of lower and middle thirds of spino-umbilical line. Macula, a spot.

Magendie, foramen, median aperture of fourth ventricle.

Magnum, os, capitate bone.

Malar, pertaining to the cheek.

Malar bone, zygomatic bone. Malleolus, a small hammer or mallet.

Malleus, a hammer or mallet.

Mamma, a breast or pap.

Mammilla, a little breast or pap. Properly spelt mamilla.

Mandible, the chewing bone— i.e., lower jaw.

Manubrium, a handle or hilt.

Marshall, oblique vein, oblique vein of left atrium.

Massa intermedia, interthalamic


Masseter, the chewing muscle.

Mastoid, breast- or pap-like (nipplelike).

Maxilla, jaw.

Meatus (pi. Meatfis), a passage or canal.

Meckel’s cave, cavum trigeminale.

Meckel’s diverticulum, diverticulum ilei.

Mediastinum, standing in the middle; a partition.

Medulla, marrow.

Megacephalic, having a large head.

Megaseme, having a large index.

Meibomian glands, tarsal glands.

Meissner’s plexus, plexus of the submucosa.

Membrane, costo-coracoid, clavi pectoral fascia.

Meninges, membranes.

Meniscus, a crescent.

Meniscus (knee), semilunar cartilage.

Mental, pertaining to the chin.

Mesaticephalic, having a head with an index of mean value.

Mesencephalon, the mid-brain.

Mesentery, in the middle of, or among, the intestines.

Mesial, nearer to the sagittal plane of the body.

Meso-, in the midst of. In compounds usually implies a structure like a mesentery, a peritoneal attachment fold.

Mesocephalic, pertaining to a head of mean capacity.

Mesogastrium=meso- (q.v.) and stomach.

Mesognathion, middle jaw.


Mesometrium=meso- [q-v.) and womb.

Mesonephros, mid-kidney.

Mesorhine, pertaining to an intermediate nasal index; a condition intermediate between broad-nosed and narrow-nosed.

Mesosalpinx =meso- (q.v.) and tube.

Mesoseme, intermediate index.

Meta-, after or beyond.

Meta-nephros, hind-kidney.

Metencephalon, the after-brain.

Metopic, pertaining to the forehead.

Metopism, persistence of the metopic or frontal suture.

Microcephalic, pertaining to a small head.

Microseme, small index.

Middle commissure, interthalamic connexus.

Millimetre (mm.), slightly less than 2V of an English inch.

Minimae, least, smallest.

Mitral, resembling an Asiatic headdress, or mitre.

Modiolus, the nave of a wheel.

Molar, pertaining to a mill, or to grinding.

Monro, foramen, interventricular foramen.

Mons veneris, mons pubis.

Montanum, pertaining to a mountain.

Monticulus, a small mountain.

Morbus, a disease.

Muliebris, pertaining to a woman, feminine.

Miillerian duct, para-mesonephric duct.

Multangulum majus, os, trapezium.

Multifidus, many cleft; divided into many parts.

Musculo-spiral nerve, radial nerve.

Myelencephalon, marrow-brain.

Myeloplaxes, marrow-plates.

Myentericus, pertaining to the muscular tissue of the bowel.

Mylo-, pertaining to a mill.

Myocardium, the muscular tissue of the heart.

Myrtiform, like a myrtle-berry.


Nares, posterior, posterior apertures of nose.

Naris (pi. nares), a nostril.

Nasal, pertaining to the nose.

Natal, pertaining to the buttock. Natis (pi. nates), the buttock. Navicular, pertaining to a boat. Nephros, a kidney.

Neural, pertaining to a nerve. Neuroglia, literally ‘ nerve glue.’ Nictitans, winking.

Norma, a rule or measure (aspect). Notochord, string or cord of the back. Nucha, the nape of the neck.

Nuck, canal, vaginal process. Nucleus, a kernel.

Nuhn, glands, anterior lingual (seromucous) glands.

Nymphae, nymphs or goddesses of the fountains, woods, trees, etc.; labia minora.

Obelion, a horizontal line (perhaps a little spit).

Obex, a bolt; a barrier.

Obturator, one who closes or stops up.

Occipital, pertaining to the back part of the head.

Odontoblast, a tooth-germ.

Odontoid, tooth-like.

Odoriferae, carrying odours. (Esophagus, food-carrier.

Olecranon, head or point of the forearm.

Olfactory, pertaining to smell. Olfactory trigone, olfactory pyramid. Olivary, pertaining to an olive. Omentum, that which is drawn over.

Omentum, gastro - hepatic, lesser omentum.

Omentum, gastro-splenic, gastrosplenic ligament.

Omo-, pertaining to the shoulder. Omphalo-, pertaining to the navel. Operculum, a cover or lid.

Ophryon, the eyebrow.

Ophthalmic, pertaining to the eye. Opisthion, hinder or rear.

Opisthotic, behind the ear.



Optic, pertaining to sight.

Optic thalamus, thalamus.

Ora, a border or margin. Orthognathous pertaining to a straight (non-projecting) jaw.

Os incae, interparietal bone.

Os japonicum, bi-partite zygomatic bone.

Os magnum, capitate bone.

Os, oris, a mouth.

Os, ossis, a bone.

Os tincae, external os of uterus. Ossicle of Kerckring, occasional centre in posterior margin of foramen magnum.

Osteoblast, bone-germ.

Osteoclast, bone-destroyer. Osteogenetic, bone-forming.

Ostium, a door, entrance, or exit. Otic, pertaining to the ear.

Otoconia, ear-dust.

Otoliths, ear-stones.

Ovary, egg-forming organ.

Oxyntic, producing acid.

Pacchionian bodies, arachnoid granulations.

Pacinian corpuscles, lamellated corpuscles.

Palatum, the palate.

Pallium, a covering.

Palmar, pertaining to the palm. Palpebra, an eyelid.

Pampiniform, tendril-like.

Pancreas, literally, all or completely flesh.

Para-, near, by the side of. Paradidymis, near the testis. Parametrium, near the womb. Parietal, pertaining to a wall. Paroophoron, near the egg-bearing organ; medial mesonephric tubules.

Parbtid, near the ear.

Parovarium, epoophoron.

Pars intermedia (Wrisberg), sensory root of facial nerve.

Patella, a small dish; a plate.

Pecten, another name for the os pubis; a comb.

Pectinatus, pertaining to a comb.

Pectineal or Pectineus, associated with the pecten bone or os pubis.

Pectiniform, comb-like.

Pectoralis, pertaining to the breast.

Peduncle of corpus callosum, paraterminal gyrus.

Pelvis, a basin.

Penicillus, a painter’s brush or pencil.

Penis, a tail, or pendant process.

Peri-, around, about, or near.

Pericardium, around the heart.

Perineum, from a Greek verb meaning ‘ I dwell, or am situated, around/

Perineum, central point of, perineal


Periosteum, around bone.

Periotic, around the ear.

Peritoneum, from a Greek word meaning ‘ stretched around/

Peroneal or Peroneus, ‘ pertaining to the peronee/ the Greek name for fibula.

Petit’s canal, zonular spaces.

Petit’s triangle, lumbar triangle.

Petrous, rocky.

Phalanx, a rank of soldiers.

Pharynx, the throat.

Phenozygous, having visible arches.

Philtrum, a love potion.

Phrenic, pertaining to the diaphragm.

Pineal, belonging to, or like, a pinenut or pine-cone.

Pinna, a kind of shell-fish; a feather or wing.

Pisiform, like a pea.

Pituitary, pertaining to phlegm or mucus; hypophysis.

Placenta, a flat cake.

Plagiocephalous, pertaining to an oblique or twisted head.

Planta, the sole of the foot.

Plantar, pertaining to the sole of the foot.

Platycnemism, broadness of leg.

Platyrhine, having a broad nose.

Platysma, a broad sheet.

Pleura, a rib.




Plexus, a twining or network.

Plexus, Auerbach’s, myenteric plexus. Plexus, gulae, cesophageal plexus. Plexus, Meissner’s, plexus of the submucosa.

Plica, a fold.

Plica hypogastrica, lateral umbilical


Plica urachi, median umbilical fold. Plicae palmatae (uterus), arbor vitae. Pneumogastric, pertaining to the breathing organs and stomach. Pocularis, pertaining to a cup.

Pollex, the thumb.

Pomum Adami, laryngeal prominence.

Pons, a bridge.

Popliteal or Popliteus, pertaining to the ham.

Porta, a gate.

Portal, pertaining to a gate.

Portio major and minor, sensory and motor roots of trigeminal nerve.

Postaxiah r , , T Preaxial / see Cha P ter L

Posterior vesicular column (Clarke), thoracic (or dorsal) nucleus.

Posticus, posterior.

Poupart’s ligament, inguinal liga


Primary divisions (of spinal nerves),

anterior and posterior rami. Proctodaeum, the threshold of the


Prognathous, having a projecting lower jaw.

Proligerus, bearing offspring; germinating.

Pro-nephros, fore-kidney.

Pro-otic, before the ear.

Prosencephalon, the fore-brain.

Prostate, standing before; or, more probably, pertaining to a porch or vestibule.

Psalterium, a psaltery or instrument of the lute kind.

Psalterium (lyra), hippocampal commissure.

Psoas, from a Greek word meaning

  • the muscles of the loins,’ and

secondarily ‘ the loins themselves.’

Pterion, a wing.

Pterotic, pertaining to a wing. Pterygoid, wing-like.

Pubes, the hair which appears on the external genital organs at the age of puberty.

Pubic, pertaining to the os pubis. Pudendal, pertaining to the pudendum.

Pudendum, ‘ of which one ought to be ashamed.’

Pudic, modest or chaste.

Pulmo, a lung.

Pulmonary, belonging to the lungs. Pulvinar, a couch or cushion, Putamen, trimmings or clippings. Pyloric vestibule, pyloric antrum. Pylorus, literally, a gate-keeper. Pyriformis, pear-shaped.

Quadratus, square.

Quadriceps, having four heads. Quadrigeminus, fourfold, four.

Racemose, pertaining to a cluster of grapes; full of clusters; clustering. Radius, a staff or rod; the spoke of a wheel.

Ramus, a branch.

Ranine, pertaining to a frog.

Raphe, a seam.

Receptaculum, a receptacle. Receptaculum chyli, cisterna chyli. Rectus, straight.

Recurrent, running back.

Refractory, breaking up.

Reil, island of, insula.

Ren, a kidney.

Restiform, like a rope or cord. Restiform body, inferior cerebellar peduncle.

Rete, a net.

Retina, from rete, a net.

Retrahens, drawing back.

Retzius, cave, retro-pubic space. Revehens, carrying back.

Rhinencephalon, the ‘ nose ’ or olfactory brain.

Rhinion, a nose.

Rhombencephalon, the rhomb-brain (hind-brain).



Rhomboid ligament, costoclavicular ligament.

Riedel’s lobe, an elongation of lower margin of right lobe of liver (due to pressure).

Rima, a cleft or chink.

Risorius, laughing.

Rivini, ducts, sublingual ducts.

Rolando, fissure, central sulcus.

Rostrum, a beak.

Rotula, a little wheel.

Rugae, wrinkles.

Saccus reuniens, sinus venosus (heart).

Sacrum, sacred; derivation and original meaning very doubtful.

Sagittal, pertaining to an arrow; antero-posterior.

Salpinx, a trumpet or tube.

Salvatella, saving, or making well.

Santorini, cartilages, corniculate cartilages.

Santorini, duct, accessory pancreatic duct.

Santorini, fissures, clefts in cartilage of exterior auditory meatus.

Saphenous, apparent, manifest.

Sartorius, pertaining to a tailor.

Scala, a ladder, flight of steps, or staircase.

Scala media, duct of cochlea.

Scalenus, of unequal sides.

Scansorius, of, or for, climbing.

Scaphocephalous, having a head like a boat.

Scaphoid, like a boat.

Scapula, a spade; probably from a Greek verb meaning ‘ I dig/

Scarpa’s triangle, femoral triangle.

Schlemm, canal, sinus venosus sclerae.

Schindylesis, a splitting or cleavage.

Sciatic (identical with Ischiatic), pertaining to the hip.

Sclera, hard.

Sclerotic, hard; sclera.

Scrobiculus, a little ditch or trench.

Scrotum, a skin bag or pouch; a hide (probably originally ‘ scortum J ).

Sebaceous, pertaining to grease. Sella, a seat; a saddle.

Semilunar bone, lunate.

Semilunar fold of Douglas, arcuate line.

Seminalis, pertaining to semen. Septum, a fence or barrier.

Serotinus, that comes or happens late.

Serratus, jagged like a saw.

Sesamoid, like sesame (a kind of grain).

Shrapnell’s membrane, flaccid part of membrana tympani.

Sibson’s fascia, suprapleural membrane.

Sigmoid, like the Greek letter S


Sigmoid cavity, greater, trochlear notch.

Sigmoid cavity, lesser, radial notch. Sigmoid cavity (of radius), ulnar


Sigmoid notch (mandible), mandibular notch.

Sinus, a cavity or hollow.

Sinus, Valsalva, of, sinuses of aorta. Smegma, a cleanser.

Solar, relating to the sun.

Solar plexus, coeliac plexus.

Soleus, a sole or sandal; a sole-fish. Sperma, seed or semen.

Spermatic, pertaining to semen. Spermatoblast, a seminal bud. Spermatozoa (plural), seminal animals.

Sphenoid, wedge-like. Spheno-maxillary fossa, pterygopalatine fossa.

Sphenotic, pertaining to the sphenoid bone and ear-capsule.

Sphincter, binding or closing tight. Spigelian lobe, caudate lobe. Splanchnic, pertaining to viscera. Splenium, a bandage or compress. Splenius, pertaining to a bandage. Squamous, scaly.

Stapes, a stirrup.

Stellatum, starry.

Stensen’s duct, parotid duct.



Stephanion, a crown or wreath.

Sternebra, a segment of the sternum.

Sternum, the breast or chest.

Stomata, mouths or pores.

Stomatodaeum or Stomodaeum, the threshold of the mouth.

Stria medullaris, stria habenularis.

Striae acusticae, auditory striae.

Striae medullares, auditory striae.

Styloid, pen-like.

Subflava, somewhat yellow.

Subiculum, an under layer or support.

Submaxillary, submandibular.

Substantia gelatinosa (Roland), gelatinous matter.

Sudoriferous, sweat-carrying.

Sulcus, a furrow.

Supercilium, an eyebrow.

Supracallosal gyrus, indusium griseum.

Sural, pertaining to the calf of the leg.

Sustentaculum, a prop or support.

Sustentaculum lienis, phrenico-colic ligament.

Suture, a sewing together, a seam.

Sylvius, aqueduct, aqueduct of midbrain.

Symphysis, growth together.

Syn-, with; together with (union or harmony may be implied).

Synarthrosis, literally, a * together with ' (direct) joint; fibrous joint.

Synchondrosis, bound together with cartilage; cartilaginous joint.

Syndesmosis, bound together with bands or bonds.

Synovia, resemblance to the white of an egg.

Taenia, a band or ribbon.

Talus, a die (pi. dice); the ankle-bone.

Tapetum, a carpet or coverlet.

Tarsus, a broad flat surface; the instep.

Tectorius, pertaining to a cover.

Tegmen, a covering.

Tegmentum, a covering.

Tela, a web.

Telencephalon, the end-brain.


Temporal, pertaining to the temples of the head.

Tendo Achillis, tendo calcaneus.

Tendon, from tendo, ‘ I stretch.’

Tenon’s capsule, fascial sheath of eyeball.

Tentorium, a tent.

Tenuis, slender, small.

Teres, rounded.

Testis, a witness.

Thalamencephalon, the bedchamberbrain, or inter-brain.

Thalamus, a bedchamber; a marriage-bed.

Thebesian valve, valve of coronary sinus.

Thebesian veins, venae cordis minimae.

Theca, a cover, case, or sheath.

Thenar, the flat of the hand.

Thorax, the breast or chest; a breastplate.

Thymus, thyme.

Thyroid, like a shield.

Tibia, a pipe or flute; the shin-bone.

Tinea, a small fish, perhaps the tench.

Tonsil, palatine, tonsil.

Tonsil, pharyngeal, naso-pharyngeal tonsil.

Torcular, a wine-press (twisting is implied).

Torcular Herophili, confluens sinuum.

Torus, a protuberance.

Torus tubarius, tubal elevation.

Trabecula, a little beam.

Trachea (‘ rough ’), the wind-pipe.

Trachelo-, belonging to the neck.

Tragus, a goat.

Trapezium, a table; a four-sided, figure, no two sides of which are parallel to one another.

Trefoil, having three leaves.

Treitz, muscle, suspensory muscle of duodenum.

Treves, bloodless fold of, ileo-csecal fold.

Triangular fascia, reflected part of inguinal ligament.

Triangular fibro-cartilage, articular disc.



Triangular ligament, inferior or superficial layer; perineal membrane.

Triceps, having three heads.

Trigeminus, threefold, triple.

Trigdnocephalus, a triangular head.

Trigonum, a triangle; triangular.

Triquetrum, three-cornered; triangular.

Triticea, wheaten, or like a grain of wheat.

Trochanter, from a Greek verb meaning ‘ I roll, turn, or revolve.'

Trochlea, the wheel of a pulley.

Trochlear, pulley-shaped.

Trochlearthrosis, a pulley-joint.

Trochoides, wheel-like.

Trolard, vein of, superior anastomotic vein.

Tuba, a trumpet.

Tubarius, pertaining to a trumpet.

Tube, auditory, pharyngo-tympanic tube.

Tube, Eustachian, pharyngo-tympanic tube.

Tubercle, a small swelling.

Tubercle, articular, articular eminence.

Tubercle, greater multangular, of,

crest of trapezium.

Tubercle, Lister’s, dorsal tubercle of radius.

Tubercle, Lower, of, intervenous tubercle (heart).

Tubercle, radial, dorsal tubercle of radius.

Tuberosity, an exaggerated tubercle.

Turbinals or turbinate bones, conchse.

Turbinate, whirled or coiled; like a top.

Turbo, a whirl or coil; a top.

Turcica, Turkish.

Tympanum, a drum.

Ulna, the elbow, but more usually the forearm.

Umbilicus, the navel.

Umbo, a boss or knob.

Unciform, hook-like.

Unciform bone, hamate.

Uncinate, furnished with a hook.

Ungual, relating to a nail.

Unguis, a nail.

Unicornis, one-horned.

Urachus, urine-holder.

Ureter, from a Greek verb meaning ‘ I pass urine.'

Urethra, the canal by which urine is passed.

Uriniferous, urine-carrying.

Uterus, the womb or matrix.

Uterus masculinus, prostatic utricle. Utricle, a little womb or matrix. Uvea, from uva, a bunch of grapes; a cluster.

Uvula, a small bunch of grapes.

Vagina, a scabbard or sheath.

Vagus, strolling about, wandering, vagrant.

Valgus, bow-legged.

Vallecula, a little valley.

Vallecula Sylvii, vallecula cerebri. Vallum, a rampart.

Valsalva, sinuses, sinuses of aorta. Valve, bicuspid, left atrio-ventricular valve.

Valve, Eustachian, valve of inferior

vena cava.

Valve, ileo-caecal, ileo-colic valve. Valve, mitral, left atrio-ventricular


Valve, Thebesian, valve of coronary sinus.

Valve, tricuspid, right atrio-ventricular valve (cusps are anterior inferior medial).

Valve, Vieussens, superior medullary velum.

Varus, bent or turned inwards.

Vas (pi. vasa), a vessel.

Velum, a curtain or veil.

Velum interpositum, tela choroidea. Velum palatinum, soft palate. Veneris, ' of Venus.’

Ventral, pertaining to the belly. Ventricle of larynx, sinus of larynx. Vermiform, like a worm.

Vertebra, primarily means a joint, but more particularly a joint of the spine.


Vertex, the top or crown of the head.

Veru, a dart, javelin, or spear.

Verumontanum, urethral crest.

Vesalii, foramen, emissary sphenoidal foramen.

Vesica, the urinary bladder.

Vesical, pertaining to the urinary bladder.

Vespertilio, a bat.

Vestibular nucleus, principal or dorsal; medial nucleus.

Vestigial, pertaining to a trace.

Vestigium, a trace or vestige.

Vibrissa, a stiff hair of the nostril.

Vicq d’Azyr, bundle of, mamillothalamic tract.

Vidian canal, pterygoid canal.

Vidian nerve, nerve of pterygoid canal.

Vieussens, ansa of, ansa subclavia.

Vieussens, valve, superior medullary velum.

Villus, shaggy hair; a tuft of hair.

Vinculum, a band or bond.

Vitelline, pertaining to the yolk of an egg.

Vitellus, the yolk of an egg.

Vitreous, like glass, glassy.

Vola, the palm of the hand.

Volar, pertaining to the palm; palmar, or anterior.

Vomer, a ploughshare.

I 7 I 3

Vorticosse, full of whirlpools, eddying, coiled.

Vulva, a wrapper or covering.

Wharton’s duct, submandibular duct.

Willis, circle of, circulus arteriosus.

Winslow, foramen, opening of lesser sac.

Winslow, ligament, oblique posterior ligament of knee.

Wirsung, duct, pancreatic duct.

Wolffian duct, mesonephric duct.

Wood’s muscle, abductor metatarsi quinti.

Wormian bones, sutural bones.

Wrisberg, cartilage, cuneiform cartilage.

Wrisberg, ligament, accessory attachment of lateral semilunar cartilage.

Wrisberg, nerve, medial cutaneous nerve of arm.

Xiphoid, like a sword.

Y-shaped ligament of Bigelow, iliofemoral ligament.

Zinn, inferior tendon or ligament

(eye), lower part of common tendinous ring.

Zinn, zonule, ciliary zonule.

Zygoma, a yoke.



Arteries, nerves, ligaments, joints, muscles, and veins are classified under corresponding headings. Where a number is given in heavy type, the principal reference is indicated.

Abapical pole of ovum, 25 Abdomen, 674, 754

division into regions, 755 Abdominal cavity, 756 pregnancy, 19 wall, 704

landmarks of, 704 Abducent nerve, 1166, 1447, 1616 in orbit, 1254

Abductor digiti minimi (foot), 646 (hand), 496 hallucis, 644

ossis metatarsi quinti, 643 pollicis brevis, 493 longus, 505

Abernethy, fascia of, 854 Aberrant ductules, 751 Abnormal definition, 5 Accessory bile-ducts, 779

nerve. See Cranial nerves obturator nerve, 580, 847 process, 140 Acervulus cerebri, 1590 Acetabulum, 340

ossification of, 341 Acrocephaly, 270 Acromial anastomosis, 443 Acromion, 296 , 298 Acromio-clavicular joint, 444 Acromio-thoracic artery, 426 Adamantoblasts, 287 Addison's lines, 755 Adductor brevis, 577 hallucis, 649 longus, 576 magnus, 577 minimus, 578 pollicis, 494, 496 Adenoids, 1373 Agger nasi, 214 Aggregated nodules, 868 Air-cells, mastoid, i88 sphenoidal, 199 Akinesis, 9 Ala cinerea, 1490

of frontal bone, 181 orbitalis, 273 of sacrum, 148 temporalis, 275

Alae of ethmoid, 207 of vomer, 228 Alar thoracic artery, 427 Alimentary canal (embryonic), 23 Allantoic diverticulum, 31 Allantois, 31, 32, 33, 954 Alveolar arches, 1337 index, 269 point, 244, 268 process of maxilla, 214 Alveoli, pulmonary, 1028 Alveus, 1525, 1569 Ambiguus nucleus, 1625 , 1626, 1627 Ameloblasts, 287 Amitosis, 9, 12 Amnion, 27, 30, 32, 106 Amniotic cavity, 25, 26, 32 duct, 32 fluid, 106 folds, 31, 32

Amphioxus gastrulation, 35 mesoderm, 36 Ampulla of duodenum, 865 of ear, 1684 of rectum, 944 of vas deferens, 935 Amygdaloid nucleus, 1524, 1532 tubercle, 1524

Anal canal, development of, 965 of female, 978 lymphatics of, 964 of male, 945 structure of, 961 columns, 961 fascia, 922 membrane, 965 valves, 962 Analogy, 122 Anaphase, 10

Anastomosis, acromial, 443 cruciate, 538, 585 , 587 round, elbow-joint, 479 knee-joint, 548 scapular, 441 trochanteric, 585 Anatomical description, 2 snuff-box, 484 textbooks, 2 Anatomy, 1




Anconeus muscle, 500 Angle, cranio-facial, 260 of eye, 1289 of mandible, 232 pubic, 339, 552 sacro-vertebral, 151 sternal, 102, 1013 subcostal, 165 subpubic, 344

Angles of pharyngeal lateral pouches. 70,76 Angular process, medial, 181 Animal cell, 8 Ankle-joint, 661

Annular-ligament of radius, 520 Annulus fibrosus—

of intervertebral disc, 1107 of tympanic membrane, 1676 ovalis, 1055

Ano-coccygeal body, 675 Ansa hypoglossi, 1206

lenticularis, 1531, 1539 , 1567 peduncularis, 1565, 1567 subclavia, 1239, 1335 Antecubital lymphatic glands, 452, 514 Antihelix, 1295 Antinion, 268 Antitragicus muscle, 1296 Antrum, definition, 115 pyloric, 760 tympanic, 188, 1681 Anus, 674

development of, 965 imperforate, 965 lymphatics of, 964 Aorta, abdominal, 825

branches of, 825 guides to bifurcation of, 708 arch of, 1037

development of, 1041 ascending, 1033

branches of, 1036 development of, 1037 great sinus of, 1036 descending, 1089

development of, 1094 embryonic, 51, 68 thoracic, 1033 varieties of, 1040 Aortic arches, 68, 91, 1118 isthmus, 1038 lymphatic glands, 832 nodule, 1063 orifice, 1062

position of, 1064 plexus, 811 sinuses, 1063 spindle, 1038 valve, 1062 vestibule, 1060 Aortico-renal ganglion, 809 Aperture, bony, of nose, anterior, 244 posterior, 251

median, of fourth ventricle, 1492, 1608 Apex of lung, 1021 Apical pole of ovum, 25

Aponeurosis, bicipital, 453 epicranial, 1156 palatine, 1351 palmar, 484 plantar, 642 Apophysis, 114

Appendices epiploicae, 768, 871 Appendix, vermiform, 764

development of, 63, 872, 883 mesentery of, 764, 787 , 884 Aquatic respiration, 1377 Aqueduct of mid-brain, 1488, 1560

development of, 58, 1561, 1589 of vestibule, 191, 264 Aqueductus cochleae, 193, 1165, 1686 Aqueous humour, 1661 Arachnoid granulations, 1599, 1609 membrane, cranial, 1608 spinal, 1413

Arbor vitae cerebelli, 1485 of uterus, 977

Arc, longitudinal, of skull, 269 Arch, coraco-acromial, 445 crico-thyroid, 1215 femoral, deep, 719, 734 jugular, 1175 nasal, 1154 palato-glossal, 1350 palato-pharyngeal, 1350 palmar, deep, 484, 497 , 499 superficial, 483, 487, 498 plantar, 614, 657 subpubic, 344 superciliary, 181 Archenteric cavity, 25 Archenteron, 27, 30 Arches, arterial, 1118 dental, 281 of foot, 672 visceral, 66, 278

metamorphosis of, 1376 Archoplasm, 9

Arcuate eminence, 189, 263, 1684 fibres of medulla, 1465 ligaments of knee-joint, 631 of diaphragm, 836 line, 727

Arcus parieto-occipitalis, 1501 tendineus, 947 Area, bucco-pharyngeal, 34 cochlear, 190 embryonic, 33 orbital, 1493 proto-cardiac, 34 tentorial, 1493 vestibular, 1491 Areas of Broca, 1446 of cortex, 1569 of Flechsig, 1467

vestibular, superior and inferior, 190 Areola of nipple, 414 Arm, landmarks of, 446 Arteria, centralis retinae, 1260 rectae, 906

thyroidea ima, 1038, 1204, 1221



Artery or arteries—

acromio-thoracic, 426 alar thoracic, 427 anastomosis, cruciate, 538, 585 , 87 round, elbow-joint, 479 knee-joint, 548 scapular, 441 aorta, abdominal, 825

branches of, 825 development of, 1041, 1118 guides to bifurcation, 708 arch of, 1037

development of, 1041 ascending, 1033

branches of, 1036 development of, 1037 great sinus of, 1036 descending, 1089

development of, 1094 embryonic, 51, 68 primitive dorsal, 1118 ventral, 1118 thoracic, 1033 varieties of, 1040 aortic arches (emb.), 68, 91 appendicular, 797 arch, crico-thyroid, 1215

palmar, deep, 484, 497 , 499 superficial, 483, 487, 498 plantar, 614, 657 arcuate, 612

ascending pharyngeal, 1219 auditory, internal, 1448, 1576 of auricle, 1672 auricular, deep, 1305

posterior, 1161, 1219 axillary, 425

varieties of, 428 azygos, of vaginal, 980 basilar, 1447, 1575 brachial, 454

collateral circulation after ligature, 457 profunda, 455 varieties of, 456 bronchial, 1090, 1029 buccal, 1282, 1307 of bulb, female, 703 male, 688

bulbar, of vertebral, 1575 caecal, 797

calcaneal, lateral, of peroneal, 626 medial, of post-tibial, 627 calcarine, 1577 capsular, of liver, 885 carotid, common, 1207

left, in thorax, 1039 ligation of, 1210 surgical compression, 1210 internal, 1323

at base of brain, 1449 cavernous part of, 1169 cerebral part of, 1570 development of, 91, 1118, 1122, 1324

Artery or arteries ( continued )—

carotid, internal, petrous part of, 1399 carpal, anterior, of radial, 475 of ulnar, 479

arch, posterior, 478, 508, 511 posterior, of radial, 511 of ulnar, 478

rete, anterior, 478, 479, 498 centralis, retinae, 1260, 1658 cerebellar, anterior inferior, 1448, 1576 posterior inferior, 1575 superior, 1448, 1576 cerebral, anterior, 1449, 1572 middle, 1449, 1573 posterior, 1448, 1576

cerebral areas of, 1577 cervical, ascending, 1242 deep, 1148, 1244 transverse, 1193, 1243

deep branch of, 402, 1192, 1243

superficial branch of, 1142,


of uterine, 980

choroidal, anterior, 1449, 1571 posterior, 1577 ciliary, anterior, 1260, 1651 long, 1260, 1651 posterior, 1260 short, 1260

circulus arteriosus, 1449, 1577 major, 1651 minor, 1651

circumflex, anterior humeral, 427 fibular, 609 iliac, deep, 732

superficial, 508, 712 lateral femoral, 585, 588 medial femoral, 585, 589 posterior humeral, 427, 428 scapular, 427

clitoris, dorsal artery of, 703 cochlear, 1694 coeliac, 811 colic, left, 801 middle, 797 right, 797

communicating, anterior, 1449, 1573 posterior, 1449, 1571 companion artery of sciatic nerve, 538

coronary, of heart, 1036 of uterine, 980 of corpus callosum, 1573 cremasteric, 731 crico-thyroid arch, 1215

branch of superior thyroid, 1214 dental, anterior superior, 1308 inferior, 1307 posterior superior, 1307 dorsalis, indicis, 511 linguae, 1216 pedis, 611

varieties of, 614 pollicis, 511



Artery or arteries ( continued )— epigastric, inferior, 729

branches of, 731 guide to, 708 superficial, 584, 711 superior, 731, 1000

ethmoidal, anterior, 1261, 1281,


posterior, 1261 facial, on face, 1278 in neck, 1217 transverse, 1158, 1281 femoral, 563, 581 » 587

profunda of, 584, 588 fibular, circumflex, 609

of frenulum linguae, 1216 ganglionic, 1449, 1573 , 1577 gastric, left, 812 right, 814

gastro-duodenal, 814 gastro-epiploic, left, 812 right, 814

genicular, of popliteal, 548 gluteal, inferior, 538, 926 superior, 536, 927 helicine, 953 hepatic, 813, 885

varieties of, 815 hyaloid, 1664 ileal, 796 ileo-colic, 787 iliac, circumflex deep, 732 superficial, 712 common, 849

branches of, 851 collateral circulation after ligature of, 852 guide to, 708 varieties of, 852 external, 853

branches of, 854 collateral circulation after ligature of, 854 guide to, 708 varieties of branches, 854 internal, 923

branches of, 924 foetal condition of, 923 varieties of, 923 ilio-lumbar, 926 indicis, dorsalis, 511 radialis, 487, 498 infra-hyoid, 1214 infra-orbital, 1282 , 1307 innominate, 1038

varieties of, 1039 intercostal, 997

anterior, 998, 1000 collateral, 1093 lower two, 732, 999 posterior, 998, 1091 superior, 997, 1093, 1243 interlobar, of kidney, 904 interlobular, of kidney, 905 of liver, 885

Artery or arteries ( continued )— interosseous, anterior, 478 common, 478 posterior, 506, 507 recurrent, 508 of iris, 1651 jejunal, 796 of kidney, 904 labial, inferior, 1279

superior, 1280, 1362 of labyrinth, 1694 lacrimal, 1260 laryngeal, inferior, 1243 superior, 1214 of larynx, 1396 lenticular, 1573 lenticulo-striate, 1573 lenticulo-thalamic, 1573 of ligamentum teres of uterus, 731 lingual, 1215 lumbar, 847

abdominal branches of, 732 branches of, 847 malleolar, lateral anterior, 609 medial anterior, 609 of posterior tibial, 627 mammary, external branches of lateral thoracic artery, 426 internal, cervical part of, 1242 thoracic part of, 999 branches of, 1000 masseteric, 1307 mastoid of occipital, 1146, 1219 maxillary, 1304

branches of, 1305 median, 478 , 498, 5 1 ^> meningeal, accessory, 1306, 1600 anterior of ethmoidal, 1599 of ascending pharyngeal, 1220, 1601

of internal carotid, 1600 middle, 1306, 1600 of occipital, 1146, 1219, 1601 of vertebral, 1575, 1601 mental, of facial, 1279

of inferior dental, 1283, 1307 mesenteric inferior, 801 branches of, 801 superior, 796

branches of, 796 metacarpal, dorsal, 511 palmar, 498 metatarsal, dorsal, 613 first plantar, 657 musculo-phrenic, 1000 mylo-hyoid, of inferior dental, 1307 nasal, dorsal, 1261, 1281 lateral, of facial, 1280 nutrient arteries— of femur, 587 of fibula, 626 of humerus, 455, 456 of radius, 478 of tibia, 626 of ulna, 478



Artery or arteries [continued )— obturator, 589, 925, 927 abnormal, 566 occipital, first part, 1218

descending branch of, 1218 second and third parts, 1146 olecanon rete, 479 ophthalmic, 1170, 1259 ovarian, 830

in pelvis, 978 of palate, soft, 1354 palatine, ascending, of facial, 1217 of ascending pharyngeal, 1220 greater, 1308 , 1338, 1362 lesser, 1308

palmar arch, deep, 484, 497, 499 superficial, 483, 487, 498 palpebral, lateral, 1260, 1281 medial, 1261, 1281 pancreatica magna, 812 pancreatico-duodenal, inferior, 798 superior, 814 pedis, dorsalis, 611 varieties of, 614 perforating, foot, 613, 657 hand, 498

of profunda femoris, 586 pericardiaco-phrenic, 1000 perineal, superficial, of female, 703 of male, 687 transverse, 687 peroneal, 610, 626 branches of, 626 communicating branch of, 627 varieties, 626

pharyngeal, ascending, 1219 of maxillary, 1308 of pharynx, 1373 phrenic, 827 placental, 51 plantar arch, 655, 657 lateral, 655 , 657 medial, 654 , 657 pollicis, dorsalis, 511 princeps, 487, 497 pontine, 1448, 1575 popliteal, 541, 546 varieties of, 548 princeps pollicis, 487, 497 profunda, of brachial, 455 femoris, 584 , 588 linguae, 1216, 1346 of pterygoid canal, 1308, 1362 pterygoid, of maxillary, 1307 pubic, 731

of obturator, 589 pudendal, accessory, 689 deep external, 584 internal, 925 female, 703 in gluteal region, 539 male, 686

superficial external, 584, 710 pulmonary, 1028, 1042 development of, 1042

Artery or arteries [continued )— pulmonary, trunk, 1042

development of, 1042 radial, 473

first part, 474

recurrent branch of, 475 second part, 509 third part, 497 varieties of, 475, 498 radialis indicis, 487, 498 rectal, 906

inferior, 963 middle, 925, 963 superior, 802, 963 recurrent, anterior tibial, 609 ulnar, 477

posterior interosseous, 508 tibial, 609 ulnar, 477 radial, 475 renal, 827

aberrant, 828 accessory, 828 varieties, 828 rete, olecranon, 479 retinal, 1658 sacral, lateral, 926 median, 946

saphenous, of descending genicular,

587, 589

of scalp, 1153 scapular, circumflex, 427 of sclera, 1643 septal, of facial, 1280

of spheno-palatine, 1308, 1339, 1362

spheno-palatine, 1308, 1361 spinal, anterior, 1447, 1575 lateral, 1434

posterior, 1434, 1447, 1575 of posterior intercostals, 1093, 1411 splenic, 812 striate, 1573 stylo-mastoid, 1219 subclavian, 1237

development of, 1240 left, first part of, 1240 in thorax, 1040 right, first part of, 1237 second part of, 1240 third part of, 1191

guide to, 1192 subcostal, 732, 848, 1093 sublingual, 1216 submental, 1218 subscapular, 427 suprahyoid, 1216 supra-orbital, 1154, 1260 suprarenal, inferior, 828 middle, 827

superior, of phrenic, 827 suprascapular, 402, 438 , ii 93 ; 1243 suprasternal of suprascapular,

43 8 . 1243



Artery or arteries ( continued )— supratrochlear (brachial), 456 of ophthalmic, 1154, 1261 sural cutaneous, 548 tarsal, 612

temporal, anterior deep, 1307 middle, 1158 posterior deep, 1307 superficial, 1158 testicular, 829

terminal part of, 738 varieties, 829 thoracic, alar, 427 lateral, 427 somatic, 1244 superior, 426

thyro-cervical trunk, 1242 thyroid, inferior, 1242 superior, 1213 , 1242 thyroidea ima, 1038, 1204, 1221 tibial, anterior, 607

guide to, 599 recurrent, 609 posterior, 624 guide to, 599 recurrent, 609 varieties, 627 of tongue, 1346 of tonsils, 1215, 1355 tonsillar, of facial, 1217 transverse facial, 1158 tympanic, anterior, 1306 inferior, 1220

of tympanic membrane, 1677 ulnar, 475

collateral, 456 first part, 476

recurrent branches of, 477 second part, 480 third part, 487 varieties, 479. 49$ umbilical, 51, 9 2 3> io8 3 urachal, of superior vesical, 924 ureteric, of superior vesical, 924 uterine, 979 vaginal, 980

azygos, 980 of liver, 885 of uterine, 980

vas aberrans, brachial, 456, 475 to vas deferens, 738, 925 vertebral, at base of brain, 1447 development of, 1121, 1242 first part, 1241 fourth part, 1574 second part, 1241 third part, 1151 varieties of, 1242 vesical, inferior, 925 superior, 924 vestibular, 1694 zygomatic, 115 8 Articular discs— . .

of acromio-clavicular joint, 444 of mandibular joint, 1318

| Articular discs ( continued )— of radio-ulnar joint, 520 of sterno-clavicular joint, 444 Articularis genu muscle, 573 Articular nerves—

ankle-joint, 610, 615, 627, 663 calcaneo-cuboid, 654 carpal joints, 507, 525 carpo-metacarpal, 526 elbow-joint, 461, 480, 519 hip-joint, 545, 574, 580, 597 intermetacarpal, 526 interphalangeal, foot. 653, 654 shoulder-joint, 432, 464 talo-calcanean, 615 tarsal, 614, 652, 654 tarso-metatarsal, 614, 652, 654 tibio-fibular, inferior, 550, 610, 660 intermediate, 660 superior, 550, 659 wrist-joint, 489, 507, 523 Aryepiglottic fold, 1386 development of, 73 Arytenoid cartilages, 1382 development of, 1383 Arytenoideus muscle, 1393 Aspera, linea, 350

Association fibres of cerebrum, 1568 Aster, 9, 10

Asterion, 180, 239, 251, 268, 1630 Atavism, 6

Atlanto-axial joints, 1404 , 1408 Atlanto-occipital joints, 1406, 1409 Atlas, 128

development of, 170 ossification of, 142 Atresia ani, 955 Atria of heart, left, 1052

interior of, 1059 right, 1051

interior of, 1054 of lung, 1027

Atrio-ventricular bundle, 1071 node, 1071

Atrium of middle meatus, 1357 Attraction particles, 9 sphere, 9

Atypical, definition, 6 Auditory artery, internal, 1448, 1576 cells, 1689, 1692 epithelium, 1689 hairs, 1689

meatus, external, 193 , 1671 internal, 190, 264 nerve, 1165, 1404, 1447, 1620 process, external, 194 radiation, 1531, 1568 striae, 1471, 1489, 1620 teeth, 1691 Auricle, 1294

blood-supply of, 1297 lymphatics of, 1297 muscles of, extrinsic, 1160 intrinsic, 1296 nerve-supply of, 1297



Auricle, structure of, 1295 veins of, 1297 Auricles of heart, left, 1052 right, 1051

Auricular artery, deep, 1305 posterior, 1219 nerve, great, 1142 , 1278 posterior, 1160, 1272 point, 251, 268, 1629 surface of sacrum, 147 tubercle, 1295 tubercles (emb.), 68 vein, posterior, 1161 Auricularis anterior muscle, 1160 posterior, 1160 superior, 1160

Auriculo-temporal nerve, 1157, 1277 Auscultation triangle, 400 Autonomic nervous system, 1634 parasympathetic, 1639 cranial, 1639 sacral, 1640 sympathetic, 1635

course of efferent impulses, 1636 development of, 1640 ganglia, 1635

rami communicantes, 1635 Axial filament in spermatozoon, 13 skeleton, 23 Axillary artery, 425

varieties of, 428 fascia, 414 folds, 412

lymphatic glands, 416, 424, 434 , 514 sheath, 429 space, 412, 422 vein, 428 , 451 Axis, 131

odontoid process of, 131 ossification of, 143 Azygos arteries of vagina, 890 veins, 839

Back, landmarks of, 397 of scalp and neck, 1141 Baillarger, bands of, 1565 Balfour’s cell-chain theory, 55 Ball-and-socket joint, 393 Band, diagonal, 1515 ilio-trochanteric, 593 moderator, 1057 pudendal, 929 sciatic, 929

Basal cartilaginous plate in skull, 89 ganglia, 1526 Base of brain, 1443 Base-line of Reid, 1633 Basi-bregmatic axis, 260 Basi-cranial axis, 260 Basi-facial axis, 260 Basi-hyal, 236 Basilar artery, 1447, 1575

branches of, 1447, 1575 groove, 174 membrane, 1690

Basilar, part of occipital bone, 174 vein, 1521, 1579 Basilic vein, 450, 451 Basi-occipital, 275 Basion, 258, 268 Basket cells of cerebellum, 1487 Beak of ulna, 312 Bechterew, band of, 1565 Bellini, duct of, 903 Bergmann, fibres of, 1487 Biceps brachii, 452 , 463 third head, 454 femoris, 542

Bicipital aponeurosis, 453 groove, 300 synovial sheath, 465 Bifurcated ligament—•

calcaneo-cuboid part, 666 calcaneo-navicular part, 665 Bile canaliculi, 886 capillaries, 886 ducts, 779

accessory ducts, 779 interlobular ducts, 886 Birth of foetus, 107 Biventer cervicis muscle, 407 Bladder, urinary, blood-supply of, 952 development of, 955 female, 977 infantile, 952

ligaments of, false, 918, 952 true, 952

lumen of empty bladder, 951 male, 932

nerve-supply of, 953 orifices of, 951 peritoneal relations of, 934 structure of, 949 trigone, external, of, 934 internal, of, 951

Blastocele, 24 Blastocyst, 24 Blastoderm, 24 Blastodermic vesicle, 24 Blastomere, 21 Blastopore, 35 Blastula, 24 Blind spot, 1653

Blood circulation, development of, so, s islands, 51

Bochdalek, ganglion of, 1320 Body, ano-coccygeal, 675 carotid, 1211 cavity, primitive, 23, 42 ciliary, 1647 geniculate, lateral, 1538 medial, 1538 Pacinian, 490, 653 perineal, female, 701 male, 681 pineal, 1540 ponto-bulbar, 1584 stalk, circulation in, 51, 52 morphology, 31 " relation to umbilicus, 65



Body, ultimo-branchial, 76 vitreous, 1662 wall, development of, 59 split by pleurae, 78 Bone, canaliculi, 117 cell, 117 chemical, 115 lacunae, 117 marrow, 121 Bones, cancellated, 118 classification of, 118 compact, 116 of head, 172 ossification, 119 Borders, post- and pre-axial, 5 Bowman, capsule of, 901, 906 Brachia of corpora quadrigemina, 1538,


Brachial artery, 454, 456

collateral circulation after ligature, 457 profunda, 455 varieties of, 456 plexus, 439

infraclavicular branches, 431 in neck, 1193

supraclavicular branches, 430, 1194

Brachialis muscle, 454 Brachio-radialis, 501 Brachycephalic skulls, 243, 267, 269 Brain, 1442

development of, 55, 15 81 superior surface of, 1433 weight of, 1570

Bregma, 180, 237, 238, 268, 1629 Bregmatic bone, 265 Broca, area of, 1446 Bronchioles, 1027

development of, 1030 Bronchus, eparterial, 1027, 1030 hyparterial, 1027

development of, 1030 left, 1086 right, 1086

Bruch, membrane of, 1646 Bryant’s triangle, 552 Buccal mucous glands, 1272 Buccinator muscle, 1269 Bucco-pharyngeal area, 34, 44

fascia, 1179, I 3 68 membrane, 44, 56. 69 Bulb, olfactory, 1165, 1510 , 157 ° of penis, 682 of posterior horn, i 5 2 4 Bulbar ridges, 1079 Bulbo-urethral glands, 685 Bulbs of vestibule, 696 Bulla ethmoidalis, 1357 Bundle, atrio-ventricular, I ° 7 I

medial longitudinal, 1464, 1555 of Munzer, 1588 Bursa of biceps brachii, 453 femoris, 542, 641

of coraco-clavicular ligament, 405

Bursa, under gastrocnemius, 544, 619, 640 gluteal muscles, 598 of infraspinatus, 465 under obturator internus, 535 olecranon, 447 of popliteal tendon, 641 prepatellar, 554, 640 under semimembranosus, 544, 64° subacromial, 436, 464 subhyoid, 235 subpsoas, 598 subscapular, 464 suprapatellar, 574, 640 of teres major, 465 Bursae at elbow-joint, 519 at hip-joint, 598 at knee-joint, 640 at shoulder-joint, 464

Caecum, 762

development of, 63, 882 peritoneal relations of, 763 varieties of, 764 vascular fold of, 792 Cajal, horizontal cells of, 1562 moss fibres of, 1488 Calamus scriptorius, 1452 Calcaneal arteries—

lateral of peroneal, 626 medial of post-tibial, 627 Calcaneo-cuboid joint, 666 Calcaneo-navicular ligament, plantar, 665, 673

part of bifurcated ligament, 665 Calcaneum, 370

ossification of, 378 peroneal tubercle, 372, 388 structure of, 372

sustentaculum tali of, 371, 388, 390 tubercles on, 370, 386 tuberosity of, 370 varieties of, 372 Calcar avis, 1524 femorale, 354

Calcarine area of cortex, 1569 artery, 1577 Callosal radiation, 1568 Calvaria, 260 Canal or canals— anal, 945, 97 8 carotid, 189, 191, 258, 263 central, of cord, 1422 condylar, 175, 258 cranio-pharyngeal, 197, 206 dental, 212, 213 facial, 190 femoral, 566 Haversian, 116 hepatic, 886 hyaloid, 1664 incisive, 248 infra-orbital, 245 inguinal, 708, 735 innominate, 201



Canal or canals—( continued ) intestinal, 761 lacrimal, 245 mandibular, 231 naso-lacrimal, 248 neural, 40

of Nuck, 743, 744, 969 obturator, 993

palatine, greater and lesser, 255 palato-vaginal, 199, 255 palmar, 332

pharyngo-tympanic, 257 portal, 885

pterygoid, 204, 255, 263 pterygo-palatine, 227 pudendal, 688 pyloric, 760 of sacrum, 148 semicircular, 1684 spiral, of cochlea, 1685 subsartorial, 580 vertebral, 154 Volkmann's, 117 zygomatico-facial, 219 zygomatico-temporal, 219 Canaliculus for chorda tympani, anterior, 187, 1673

posterior, 190, 1675 lacrimal, 1287 mastoid, 191, 258 tympanic, 258 Cancellated bone, 118 Canine fossa, 212 ridge, 211 teeth, 280 Capitate bone, 320

ossification of, 322 Capitellum, definition, 114 Capitulum of humerus, 304 Capsular decidua, 104, 106 Capsule, external, of brain, 1531 internal, of brain, 1528 Caput cornu, 1421

gyri hippocampi, 1507 medusae, 712

Cardiac nerves of sympathetic cervical, 1334 . 1335

of vagus, cervical, 1330 thoracic, 1045 plexus, 1046 deep, 1046 superficial, 1046

Cardinal veins, 51, 1127, 1132, 1136 Carotico-clinoid foramen, 200 Carotid artery, common, 1207

left, in thorax, 1039 external, 1212

development of, 1119, 1213 internal, 1169, 1323, 1324, 1399' 1449

development of, 91, 1118, 1122, 1324

body, 1211

canal, 189, 191, 258, 263 groove of sphenoid, 200

Carotid notch of sphenoid, 200 plexus, 1333 sheath, 1207 triangle, 1196 tubercle, 134, 1172 Carpal arch, posterior, 478, 508, 511 arteries—

anterior, of radial, 475 posterior, of radial, 511 of ulnar, 479 joints, 524

rete, anterior, 478, 479, 498 Carpo-metacarpal joints, 525 Carpus, 315

morphology, 323 ossification of, 322 varieties of, 322 as a whole, 321 Cartilage or cartilages— arytenoid, 1382 corniculate, 1383 costal, 160 cuneiform, 1383 of larynx, 1379

of mandibular arch, 74, 75, 232 nasal, 1298 of second arch, 75 semilunar, 632 thyroid, 1380

Cartilaginous base of skull, 89, 270, 275 Cartilago triticea, 1384 Caruncula lacrimalis, 1289, 1292 Carunculae hymenales, 696 Cauda equina, 1417 Caudal, definition, 122 Caudate nucleus, 1526 Cave of Retzius, 339 Cavernous sinus, 1169, 1606 Cavity, glenoid, 294 , 461 of larynx, 1386 nasal, 1356

of septum lucidum, 1520 thoracic, 1002 Cavum trigeminale, 1167 Cell, animal, 8

of Cajal, 1562 division, 9 germ, 12 of Golgi, 1564 membrane, 8 pyramidal, 1562 Cement, 285

Centra, vertebral development, 59 Central artery of retina, 1260, 1658 canal of cord, 1422 lobule of cerebullum, 1478 tendon of diaphragm, 835 Centrale, os, 322

Centro-acinar cells of Langerhans, 891 Centrosome, 9, 10, 21 in spermatozoa, 13 Centrum of vertebrae, 125 Cephalic, definition, 122 vein, 450, 451 Cerg,to-hyal, 76, 23$



I 7 2 3

Cerebellar fossae, 264

Cerebelli, tentorium, 1163, 1602, 1633

Cerebellum, 1475

arbor vitae of, 1485 association and commissural fibres of, 1485

basal surface, 1443 development of, 1488, 1586 lobes and lobules of under surface of, 1480

of upper surface, 1478 medullary vela, 1485 morphology of, 1481 nuclei of, i486 peduncles, inferior, 1484 middle, 1484 superior, 1483 , 1553 structure of, i486 under surface of, 1479 upper surface of, 1476 Cerebral commissure, anterior, 1518, 1568 hippocampal, 1518, 1568 posterior, 1542 cortex, 1561

development, 1510, 1591 fissures of, 1495

calcarine, 1503 choroidal, 1525 collateral, 1497 dentate, 1508 ecto-rhinal, 1508 lateral, 1495 parieto-occipital, 1496 postcalcarine, 1503 precalcarine, 1503 ganglia, basal, of, 1526 gyri of, 1493. See under Gyri hemispheres, 1493 lobes of—

frontal, 1497 insula, 1505 limbic, 1506 occipital, 1502 olfactory, 1510 parietal, 1499 pyriform, 1508

temporal, 1504 lobules of—

cuneus, 1504 paracentral, 1499 parietal, 1501 postcentral, 1506 prsecuneus, 1502 precentral, 1506 quadrate, 1502 pole, frontal, of, 1451

occipital, of, 1451, i 5°3 temporal, of, 1444 veins, 1578 vesicles, primary, 58 Cerebri, crura, 1445. 1551 Cerebro-spinal axis, 1410 Cerebrum, the, 1493 Ceruminous glands, 1672 Cervical canal in pregnancy, 104

Cervical fascia, deep, 1178

compartments of, 1180

fistula, 1377

lymphatic glands, deep, 1189, H 99 superficial, 1178 plexus, 1185

branches, deep, 1188

superficial, 1141, 1187 spinal nerves, origins of, 1418 vertebrae, 126 Cervix cornu of cord, 1421 of uterus, 973

Check ligaments of eyeball, 1253 Cheeks, 1337 Chiasma, optic, 1545 Chondrocranium, 89, 270, 275 Chorda tympani nerve, 1347, 1402 Chordae tendineae, 1057 Chorio-decidual vessels, 109 Chorion, 29, 106 Chorionic ectoderm 29 mesoderm, 29 villus, 29

Choroid coat of eyeball, 1645 nerves of, 1651 structure of, 1646 plexus of fourth ventricle, 1492 of lateral ventricle, 1521

of inferior horn of, 1525 of third ventricle, 1521 Choroidal fissure, 1525 Chromatin, 9

discharged from nucleus, 18 Chromosomes, 10, 17, 18 Chyli, cisterna, 838, 1100 Ciliary body of eye, 1647 ganglion, 1257 margin, 1649 nerves, long, 1256 short, 1258 processes, 1647 vessels, 1260, 1651 Cinereum, tuber, 1445* 1544 Cingulate sulcus, 1496 Circular folds of small intestine, 864 sinus, 1606 sulcus, 1497

Circulation, course of, 1050 embryonic, 51

Circulus arteriosus, 1449, 1 577 major, 1651 minor, 1651 Circumduction, 395

Circumflex artery, anterior humeral, 427 fibular, 609

lateral femoral, 585, 588 medial femoral, 585, 589 posterior humeral, 427, 428 scapular, 427 iliac artery, deep, 732

superficial, 584, 712 nerve, 432 , 436 Cisterna basalis, 1609

cerebello-medullaris, 1609 chyli, 838, 1100



Cisterna pontis, 1609 venae magnae, 1609 Classification of joints, 394 of movements, 395 Claustrum, 1531

Clava of medulla oblongata, 1455 Clavicle, 289

in female, 291 ossification of, 292 structure of, 291 varieties of, 291 Clavi-pectoral fascia, 420 Cleavage nucleus, 21 Cleft, intratonsillar, 1354 palate, varieties of, 218 uro-genital, 693

Clinoid process, anterior, 200 , 261 middle, 200 , 261 posterior, 198 , 261 Clitoris, 694

arteries of, 703 development of, 698 frenulum, 694 glans, 695 lymphatics of, 695 prepuce, 695 Clivus monticuli, 1478 of sphenoid, 197, 264 Cloaca, 45, 99, 954 division of, 98 Cloacalfossa, 956

membrane, 45, 955, 956 septum, 99, 954 Closing membrane, 66 Coats of eyeball, 1641 Coccygeal plexus, 531 Coccygeus muscle, 948 Coccyx, 149

cornua of, 150 ossification of, 151 varieties, 151 Cochlea, 1685, 1689

aqueduct of, 193, 1165, 1686 Coeliac artery, 811 ganglia, 809 plexus, 807, 809 Coelom, 23, 29, 65

extra-embryonic, obliterated, 106

Coils of intestine, formation, 63 Collateral fissure, 1497 Colliculus facialis, 1491 Colon, ascending, 766 descending, 767

iliac part of, 767 left flexure of, 767 pelvic, 943 right flexure of, 766 taeniae of, 768, 870 transverse, 766 Column, vertebral, 124 as a whole, 151 Columnae rugarum, 986 Columns, anal, 961 renal, 900

Commissures of brain—

anterior, 1518, 1568 corpus callosum, 1513 * 1568 Gudden, of, 1545, 1547 habenular, 1541 hippocampal, 1518, 1568 posterior, 1542 of female perinaeum, 692 of spinal cord, 1418, 1420, 1426 Communicating artery, anterior, 1449, 1573

posterior, 1449, 1571 Companion artery of sciatic nerve, 538 Comparative anatomy, 1 embryology, 23

Compressor venae dorsalis penis, 680 Conchae, nasal, inferior, 223 middle, 209 superior, 209 sphenoidal, 204 Condylar canals, 176, 258, 264 fossa, 176, 258 tubercle, 234 Condyles of femur, 352 occipital, 175, 258 of tibia, 357

Condyloid process of mandible, 232 Cone-bipolar cells of retina, 1655 Cone of light, 1677 Cones of retina, 1656

Confluence of the sinuses, 174, 1603, 1631 Congenital cystic kidney, 95 Conjoint tendon, 725 Conjugation of pronuclei, 20 Conjunctiva, 1291, 1292 Conoid impression, 297 ligament, 444 tubercle, 289

Constrictor muscles of pharynx, 1368, 1369

Contrahentes, 515

Conus medullaris of spinal cord, 1416 Convoluted tubules of kidney, 901,903 Convolutions of brain. See Gyri Coraco-acromial arch, 445 ligament, 445

Coraco-brachialis muscle, 452 Coraco-clavicular ligament, 444 Coracoid process and bone, 296 , 298 Cord, spermatic, 736 Cornea of eyeball, 1643 Corneal corpuscles, 1644 spaces, 1644

Corniculate cartilages, 1383 Corona glandis, 715

radiata, 1515, 1531 of ovum, 14, 19 Coronal, definition, 5 suture, 238, 1630 Coronary arteries of heart, 1036 of uterine, 980 ligaments of knee, 623 plexuses, 1048 sinus, 1065 Coronoid fossa, 304


I7 2 5

Coronoid process of mandible, 232 of ulna, 312 Corpora bigemina, 58 geniculata, 1538 mamillaria, 1543

peduncles of, 1544 quadrigemina, 1547

development of, 58 Corpus albicans of ovary, 982 callosum, 1513

development of, 1531, 1596 forceps major, 1516 minor, 1515 genu,1514 peduncles of, 1514 radiatio corporis callosi,


fimbriatum, 972 luteum, 982 striatum, 1526

development of, 58, 1591 trapezoides of cerebellum, 1484 of pons, 1470 Corrugator cutis ani, 675 supercilii muscle, 1266 Cortex, cerebral, 1561 Corti, rods of, 1691 tunnel of, 1692

Cortical branches of cerebral arteries, 1572, 1574, 1577

Cortico-medullary, arterial arches of kidney, 904 venous arches, 907 Cortico-pontine fibres, 1552 Cortico-thalamic tract, 1566 Costal cartilages, 160

extensions from sclerotomes, 59 groove, 156 zone, 755

Costo-capitular facets, 134, 153 Costo-clavicular ligament, 443 Costo-coracoid ligament, 420 Costo-transverse lamella, 128 Costo-tubercular facets, 136 Cotyledons, no Cranial capacity, 268 fossae, 260, 261, 263 index, 269 Cranial nerves, 1610

at base of brain, 1446 of skull, 1165 superficial origin of, 1446 abducent, at base of skull, 1166 distribution, 1166, 1447, 1616 nucleus of, 1473, 1616 in orbit, 1254 superficial origin, 1447 accessory, at base of skull, 1166 bulbar part, 1628 course, 1331, 1447, 1628 cranial root, 1331 distribution of, 1331, 1628 origin of, deep, 1628 superficial, 1447 spinal part, 1628

Cranial nerves {continued )—

auditory, at base of skull, 1166

cochlear nerve, 1404, 1620, 1693 in internal ear, 1693 meatus, 1404 nuclei of, 1620 spiral ganglion, 1620, 1694 superficial origin, 1447 vestibular ganglion, 1404, 1620, 1693

nerve, 1404, 1622, 1693 facial, at base of skull, 1166

distribution, 1157, 1272, 1401, 1447, 1682

after emerging from facial canal, 1272

in facial canal, 1400 ganglion of, 1403 , 1618 meatal portion of, 1400 nuclei of, motor, 1472, 1617 sensory, 1619 origin of, deep, 1617 superficial, 1447 petrous portion, 1400 sensory root, 1403 glosso-pharyngeal, at base of skull, 1166

distribution of, 1325, 1626 extracranial portion of, 1324, 1447, 1625 ganglia of, 1325 origin of, deep, 1619, 1624 superficial, 1447

hypoglossal, at base of skull, 1167 distribution of, 1322, 1629 extracranial portion of, 1332, 1447

origin of, deep, 1458, 1629 superficial, 1447

oculo-motor, at base of skull, 1165 nucleus of, 1561, 1611 in orbit, 1253 superficial origin, 1446 olfactory, 1165, 1360 , 1611 optic, at base of skull, 1165 development of, 1668 in orbit, 1253 origin, deep, 1611 superficial, 1446

trigeminal, at base of skull, 1165 distribution of, 1446 ganglion, 1167

mandibular nerve, 1168, 1309, 1616

maxillary nerve, 1168, 1616 mesencephalic root, nucleus of, 1561

motor root, nuclei of, 1474, 1615 ophthalmic nerve, 1168, 1254


origin, deep, 1614 superficial, 1446 sensory root of, 1472

nuclei of, 1472, 1474, 1615



Cranial nerves ( continued )— vagus, in abdomen, 861

auricular branch of, 1161, 1328, 1672, 1677

at base of skull, 1166 cardiac branches of, 1330 cervical cardiac branches of, 1330 portion of, 1327, 1330, 1447 distribution of, 1626 ganglia of, inferior, 1328 , 1626 superior, 1328 , 1626 nuclei of, motor, 1626 sensory, 1626 origin, deep, 1625 superficial, 1447 pharyngeal branch of, 1329 pulmonary plexuses of, 1029, 1043, 1045

thoracic portion of left, 1044 of right, 1043

Cranio-cerebral lobes of cerebrum, 1634 topography, 1629 Cranio-facial angle, 260 Cranio-metrical terms, 268 Cranio-pharyngeal canal, 197, 206 Cranium, 172

development of, 91, 270 interior of, 259 Cremaster muscle, 723 Cremasteric fascia, 716, 723 reflex, 724

Crest, conchal, of maxilla, 213 ethmoidal, of palatine, 225 external occipital, 259 of ilium, 334 incisive, of maxilla, 216 incisor, of maxilla, 216 infratemporal, 202 internal occipital, 264 lacrimal, 222 nasal, of maxilla, 216 of palatine, 225 obturator, 340 pubic, 399

relations of structures at, 728 sphenoidal, 199 supramastoid, 185 of tibia, 1359

transverse, of internal auditory meatus, 190 of trapezium, 319, 333 urethral, female, 988 male, 939 vestibular, 1683 Cretinism, 270 Cribriform fascia, 561 , 568 plate of ethmoid, 207 Crico-arytenoideus posterior, 1392 lateralis, 1392 Crico-arytenoid joint, 1385 Cricoid cartilage, 1382

development of, 73, 1382 Crico-thyroideus, 1390 Crico-thyroid joint, 1385 Crico-vocal membrane, 1384

Crista ampullaris, 1688 galli, 207, 261

Cruciate anastomosis, 538, 585 , 587 ligaments of knee, 634 occipito-axial, 1405

transverse part, 1405,1408 vertical part, 1407 Crura cerebri, 1445, 1551

development of, 1589 Crus commune, 1688 of helix, 1295 Crusta-petrosa, 285, 287 Cryptorchismus, 743 Cryptozygous skull, 243 Crystalline lens, 1661

development of, 1667 Cubital fossa, 458 Cuboid bone, 377

ossification of, 378

peroneal groove of, 378 , 388, 390

varieties, 378

Cuboideo-metatarsal joint, 669 Culmen monticuli, 1478 Cuneate tubercle, 1455 Cuneatus, fasciculus, 1429 funiculus, 1455 nucleus, 1460

Cuneiform bones of tarsus, 373 intermediate, 375 lateral, 375 medial, 374 ossification of, 378 cartilages, 1383 Cuneo-cuboid joint, 669 Cuneo-navicular joint, 668 Cuneus of brain, 1504 Cupola of cochlea, 1695 Curved form of embryo, 48 Curves of vertebral column, 151 Cutaneous nerves. See also under Nerves, cutaneous of arm, 447 of back, 397 of forearm, back of, 449 front of, 465 of gluteal region, 529 of hand, 449, 465 of leg, outer side of, 614 of pectoral region, 412 of perinaeum, male, 675 of scapular region, 436 of sole of foot, 644 of trunk, 710

Cuvier, ducts of, 51, 92, 1127 Cystic duct, 778

development of, 891 structure of, 890 notch, 756, 777 Cytomicrosomes, 9 Cytoplasm, 8 Cytotrophoblast, 27, 29

Dachryon, 244, 268 Dartos muscle, 709, 713, 716 Daughter cells, 12



Daughter chromosomes, 10 nuclei, 12

Decidua basalis, 104 capsularis, 104, 106 parietalis, 104 Decidual cells, 107

change in pregnancy, 107 Decussation, fountain, 1433, 1551 of lemnisci, 1465 of pyramids, 1453 Deferens, vas, 737

development of, 738 , 753 in pelvis, 935 structure of, 737 Deiters, cells of, 1692 Deltoid, 436

tuberosity, 300 Dental arches, 281 canaliculi, 284

canals, anterior and middle, 213 posterior, 212, 253 groove, 218 lamina, true, 286 papilla, 285, 287 pulp, 283, 287 sac, 285, 287 Dentate fissure, 1508 nucleus, 1485 Dentatum, os, 133 Dentine, 284

Depressor alae nasi muscle, 1268 anguli oris muscle, 1270 labii inferioris muscle, 1270 Descent of testis, 739

abnormal conditions of, 743 positions of, 743 gubernaculum testis, 740 mesorchium, 740 plica gubernatrix, 740 uro-genital mesentery, 740 Descriptive terms, 1 Deutoplasm, 9, 15 Development—

of anal canal, 965 of anus, 965

of appendix, vermiform, 63, 872, 883 of aqueduct of mid-brain, 58, 1561 of arteries, principal, 1118

aorta, arch of, 1018, 1041 ascending, 1037 descending, 1094 carotid, common, ni 9 > I2I 3 external, 1119. I2I 3 internal, 91, 1118,1122, 1324 central, of retina, 1667, 1668 femoral, 1123 hyaloid, 1667, 1669 innominate, 1119 of limbs, 1123 upper, 516 pulmonary, 91, 1042 subclavian, 1119. 1121 tibial, 1123 umbilical, 151 vertebral, 1121

Development ( continued )— of ary epiglottic folds, 73 of arytenoid cartilages, 1383 of atlas vertebra, 170 of atria of heart, 1075 of atrial septa, 1075 of atrio-ventricular valves, 1081 of auditory meatus, external, 68, 1696

of ossicles, 1679 of auricle of ear, 1697 of basal ganglia, 1594 of bile-duct, 868 of bladder, urinary, 955 of blood, 51

of body cavities, 47, 48 wall, 59

of brain, 55, 1581 of bronchi, 1030 of bronchioles, 1030 of bulbo-urethral glands, 686 of bulbs of vestibule, 699 of caecum, 882 of calyces, 95

of cartilages of larynx, 1397 of caruncula lacrimalis, 1292 of cement of teeth, 287 of cephalic ganglia, 1598 of cerebellum, 58, 1488, 1586 of cerebral hemispheres, 1510, 1591 peduncles, 1588, 1589 vesicles, 58, 1591 of choroid plexuses, 1596 of circulatory system, 51, 5 2 of cisterna chyli, 1138 of clitoris, 698

of commissures of brain, 1594 of conchae of nose, 1363 of conjunctiva, 1292 of cornea, 1670 of corniculate cartilages, 1383 of coronary sinus, 1076 of corpora mamillaria, 58, 1590 quadrigemina, 58, 1589 of corpus callosum, 1531, I 59 ^ striatum, 58, 1591 of cranial nerves, 1597 of cranium, 91, 270 of cricoid cartilage, 73, 1382 of crura cerebri, 1598 of cuneiform cartilages, 1383 of cystic duct, 891 of decidua, 104 of dentine, 287 of diaphragm, 837 of diencephalon, 58, 1589 of duodenum, 80 of dura mater, 90 of ear, external, 1696 internal, 1694

membranous labyrinth, 1694 middle, 1694 osseous labyrinth, 1695 of ejaculatory duct, 102, 959 of endolymphatic duct, 1694



Development ( continued )— of epididymis, 753 of epoophoron, 753, 987 of ethmoid bone, 276 of excretory system, 92 of eye, 1664 of eyelids, 1292 of face, 88

of facial musculature, 68 skeleton, 277 of flocculus, 1586 of fore-brain, 56 of fore-gut, 44 of fornix, 1518, 1595 of frontal bone, 277 of gall-bladder, 891 of geniculate bodies, 1591 of genital organs, external, female, 698

male, 699

of genito-urinary system, 92 of gonads, 100 of gums, 1339 of heart, 90, 1073 of hind-brain, 55, 57

metamorphosis of, 1581 of hind-gut, 44

of hippocampal commissure, 1596 of hymen, 696, 699 of hyoid bone, 76, 278 of hypophysis cerebri, 58, 87,1171 of infundibulum cerebri, 58, 87, 1171, 1590

of insula, 1510, 1592 of interventricular foramen, 1535 of intervertebral disc, 59, 169 of intestine, large, 872 small, 870

of intrinsic muscles of hand, 515 of iris,. 1670

of islets of Langerhans, 895 of kidney, 92-97, 910 of labia pudendi, 699 of labyrinth of ear, 1695 of lacrimal bone, 277 of lamina terminalis, 1510, 1595 of laminae of cord, 54, 1438 of larynx, 1397 of lens, 1667 of lesser omentum, 80 sac, 79, 81 of lips, 1339 of liver, 79, 888 of lungs, 70, 77, 1029 of lymphatic glands, 1139 system, 1137 vessels, 1138 of malleus, 74, 1679 of mammary gland, 417 of mandible, 234 of massa intermedia, 1591 of medulla oblongata, 1581 of medullary vela, 1597 of meninges of brain, 1596 of cord, 1442

Development ( continued )—

of mesonephros, 92, 94, 914 of metanephros, 92, 94, 910 of metencephalon, 1585 of mid-brain, 56, 1589 of middle ear, 1696 of mitral valve, 1081 of mouth, 84, 1339 of myelencephalon, 1581 of nasal apertures, 84, 1363 bone, 277 cartilages, 1363 chonchas, 1363 of naso-lacrimal duct, 1294 of neopallium, 1592 of nervous system, 53 of nose, 1363

external, 1365

of notochord, 23, 39 , 134, 167 of nucleus, arcuate, 1585 caudate, 1592 cuneate, 1584 gracilis, 1584 hypoglossal, 1581 lentiformis, 1592 oculo-motor, 1581 pontis, 1584 red, 1589 trigeminal, 1589 trochlear, 1589 of oesophagus, 66, 78, 108 of olfactory, apparatus, 1511 bulb, 1512, 1570 epithelium, 1364, 1512 lobe, 1511 nerves, 1512 organ, 1364 tract, 1570

of omental bursa, 79, 81 of omentum, greater, 81 lesser, 80

of opercula insulae, 1510 of optic nerve, 1668 of otocyst, 74 of ovary, 100, 753 of palate, 86 of palatine bone, 277 of pancreas, 80, 894 of pancreatic ducts, 81, 894 of paramesonephric (Mullerian) duct, 101 , 987

of paranasal sinuses, 1363 of parathyroid glands, 76 of paroophoron, 754 of parotid gland, 1289 of penis, 700

of pericardium, 43, 46, 1019 of peripheral nervous system, 1597 of peritoneum, 795 of pharyngo-tympanic tube, 73, 74, 1378 ‘

of pharynx, 1373 of philtrum, 1341 of pineal body, 58, 1590 of pinna, 67, 1697



Development ( continued )— of placenta, 106 of pleura, 78, 1011 of pleural sac, 78 of pons, 1586

of position of intestinal canal, 874 of stomach, 874 of pronephros, 92, 94 of prostate, 960 of prostatic utricle, 101 of pulmonary valve, 1081 of pulvinar, 1591 of pyramid of brain, 1584 of Rathke’s pouch, 87 , 206, 1171 of rectum, 99, 965 of respiratory system, 752 of rete testis, 752 of retina, 1667 of ribs, 59, 170 of saccule, 1695 of salivary glands, 1289 of sclera, 1670 of scrotum, 700 of semicircular canals, 1695 ducts, 1695

of seminal vesicles, 102, 959 of seminiferous tubules, 752 of septal cartilage, 1363 of septum lucidum, 1520 of skull, 270 of soft palate, 1354 of spinal cord, 53, 1436 ganglia, 54, 1597 nerves, 55 of spleen, 80, 897 of stapes, 75, 1679 of sternum, 170 of stomach, 861 of sublingual gland, 1235 of submandibular duct, 1234 gland, 1234

of suprarenal glands, 899 of sympathetic system, 1640 of tarsal glands, 1292 of teeth, 285 of tela choroidea, 1596 of telencephalon, 58, 1591 of tentorium cerebelli, 90, 273 of testis, 100, 752 of thalamus, 1539, 159° of thoracic duct, 1138 of thymus, 76, 1020 of thyroid cartilage, 1381, 1387 gland, 70, 76, 1222 of tongue, 72, 1348 of tonsil, 76, 1356 of trachea, 70, 1029 of transverse processes of vertebrae,


of tricuspid valve, 1081 of tuber cinereum, 58, 1589 of tympanic cavity, 73, 74, 1696 membrane, 75, 1696 of umbilical cord, 31/32 of umbilicus, 63

Development [continued )— of ureter, 910 of urethra, female, 988 male, 700, 956 of urinary bladder, 955 of uterine tubes, 987 of uterus, 101, 987 of utricle of ear, 1695 prostatic, 101 of vagina, 101, 987 of valve of heart, arterial, 1081 of vas deferens, 100, 102, 738, 753 of veins, principal, 1123

azygos veins, 1098, 1136 cardinal, 51, 1127 anterior, 1127 posterior, 1131 thoracic formation, 1136 cerebral, 1128 of gonads, 1135 iliac, common, 1132 innominate, 1032 portal, 817, 1124, 1125 primitive jugular, 51, 1127 renal, 1132, 1135 subcardinal, 1133 supracardinal, 1132, 1133 suprarenal, 1135 umbilical, 51, 1125, 1126 of upper limb, 516 vena cava, inferior, 1033 superior, 1032 vitelline, 51, 63, 1124 of venous system, 91 of ventricles of brain— fourth, 1493 lateral, 1594 third, 1535

of vermiform appendix, 63, 872, 883 of vermis, 1587 of vertebrae, 59 of vertebral column, 168 of vestibular glands, 699 of visceral arches, 1373 of vitreous body, 1669 of vocal folds, 1397 of vomero-nasal organ, 1366 of xiphoid process, 170 of zygomatic bone, 277 Diaphragm, 883

arcuate ligaments of, 836 blood-supply, 833 central tendon of, 835 crura of, 835 lymphatics of, 834 openings of, 835 Diaphragma sellae, 1163, 1603 Diaphragmatic plexus of nerves, 809 Diencephalon, 58 Digastric fossa, 230 muscle, 1127 triangle, 1198

Digital arteries, palmar, 488 plantar, 655, 657 nerves of foot, 652, 654




Digital nerves of hand, 489, 499

processes, palmar aponeurosis, 485 plantar, 643 veins, foot, 644 hand, 467

Digitate impressions, 181 Dilator naris muscle, 1268

papillae muscle, 1650, 1652 Diploe, 119, 260

veins of, 1154, - i 6 oi Diploid number of chromosomes, 18 Disc, .embryonic, 33, 39 Discs, intervertebral, 1107 Discus proligerus, 18, 982 Diverticula of ischio-rectal fossa, 676, 677

Diverticulum, amniotic, 31 ilei (Meckel's), 63, 762 Dolichocephalic skull, 243, 269 Dorsal aortae, 68 concavity, 50 convexity, 122 laminae of cord, 54 mesentery, 79 venous plexus of foot, 610 hand,467

Dorsalis indicis artery, 511 pedis artery, 611 , 614 pollicis artery, 511 Dorsum sellae of sphenoid, 197, 261 Duct or ducts— bile, 779

of Cuvier, 51, 92, 1127 cystic, 778 efferent, 751 ejaculatory, 936 endolymphatic, 191, 1688, 1694 of Gaertner, 102 hepatic, 778 lactiferous, 415, 417 lymphatic, right, 1246 mesonephric, 94, 102 naso-lacrimal, 1294 pancreatic, 892

paramesonephric (Mullerian),

101 , 987 parotid, 1287 perilymphatic, 193 pronephric, 94 prostatic, 939 semicircular, 1688 sublingual, 1235 submandibular, 1233 thoracic, in abdomen, 838 in neck, 1246 in thorax, 1100 thyro-glossal, 1222 vitelline, 762 vitello-intestinal, 61, 762 Ductus arteriosus, 1043', 1082 cochlearis, 1689, 1690 reuniens, 1688 sacculi, 1688 utriculi, 1687 venosus, 1126

Duodenal curves, formation of, 81 glands, 867 papilla, 865 recesses, 791

Duodeno-ieiunal flexure, 762 fold, 805

Duodenum, 761, 803 ampulla of, 865 first part of, 803 fourth part of, 805 glands of, 867 second part of, 804 suspensory muscle of, 805 third part of, 804 Dura mater at base of skull, 1162 blood-supply of, 1599 of brain, 1598 nerves of, 1601

processes of, 1601 sinuses of, 1163, 1603 of spinal cord, 1410

blood-supply of, 1412

Ear, development of, 73, 1694 external, 1671 internal, 1683 middle, 1673

Earliest known stage of human embryo,


Ectoderm, primitive, 25

structures formed from, in Ectognathion, 218 Ectopia testis, 743 Efferent ducts, 751 Ejaculatory duct, 936

development of, 959 structure of, 959 Elastic laminae of cornea, 1644 Elbow-joint, 516 bursae of, 519 ligaments of, 517, 518 nerves of, 519 relations of, 519 synovial membrane, 519 Elliptical recess of labyrinth, 1683 Embedding of ovum, 28, 104 Emboliformis, nucleus, 1485 Embryo, the, 39

formation of, 26 general form of, 48 Embryological terminology, 4 Embryology, general, 1, 8 Embryonic area, 33 disc, 39

plate, 26, 33, 36

Eminence, arcuate, 189, 263, 1684 frontal, 181, 1633 ilio-pubic, 335 parietal, 178, 1633 Eminentia medialis, 1491 saccularis, 1544 Emissary veins, 1608 Enamel, 285 cells, 287 cuticle, 285




Enamel, organ, 285, 287 prism, 287 Encephalon, 1442 base of, 1443

arteries at base of, 1447 development of, 55, 1581 flexures of primitive, 57 Endocardium, 1068 Endognathion, 218 Endolymph of internal ear, 1697 Endolymphatic duct, 191, 1688, 1694 Endoskeleton, 113 Endosteum, 122 Endothelium, 112 Entoderm derivatives, 112 Entomion, 251, 268 Ependymal layer of cord, 54 Epiblast, 25 Epibolic growth, 35 Epicardium, 1018, 1068 Epicondyles of femur, 352, 353 of humerus, 304 Epicoracoid bone, 299 Epididymis, 749

development of, 753 structure of, 750 Epigastric artery, inferior, 729 superficial, 584, 711 superior, 731, 1000 depression, 705 Epiglottis, 1379

development of, 73 Epi-hyal, 76, 237

Epiotic centres of temporal bone, 196 Epiphyses, 114

and ossification, 305 Epiploicae, appendices, 768, 871 Epipteric bone, 180, 253, 265 Episternal bones, 162, 165 Epithalamus, 1540 Epitympanic recess, 188, 1681 pouches of, 1681 Epoophoron, 971

development of, 753, 987 Equator of eye, 1641 Equina, cauda, 1417 Eruption of teeth, 288 Erythroblasts, 51, 121 Ethmoid bone, 207 alae of, 207 labyrinth, 208 ossification of, 211 Ethmoidal crest of palatine, 225

foramina, 183, 210, 247, 248 * 261 notch, 182

process of inferior nasal concha, 223 spine, 197

Evolution of embryo, 23 Excretory organs, connection with splanchnocoele, 93 development, 92 Exoskeleton, 113 Expulsion of foetus, 107 Extensor carpi radialis brevis, 502 longus, 501

Extensor carpi ulnaris, 503 digiti minimi, 503 digitorum, 502 brevis, 611 longus, 607 hallucis brevis, 611 longus, 606 indicis, 506 pollicis brevis, 505 longus, 505 retinacula of foot, 603 of hand, 508 Extra-dural space, 1412 Extra-embryonic coelom, 29 obliterated, 106 mesoderm, 26

Extra-peritoneal tissue, 743 Extravasation of urine, 678 Eye, 1641

chambers of, 1661 coats of, 1641 development of, 1664 equator of, 1641 movements of, 1231 Eyelashes, 1290 Eyelids, 1289

development of, 1292 structure of, 1290

Face, arteries of, 1278 bones of, 172 development of, 88 landmarks of, 1263 Facet, 115

Facial artery on face, 1278 in neck, 1217 transverse, 1158, 1281 canal, 190 ganglion, 1403

lymphatic glands, deep, 1309 nerve. See Cranial nerves skeleton, development of, 277 vein, anterior, 1218, 1280 common, 1218 deep, 1308 transverse, 1281 Falx cerebelli, 1602 cerebri, 1601 anal, 675

Fascia of abdominal wall, anterior, deep, 7°9

superficial, 709 posterior, 839 of Abernethy, 854 of arm, deep, 451 axillary, 414 of back, deep, 397 bucco-pharyngeal, 1179, 1368 bulbi, 1252 cervical, deep, 1178 clavi-pectoral, 420 cremasteric, 716, 723 cribriform, 561, 568 of dorsum of foot, deep, 611 superficial, 610



Fascia of forearm, deep, 468 of gluteal region, 531 of hand, back of, 509 iliac, 839

infundibuliform, 716, 739 lata, 560

iliac portion, 561 pubic portion, 561 of leg, deep, 600 lumbar, 840, 841

posterior lamella of, 403 thoracic part of, 404 masseteric, 1337 obturator, 920 orbital, 1252 of palm, superficial, 484 of pectoral region, 414, 420 pelvic, parietal, 919 visceral, 921 perineal, deep, 677 superficial, 677 pharyngo-basilar, 1371 popliteal, 546 pretracheal, 1179 prevertebral, 1179 propia of Cooper, 716 psoas sheath, 839 of pyriformis, 919 of scapular region, deep, 436 spermatic, external, 716 internal, 716 temporal, 1161 transversalis, 733

Fascial compartments of neck, 1180 Fasciculus cuneatus, 1418, 1429 gracilis, 1418, 1429 longitudinal, inferior, 1569 superior, 1569 occipito-frontal, 1569 perpendicular, 1569 postero-lateral, 1430 retroflexus, 1541, 1558, 1561 solitarius, 1625, 1626 uncinate, 1569 Fasciola cinerea, 1513 Fastigii, nucleus, 1485 Fecundation, 20 Femoral artery, 563, 581 , 587 profunda of, 584, 588 canal, 566

cutaneous veins, 559

hernia, parts concerned in, 568

ring, 566

septum, 743

sheath, 565, 568

triangle, 552, 563

vein, 563, 589

Femoro-patellar joint, 628, 639 Femur, 345

adductor tubercle, 350, 354, 553 calcar femorale, 354 condyles, 352 epicondyles, 352, 353 fossa hypotrochanterica, 354 gluteal tuberosity, 350

Femur head, 345

intercondylar notch, 353 linea aspera, 350 neck, 346 ossification of, 355 patellar surface, 351 pectineal line, 350 pilastered, 354 popliteal groove, 352 surface, 358 quadrate line, 350 tubercle, 350 relation to stature, 354 sexual differences, 354 shaft, 348 structure, 353 trochanteric fossa, 348 line, 346

trochanters, 346, 348 tubercles of neck, 346 varieties, 354 Fenestra cochleae, 1674 vestibuli, 1674 Fertilization of ovum, 20 Fertilized ovum, 20

developmental stages, 22 segmentation, 21 Fibrinoid, 108 Fibula, 364 head, 364

malleolar fossa, 364 malleolus, 364

guide to, 599 oblique line, 366 ossification of, 367 structure of, 367 varieties, 367

Fibular circumflex artery, 609 intermuscular septa, 601 Fifth arch, rudimentary, 70 month foetus, no Filum terminale of cord, 1417 Fimbria of brain, 1510, 1518, 1525 ovarian, 972 Fimbriae, 972

Fimbriata, plica, of tongue, 1343 Fimbriatum, corpus, 972 Fimbrio-dentate sulcus, 1509 First pharyngeal groove obliterated, 74 Fissure for ligamentum teres, 775 venosum, 776 longitudinal, 1450 orbital, inferior, 247, 253 , 1262 superior, 247, 263 , 1262 palpebral, 1289 pterygoid, 203 pterygo-maxillary, 253 squamo-tympanic, 187, 1673 tympano-mastoid, 192 1 Fissures of brain— calcarine, 1503 choroidal, 1523 collateral, 1497 ecto-rhinal, 1508 lateral, 1495



fissures of brain ( continued )— parieto-occipital, 1496 postcalcarine, 1^03 postclival, 1477 precalcarine, 1503 primary, of cerebellum, 1477 transverse, 1520 Fistula in ano, 677

umbilical urinary, 954 Fixation villi, 109 Fixed terms in anatomy, 3 Flaccida, membrana, 1676, 1677 Flagellum in spermatozoon, 13 Flava, ligamenta, 1108 Flexor—

accessorius, 647 carpi radialis, 470 ulnaris, 473 digiti minimi, 496

brevis, 650 digitorum brevis, 645 longus, 621 profundus, 481 sublimis, 470 hallucis brevis, 648 longus, 623 pollicis brevis, 494 longus, 482, 496 retinacula of ankle, 602 of hand, 493 Flexures of brain, 57, 58 of colon, left, 767 right, 766 Floor plate, 53 Foetal circulation, 1082

changes in, at birth, 1083 peculiarities of, 1082 membranes, 106 Foetus, 4, no

general growth of, no maternal connections, 104 monthly growth, no Fold or folds—

ary epiglottic, 73 glosso-epiglottic, 1380 lacrimal, 1294 peritoneal, 744 pharyngo-epiglottic, 1380 recto-uterine, 967 of Treeves, 792 vesico-uterine, 967 vestibular, 1385, 1387 vocal, 1388

Fontanelles, 180, 237, 239, 265, 266 sagittal, 180, 266 Foot, arches of, 672 as a whole, 386 Foramen or foramina—

caecum of frontal bone, 181, 261, 1604 of medulla oblongata, 1451 of tongue, 72, 1222 carotico-clinoid, 200 definition, 115

emissary, sphenoidal, 201, 263 of Hiischke, 194, 197

Foramen or foramina ( continued )— incisive, 216, 255 infra-orbital, 212, 245 interventricular, of brain, 1535 of heart, 1081 jugular, 258, 264, 1166 lacerum, 258, 263 magnum, 176, 258, 264, 1167, 1633

structures passing through, 1167 mandibular, 231 mastoid, 187 mental, 229, 245 obturator, 340 optic, 229, 245, 247, 261 ovale, 201 , 253, 257, 263

of capsule of shoulder - joint, 461

in heart, 1065 tentorii, 1602 palatine, 226, 257 parietal, 243 pterygo-spinous, 203 rotundum, 201 , 255, 263 sacral, anterior, 144 sciatic, greater, 993 lesser, 535, 993 singulare, 190 spheno-palatine, 255 spinosum, 201 , 253, 263 sternal, 164, 171 stylo-mastoid, 192 supra-orbital, 244 supra-trochlear, 304 transversarium, 128 vertebral, 128 zygomatic, 219

zygomatico-facial, 219, 245, 247 zygomatico-temporal, 219, 247 Forceps major, 1516 minor, 1515 Fore-brain, 46, 56, 57 Fore-gut, 44, 62, 65 Formal position, the, 21 Formatio-reticularis alba, 1459 grisea, 1458

Formative cell-mass, 24 Fornix of brain, 1516, 1569 of conjunctive, 1292 Fossa or fosse—•

at base of skull, anterior, 260 middle, 261 posterior, 263 canine, 212 cerebellar, 264 condylar, 176, 258 coronoid, 304 cubital, 458 digastric, 230 digital, 744 for gall-bladder, 774 guttural, 257 hypophysial, 197, 261 iliac, 336, 708 incudis, 1675 incisive, of mandible, 229

I 734


Fossa or fossae ( continued )—

incisive, of maxilla, 211, 216, 255 infraclavicular, 412 infraspinous, 292 infratemporal, 253 interpeduncular, 1561 intrabulbar, 941 ischio-rectal, 676 jugular, 191, 258 for lacrimal gland, 183, 245 nasal, 248 olecranon, 304 ovalis of heart, 1055

of middle ear, 1674 parafloccular, 191, 264 popliteal, 541, 545 pterygoid, 203, 257 pyriform, 76, 1376, 1386 radial, 304 retro-duodenal, 791 rotunda, 1674 scaphoid, 204 subarcuate, 191, 264 sublingual, 230 submandibular, 230 subnasal, 244 supraspinous, 292 temporal, 251 terminal, 941 tonsillar, 76 trochanteric, 348 trochlear, 183, 245, 1251 for vena cava, 777 vermian, 176, 264 vestibular, 696

Fountain decussation, 1433, 1551 Fovea-centralis, 1652

structure of, 1658 inferior, of fourth ventricle, 1490 spherica, 1683

superior, of fourth ventricle, 1491 Foveola of kidney, 903 Frankfurt plane, 242 Frenulum clitoridis, 695 labiorum, 696 linguae, 1336, 1343 lingulae of cerebellum, 1478 praeputii, 713

veli of superior medullary velum 1485, 1548 Frontal bone, 180

development of, 275 ossification of, 184 varieties of, 184 eminence, 181, 1633 lobe of brain, 1497 nerve, 1254

process of zygomatic, 220 sinus, 184, 250 suture, 238

Fronto-nasal process, 83, 88 Fronto-pontine tract, 1529, 1566 Funiculus, cuneatus, 1455 gelatinosus, 145 s gracilis, 1455

Gaertner’s duct, 102 Galactophorous ducts, 415, 417 Gall-bladder, 778

development of, 891 lymphatics of, 891 spiral valve, 890 structure of, 890 Ganglia, basal, 1526 Gangliform enlargement on anterior tibial nerve, 614 on median nerve, 489 on nerve to anconeus, 461 to teres minor, 432 on posterior interosseous nerve, 507

Ganglion, aortico-renal, 809 basal, 1526 of Bochdalek, 1320 cardiac, 1046 cervical, inferior, 1335 middle, 1334 superior, 1333 ciliary, 1257 coccygeal, 946 coeliac, 809

diaphragmaticum, 833 of facial nerve, 1403, 1618 of glosso-pharyngeal nerve, inferior, 1325 superior, 1325 habenulae, 1541 impar, 946

interpedunculare, 1541, 1561 mesenteric, inferior, 811 superior, 809 otic, 1314 phrenic, 1016 spheno-palatine, 1320 spinal, 1419, 1428 spiral, 1694 splanchnic, 1105 stellate, 1104 submandibular, 1315 sympathetic, 1655 lumbar, 838 sacral, 922 trigeminal, 1167 of vagus nerve, inferior, 1328 superior, 1328 vestibular, 1404, 1693 Ganglionic layer of retina, 1654 Gastral mesoderm, 36 Gastrocnemius, 617 Gastro-phrenic ligament, 789 Gastrulation, 38 Gemellus, inferior, 535 superior, 535 Genial tubercles, 230 Genicular arteries, 548, 587, 589 nerves, 550, 580, 637 Geniculate bodies, 1538 , 1621 gyrus, 1514

Genio-glossus muscle, 1230 Genio-hyoid muscle, 1230 Genital cord, ioj


Genital eminence, 99, 694, 698 swellings, 694, 698 Genito-femoral nerve, 554, 846 Genito-iirinary development, 92 Gennari, band of, 1547 Genu of central sulcus, 1496 of corpus callosum, 1514 of internal capsule, 1528 of sigmoid sinus, 1632 Gerlach, valve of, 764 Germ-cells, female, 14, 16 male, 12 origin, 13

Germinal cells in developing cord, 54 epithelium, 13, 16 layers, structures derived from, 111 vesicle, 15 Gill-slits, 66, 70 Glabella, 181, 244, 268 Gland or glands. See also Lymphatic glands buccal, 1272 bulbo-urethral, 685 cardiac, of stomach, 858 ceruminous, 1672 ciliary, 1290 duodenal, 867 gastric, 858 Haversian, 596, 598 intestinal, 867 labial, 1271 lacrimal, 1247 lingual, anterior, 1345 mammary, 412, 414 , 416 molar, 1272 of Montgomery, 415 nasal, 1359 palatal, 1351 parathyroid, 1223 parotid, 1284 prostate, 937 pyloric, 859 sublingual, 1234 submandibular, 1233 tarsal, 1291, 1292 thymus, 1019 thyroid, 1204, 1220 accessory, 1221 of tongue, 1344, 1345 urethral, 942 vestibular, greater, 697 Glandis, corona, 715 Gians clitoridis, 695 penis, 715

Gleno-humeral ligaments, 462 Glenoid cavity, 294 , 298 Glenoidale, labrum, 463 Glia cells of cerebellum, 1487 Glisson, capsule-*>f, 884 Globosus, nucleus, 1485 Globus pallidus, 1528 Glomeruli, external and internal, 93 Glomerulus of kidney, 905 Glomus coccygeum, 946 Glosso-epiglottic fold, 1343, 1380


Glosso-pharyngeal nerve. See Cranial nerves

Glottidis, rima, 1388 Gluteal artery, inferior, 538, 926 superior, 537, 927 fascia, 531

fold, 529 1

lines, 336

nerve, inferior, 539, 930 superior, 539, 930 region, 529 tuberosity, 350 reins, inferior, 538 superior, 536 Gluteus maximus, 531 medius, 532 minimus, 534 quartus, 534 Gnathic index, 269 Gnathion, 244, 268 Golgi, cells of, 1487, 1564 Gomphosis, 242 , 285 Gonads, 100 Gonion, 251, 268 Gracilis, fasciculus, 1418, 1429 funiculus, 1455 muscle, 516 nucleus, 1459

Granulations, arachnoid, 1599, 1609 Granulosa, membrana, 982 Grey matter—•

central, of medulla, 1459 of mid-brain, 1560 ” ' of cerebellum, 1484 of cerebral hemispheres, 1561 of spinal cord, 1420, 1424 of tegmentum, 1533 Groove, bicipital, 300 carotid, 200, 261 costal, 156

dental, of maxilla, 218 infra-orbital, 213 lacrimal, 222, 247 of maxilla, 213 medullary, 34 meningeal, anterior, 180 mylo-hyoid, 232 nasal, of ethmoid, 208 nuchal, 397

obturator, 340 *

olfactory, of ethmoid, 207 of sphenoid, 197 optic, 197, 261

peroneal, of cuboid, 377, 388, 390

for pharyngo-tympanic tube, 257

popliteal, 352 -- L

pulmonary, of thorax, 166

sacral, 146, 153

sigmoid, 188

spinal, 397

spiral, 300

subclavian, 290

of trapezium, 319, 333

vertebral, 153

Growth, embryonic, 48 ■



Growth, foetal, no Gubernaculum of testis, 103, 740 Guerin, valvule of, 942 Gums, 1338

development of, 1339 Gustatory cells, 1348 organs, 1347 pore, 1348 Guttural fossa, 257 Gyrus or gyri— angular, 1501 annectant, 1498 breves, 1506 cinguli, 1507 dentatus, 1509 frontal, 1498 geniculate, 1514 hippocampal, 1507 lingual, 1504 longus, 1506 marginal, 1499 occipito-temporal, 1505 orbital, 1499 precentral, 1497 postcentral, 1501 postparietal, 1502 rectus, 1499 subcallosal, 1514 supracallosal, 1514 supramarginal, 1501 temporal, 1505

Habenula, 1541 Habenulae, ganglion, 1541 striae, 1541 trigonum, 1541 Habenular commissure, 1541 Hair-cells, auditory, 1689, 1692 Hallucis, abductor, 644 adductor, 649 extensor brevis, 611 longus, 606 flexor brevis, 648 longus, 623

tendon of, 646 Hamate bone, 320

hook of, 321, 333 ossification of, 322 Hamstring muscles, 542, 544 Hamulus of lacrimal, 222 pterygoid, 203 of spiral lamina, 1686 Hand as a whole, 330 Hand-plates, no

Haploid number of chromosomes, 18 Harmonic suture, 394 Hassall, concentric corpuscles of, 1020 Haversian canals, 116

gland of hip-joint, 340, 596, 598 system, 117 Head, bones of, 173 process, 36 Heart, 1048

apex of, 1052, 1059 atrial portion of, 1051

Heart atrium, left, 1052, 1059 right, 1051, 1054 auricles of, 1051, 1052 base of, 1048, 1053 block, 1072 bloodvessels of, 1064 course of circulation, 1050 development of, 1073 exterior of, 1050 interior of, 1054 Latham’s circle, 1048 lymphatics of, 1067 nerves of, 1068 size of, 1073 topography of, 1048 of orifices of, 1064 tube, 90

ventricle, left, 1060 right, 1055

ventricular portion of, 1052 weight of, 1073 Helicine arteries, 953 Helicis major muscle, 1296 minor muscle, 1296 Helicotrema, 1686, 1689 Helix, 1294

spine of, 1295 tail of, 1295

Hemisternal cartilages, 170 Henle, loop of, 901, 903 Hensen, cells of, 1692

continuity theory of, 55 Hepatic artery, 813, 885 canals, 886 cells, 886 cylinders, 889 duct, 778 lobule, 884 plexus, 809 veins, 885

Hepatis, pons, 775, 777 porta, 775 sustentaculum, 789 Hernia, appendicular, 787 congenital, 747 diaphragmatic, 838 encysted, 747 femoral, 568 infantile, 747

inguinal, direct, medial, 746 oblique, lateral, 745 medial, 746

mesenteric, 786 s

meso-colic, 787 retro-peritoneal, 791 umbilical, 748

congenital, 748 Hertwig, sheath of, 287 Heterotypical mitosis, 17 Hiatus, definition, 115

for greater superficial petrosal nerve, 189, 190, 263

for lesser superficial petrosal nerve, 189, 263

semilunaris, 1357



Hilton, white line of, 962 Hilton’s law, 433 Hilum of lung, 1022 Hind-brain, ss, =>7 Hind-gut, 44, 45 Hinge-joint, 393 Hip bone, 334

ossification of, 341 joint, 590

arterial supply of, 596 bursae of, 598 capsular ligament, 590 Haversian gland, 596, 598 ilio-femoral ligament, 591 ischio-femoral ligament, 591 nerves of, 596 pubo-femoral ligament, 592 relations of, 596 synovial membrane, 595 Hippocampal commissure, 1518, 1568 gyrus, 1507

Hippocampus, 1509, 1532 His’ theory of nerve growth, 35 Histology, 1

Holden’s guide to greater trochanter, 552 Holoblastic ova, 25 Homodynamy, 6, 122 Homogeneity, 6 Homology, 6, 122 serial, 6, 122

Horns of cord, 1421, 1422

of lateral ventricle, 1523, 1524 Horseshoe kidney, 822 Humeral lymphatic glands, 424 Humerus, 299

anatomical neck of, 299 bicipital groove, 300 capitulum, 304 epicondyles, 304 greater tuberosity, 299 lesser tuberosity, 300 nutrient foramen, 300 ossification of, 305 shaft, 300 spiral groove, 300 structure, 304 supracondylar process, 302 surgical neck of, 300 trochlea, 304 varieties, 305 Humphry’s ligament, 633 Hiischke, foramen of, 194, 197 Hyaloid artery, 1664 canal of eye, 1664 membrane, 1662 Hyaloplasm, 8

Hydroccele, encysted, of spermatic cord, 743

Hymen, 695

development of, 696, 699 Hyo-glossus muscle, 1231 Hyoid arch, 75, 278 bone, 235

body, 235 horns, 236

Hyoid bone, development of, 278 ossification of, 236 tubercle of, 235 Hyperchordal bar, 143 Hypoblast, 25

Hypobranchial eminence, 70 Hypochordal bar, 168 Hypogastric sympathetic plexus, 811 zone, 755

subdivisions of, 755 Hypoglossal nerve. See Cranial nerves

triangle, 1490 Hypophysial fossa, 197 Hypophysis cerebri, 1171

development of, 58, 87, 1171 infundibulum, 1171 structure of, 1171 Hypospadias, 700 Hypothalamus, 1543


Ichthyopsida, 23, 69 Ileo-caecal fold, 792 Ileo-colic valve, 873

frenula of, 873 Ileum, 762, 869

peritoneal relations of, 786 Iliac arteries. See Arteries fossa, 336

left, contents of, 708 right, contents of, 708 veins. See Veins Ilio-costalis muscle, 404 Ilio-costo-cervicalis muscles, 404 Ilio-femoral ligament, 591 Ilio-hypogastric nerve, 531, 710, 728, 845 Ilio-inguinal nerve, 554, 729, 845 Ilio-pectineal septum, 856 Ilio-psoas muscle, 571, 842 Ilio-pubic eminence, 335 Ilio-tibial tract, 531, 560 , 57 ° Ilio-trochanteric band, 593 Ilium, 334

anterior inferior spine, 334 superior spine, 334 auricular area, 336 groove, 346 crest, 334 gluteal lines, 336 surface, 336 ligamentous area, 336 muscular area, 336 posterior spines, 334, 336 Impar, ganglion, 946 tuberculum, 70 Impregnation, 20 Impression, trigeminal, 189, 263 Incisive canal, 248 crest, 248 foramina, 216, 255 fossa of mandible, 229 Incisor crest, 216 teeth, 278

Incisura semilunaris cerebelli, 1475 temporalis, 1507



Incus, 1678

ligament of, 1679 Index, alveolar, 269 cranial, 269 gnathic, 269 nasal, 269 orbital, 269 vertical, of skull, 269 Indicis, dorsalis, artery, 511 extensor, muscle, 506 radialis, artery, 487, 498 Indusium griseum, 1510 Infarcts, red and white, 109 Infraclavicular fossa, 412

lymphatic glands, 416, 434 Infrahyoid muscles, 1200 region, 1203

Infra-orbital canal, 245, 247 foramen, 212, 245 groove, 213 nerve, 1276, 1319 plexus, 1274, 1276 process of zygomatic, 220 Infrapatellar tendon, 574 Infraspinatus muscle, 437 Infratemporal crest of sphenoid, 202 Infundibuliform fascia, 716, 739 Infundibulum of ethmoid, 209 of frontal, 184 of heart, 1056

of hypophysis cerebri, 1171, 1544 of lung, 1028 of nasal fossa, 250, 1357 of uterine tube, 972 Inguinal canal, 735

position of, 708 hernia, 745-748 ligament, 551, 707, 719 lymphatic glands, 558 recesses, 745 triangle, 708, 736 Inion, 243, 268 Inner cell mass, 24, 25 Innominate canal, 201 Intercellular passages of liver, 886 Interclavicular ligament, 443 Intercostal arteries, 411, 997 membranes, 994, 995 muscles, 994, 995 nerves, 728, 996, 1099 spaces, 167

Intercosto-brachial nerve, 433 , 447 Intercrural fibres, 718 Intercuneiform joints, 669 Interfoveolar ligament, 726 Interglobular spaces, 285, 287 Interior of cranium, 259 Interlamina sulcus, 54 Interlobar notch of liver, 777 Interlobular plexuses of liver, 885 Intermediate cell mass, 42

formation from, 92, 93 Intermetacarpal joints, 526 Intermetatarsal joints, 671 Interosseous artery, anterior, 478

Interosseous artery, common, 478 posterior, 506, 507 recurrent, 508 membrane of forearm, 521 of leg, 660 muscles of foot, 650 dorsal, 651 plantar, 650 of hand, 512 dorsal, 512 palmar, 494, 512 nerve, anterior, 481 posterior, 506 Interparietal bone, 177 Interpeduncular fossa, 1561 space, 1445

Interphalangeal joints, foot, 572 hand, 528

Interspinales muscles, 410 Intertragic notch, 1294 Intertransversales muscles, 410 Intertubercular line, 755 plane, 755

Interventricular foramen, 1535 Intervertebral discs, 1107

development of, 59, 169 Intervillous space, 105, 108 Intestinal canal, 761

blood-supply of, 795 development of, 870 glands, 867 lymphatic trunk, 832 Intestine, large, 762

appendices epiploicae, 871 blood-supply of, 871 character of, 871 development of, 872 of position of, 874 lymphatics of, 799, 802 nerves of, 871 structure of, 870 small, blood-supply of, 869

characteristics of different parts of, 869

circular folds of, 864 development of, 870

of positions of, 874 glands of, 867 lacteal vessels, 866 lymphatics of, 869 structure of, 863 villi of, 865

Intra-embryonic coelom, 42, 46 Intralobular plexuses of liver, 885 Intratonsillar cleft, 1354 Intra-uterine conditions in pregnancy, 104

Iris, 1648

blood-supply, 1651 development of, 1670 muscles of, 1650 nerves of, 1651 structure, 1650

Ischio-cavernosus, female, 702 male, 679



Ischiofemoral ligament, 591 Ischiorectal fossa, 676 contents of, 677 diverticula of, 676, 677 Ischium, 347 body, 337 ramus, 338 * spine of, 338 tuberosity of, 338, 529 Islets of Langerhans, 892 Isolecithal eggs, 23

Isthmus of external auditory meatus, 194 of gyrus cinguli, 1507 oropharyngeal, 1330 pharyngeal, 1371 of rhombencephalon, 38

Japonicum, os, 221 Jejunum, 762, 869 Joints, acromio-clavicular, 444 ankle, 661

atlantoaxial, 1404, 1408 altanto-occipitai, 1406, 1409 ball-and-socket, 393 calcaneo-cuboid, 675 carpometacarpal, 325 of thumb, 523 cartilaginous, 393 classification of, 394 condyloid, 393 costochondral, 1112 costotransverse, 1112 costovertebral, mo cricoarytenoid, 1383 crico-thyroid, 1385 cuboideometatarsal, 669 cuneo-cuboid, 669 cuneo-navicular. 668 elbow, 316

femoropatellar. 628, 639 fibrous, 393 of foot, 664 general, 393 of hand, 522 hinge, 303 hip, 590 intercarpal, 324 xnterchondral, 1114 intercoccygeal, 989 intercuneiform, 669 mtermetacarpal, 526 intermetatarsal, 671 interphalangeal, of foot. 672 of hand, 528 knee, 62S lumbosacral, 988 mandibular, 1316 metacarpophalangeal, 327 metatarsophalangeal, 671 mid-tarsal, 663 movements of joints, 393 naviculo-cuboid, 668 obstetrical, 177 of occipital bone, 1406, 1409 of pelvis, 988

Joints, pisiform, 324 pivot, 393 plane, 393

pubic symphysis, 092 radioulnar, 520 of ribs, mo sacro-coccygeal, 989 sacroiliac, 990 saddle, 393 shoulder, 461 sternal, 1114 stemo-clavicular, 443 stemo-costal, 1113 suture, 394 syndesmosis. 393 synovial, 393 talo-calcaneal 664 talo-ca lcaneonavicula r 663 tarsometatarsal, 669 tibiofibular, inferior. 639 intermediate, 660 superior, 639 transverse carpal, 323 of vertebral column, 1105 wrist, 322 Jugular arch, 1175 facet, 192

foramen, 258, 264, 1166 fossa of temporal, 191, 238 lymphatic trunk, 1199 notch of occipital, 1 76 process of occipital. 176. 258 vein, anterior, 1173 external, 1176

development of, 1177 internal, 1211

posterior external 1142, 1178 Jugum sphenoidale 197, 206

Karyokinesis, 9 Karyoplasm, 8, 9. 13 Karyosomes, 9 Kata phase, 10 Kidneys, 817

arteries of, 904 calyces of, 907, 908 cortex of, 901 development of, 95. 910 early condition of, 909 glomerulus, 903 hilum of, 821 lymphatics of, 907 medulla of, 900 pelvis of, 907 sinus of, 821 structure of, 900 uriniierous tubules 901 varieties of, S22 veins of, 906 Knee-joint, 628

arterial supply. 637 bursae of, 640 ligaments of. arcuate. 631 capsular. 622 cruciate, 634

174 ° INDEX

Knee-joint, ligaments, Humphry’s, 633 lateral, 630 medial, 629 oblique posterior, 631 patellae, 629 transverse, 633 Wrisberg’s, 633 movements of, 637 nerve supply, 637 semilunar cartilages, 632 synovial membrane, 634

Labia majora, 692

development of, 694 minora, 693

development of, 694 Labial mucous glands, 1271 Labrum, acetabulare, 594, 597 glenoidale, 463

Labyrinth of ear, membranous, 1687 blood-supply of, 1694 of themoid, 208 of kidney, 901 osseous, 1683 Lacrimal apparatus, 1293 artery, 1260 bone, 222

development of, 277 hamulus of, 222 ossification, 223 structure, 223 varieties, 223 canal, 245 canaliculi, 1293 crest, 222 fold, 1294 fossa, 183, 245 gland, 1247 groove, 247

of lacrimal, 222 of maxilla, 213 nerve, 1254, 1276 notch of maxilla, 213 process of inferior nasal concha, 223 sac, 1293

Lacrimalis, caruncula, 1289, 1292 lacus, 1289 Lacteal vessels, 866 Lactiferous ducts, 415, 417 Lacuna or lacunae— laterales, 1603 magna, 942 muscular, 856 urethales, 942 vascular, 856 Lacunar region, 855 Lacus lacrimalis, 1289 Lambda, 180, 237 , 242, 268, 1629 Lambdoid suture, 237 , 1630 Lamina basalis, 1646

chorio-capillaris, 1646 cribrosa of internal auditory meatus, 190 , 1686 of sclera, 1643 dorsal, of cord, 54, 1440

Lamina elastic, of cornea, 1644 fusca, 1643 labio-dental, 286 osseous spiral, 1685 reticular, 1693 suprachoroid, 1646 terminalis of brain, 1510, 1544 vasculosa of choroid, 1646 ventral, of cord, 54, 1439 vertebral, 127

Landmarks of abdominal wall, 704 of arm, 446 axilla, 412 of back, 397

of scalp and neck, 1141 of thigh and popliteal space, 540 of face, 1263

of front and inner side of thigh, 551 of wrist and palm, 482 of gluteal region, 529 of leg, 598

of male perinaeum, 674 of pectoral region, 412 of side of neck, 1172 of sole of foot, 641

Langerhans, centro-acinar cells of, 891 islets of, 892

Laryngeal artery, inferior, 1243 superior, 1214 nerve, external, 1329, 1395 internal, 1329, 1395 recurrent, 1044, 1045, 1330 * 1395 superior, 1329, 1395 Larynx, cartilages of, 1379 development of, 73, 1397 epiglottis, 1379 inlet, 1386 lymphatics of, 1396 mucous membrane of, 1399 muscles, intrinsic, of, 1390

actions of, summary of, 1394

nerves of, 1395

pyriform fossa, 76, 1373, 1386 rima glottidis, 1388 vestibuli, 1388 saccule of, 1387 sinus of, 1387 structure of, 1379 vessels of, 1396 vestibular folds, 1385, 1387 ligaments, 1387 vestibule of, 1387 vocal folds, 1388 ligaments, 1385 Latham, circle of, 1048 Latissimus dorsi muscle, 399 nerve to, 431 Law of ossification, 305 Lemniscus, decussation of, 1465 lateral, in mid-brain, 1557 in pons, 1471, 1475 medial, in medulla, 1465, 1466 in mid-brain, 1556 in pons, 1473


I 74 I

Lens, crystalline, 1661

capsule of, 1662 development of, 1667 at different ages, 1662 vesicle, 1665, 1667 Lenticularis, ansa, 1531, 1539, 1567 Lentiformis, nucleus, 1526 Leptorhine skulls, 269 Lesser, triangle of, 1228 Levator anguli oris, 1268 ani, 947

glandulae thyroidae, 1221 labii superioris, 1268 alaeque nasi, 1267 palati, 1353, 1378 palpebrae, superioris, 1247 scapulae, 400 Levatores costarum, 410 longiores, 411 Lienis, sustentaculum, 767 Ligament or ligaments—

accessory, of atlas and axis, 1405 of knee, 629 acromio-clavicular, 444 alar, of odontoid process, 1408 of ankle-joint, 661 annular, of stapes, 1690

of superior radio-ulnar joint, 520

apical, of odontoid process, 1408 arcuate, of diaphragm, 836 of knee, 631

atlanto-axial, posterior, 1406 atlanto-occipital, 1406 of auricle, 1296 bifurcated, 665 of bladder, false, 918, 952 true, 952

brachial, medial, 452 of calcaneo-cuboid joint, 666 calcaneo-navicular, plantar, 665, 673 of carpo-metacarpal joints, 525 check, of orbit, 1253 conoid, 444

Cooper, oblique ligament of, 518 coraco-acromial, 445 coraco-clavicular, 444 coraco-humeral, 462 coronary, of knee, 628 costo-clavicular, 443 costo-coracoid, 420 costo-transverse, 112 cruciate, of atlas and axis, 1407, 1408 of knee, 634

of cuboideo-metatarsal joint, 671 of cuneo-cuboid joint, 669 of cuneo-navicular joint, 669 digital vaginal, of hand, 492 of elbow, 517, 518 fundiform, of Retzius, 604 gastro-phrenic, 789 gastro-splenic, 789 gleno-humeral, 462 of head of femur, 593 of hip-joint, 590

Ligament or ligaments (< continued )— of knee-joint, capsular, 590 of head of femur, 593 ilio-femoral, 590 ischio-femoral, 592 transverse, 595 Humphry’s 633 hyo-epiglottic, 1380 ilio-femoral, 590 ilio-lumbar, 988 inguinal, 551, 707, 719 pectineal part of, 719 reflected part of, 720 relations of, 718 of intercarpal joints, 524 interclavicular, 443 interclinoid, 1163 of intercuneiform joints, 669 interfoveolar, 725 of intermetacarpal joints, 526 of intermetatarsal joints, 671 of interphalangeal joints of hand, 528 of foot, 672

interspinous, of vertebrae, 1109 intertransverse, of vertebrae, mo intra - articular, of costo - vertebral joints, 1111

of sterno-costal joints, 1113 of knee-joint, 628 accessory, 629 arcuate, 631 capsular, 628 coronary, 628 cruciate, 634 Humphry’s, 633 lateral, 630 medial, 629 oblique posterior, 613 patellae, 574, 629 transverse, 633 of Wrisberg, 633 of laminae of vertebrae, 1108 of larynx, 1384 of left vena cava, 1018 lieno-phrenic, 789 lieno-renal, 789 of liver, 788

coronary, 788 falciform, 788 triangular, 788

longitudinal, anterior, 1105, 1406 posterior, 1106 lumbo-sacral, 988 of malleus, 1679 of mandibular joint, 1316 of metacarpo-phalangeal joints, 527 of metatarso-phalangeal joints, 671 oblique posterior, of knee, 631 occipito-axial, 1407 of ovary, 982 palpebral, lateral, 1291 medial, 1265, 1291 pectinate, of iris, 1644, 1645 pectineal, 856 peritoneal, 78S


Ligament or ligaments [continued) petro-sphenoidal, 193 phrenico-colic, 789 phrenico-splenic, 789 piso-hamate, 473, 524 piso-metacarpal, 473, 524 plantar, long, 667 short, 667

pterygo-mandibular, 1181 pterygo-spinous, 1181 of pubic symphysis, inferior, 682, 98 pubo-femoral, 592 pubo-prostatic, 922 pulmonary, 1005 quadrate, 520 radiate, mi

radio-carpal, posterior, 522 radio-ulnar, 520 sacro-coccygeal, 989 sacro-iliac, 990 sacro-spinous, 991 sacro-tuberous, 542, 990

falciform process of, 991 of the scapula, 445 of shoulder-joint, 461 spheno-mandibular, 234, 1181, 1316 spino-glenoid, 445 spiral, of cochlea, 1690 of spleen, 789 of sternal joints, 1114 sterno-clavicular, 443 sterno-costal, 1113 sterno-pericardial, 1018 stylo-hyoid, 1232 stylo-mandibular, 1181, 1317 suprascapular, 445 supraspinous, 1109 suspensory, of axilla, 420 of eye, 1252 of lens, 1664 of ovary, 970 of penis, 713 talo-calcaneal, 664 of talo-calcaneo-navicular joint, 605 of tarso-metatarsal joints, 669 temporo-mandibular, 1316 thyro-epiglottic, 1380 thyro-hyoid, 1384 of tibio-fibular joints, 659 transverse, of atlas, 1405 deep, of palm, 526 of foot, 671 of hip-joint, 595

of inferior tibio-fibular joint, 660 of perinaeum, 682 of shoulder-joint, 453, 463 superficial, of palm, 484 trapezoid, 444 of uterus, broad, 968 of vertebrae, 1105 vestibular, 1385 vocal, 1385 of Wrisberg, 633 of wrist-joint, 522 of Zinn, 1250


Ligamentum or ligamenta—* arteriosum, 1043 denticulata, 1413, 1415 flava, 1108 nuchae, 399, 1144 patellae, 574, 629 pectinatum iridis, 1644, 1655 suspensoria of mammary gland, 414

teres of liver, 788, 1126 of uterus, 986 venosum, 1127

Ligula of fourth ventricle, 1492 Limb buds, no lower, 529 upper, 397 Limbic lobe, 1506 Limbous suture, 237 Limbus, lamina spiralis, 1691 sphenoidalis, 197, 261 Limen insulae, 1506 Line or lines—

Addison’s, 755 arcuate, 340 gluteal, 336 intertubercular, 755 lateral, of abdomen, 755 mylo-hyoid, 230 Nelaton’s, 552 nuchal, 172, 250 oblique, of mandible, 231 of ulna, 314 pectineal, 350 quadrate, 350 soleal, 361 spino-umbilical, 707 subcostal, 755 Sylvian, 1632 temporal, 178 trapezoid, 290, 297 vertical, of tibia, 361 Linea alba, 704 aspera, 350 splendens, 1415 Lineae semilunares, 705 Lingual artery, 1215 glands, 1345 nerve, 1313

Lingula of cerebellum, 1477 of mandible, 231 of sphenoid, 200, 276 Linin, 9 Lips, 1336

Liquor folliculi, 19, 982 Lithotomy, lateral, structures divided in, 692

Liver, 771

borders of, 777 cells of, 886 component parts, 771 connections of, 771 cystic notch, 777 development of, 79, 888 duct of, 778

excretory apparatus of, 778


17 43

Liver fissures or fossae of—

for gall-bladder, 774 for ligamentum teres, 775 venosum, 776 for vena cava, 777 impression, cardiac, 773 colic, 775 duodenal, 775 oesophageal, 776 renal, 775 suprarenal, 777 interlobar notch, 777 ligaments of, 788 lobes of—

caudate, 777 left, 773 quadrate, 774 right, 773 lobules of, 884 lymphatics of, 887 nerves of, 868 peritoneal relations of, 777 porta hepatis, 775, 777 position of, 771 structure of, 884 surface of, 773 topography of, 771 tuber omentale, 774 Lobes of cerebral hemispheres— frontal, 1497 insula, 1505 limbic, 1506 occipital, 1502 olfactory, 1510 parietal, 1499 pyriform, 1508 temporal, 1504

of cerebellum. See Cerebellum of testis, 750 Lobule of ear, 1294 Lobules of cerebral hemispheres—cuneus, 1504 paracentral, 1499 parietal, 1501 postcentral, 1506 praecuneus, 1502 precentral, 1506 quadrate, 1502

of cerebellum, See Cerebellum of epididymis, 751, 752 Locus caerulus, 1491 Longissimus capitis muscle, 406 cervicis muscle, 406 thoracis muscle, 406 Lucidum, septum, 1518 cavity of, 1520 Lumbar arteries, 847

fascia, 403, 404, 840, 841 lymphatic trunk, 833 plexus, 844 puncture, 154 triangle, 400, 708 vertebrae, 138 Lumbo-sacral trunk, 847 Lumbrical muscles of foot, 649 .

Lumbrical muscles of hand, 492 Lunate bone, 317

ossification, 322 Lung buds, 77, 1029 Lungs, 1021

cervical part of, 1246 development of, 77, 1028 difference between lungs, 1025 in foetus, 1031 lobes of, 1023 lymphatics of, 1029 nerves of, 1029 root of, 1025 structure of, 1027 Lunules of aortic valve, 1063 Luteum, corpus, 982 Lymphatic duct, right, 1246 Lymphatic glands— antecubital, 452 aortic, 832 apical, 424

axillary, 416, 424, 434 buccinator, 1284 caval, 1104 central, of axilla, 434 cervical, deep, 1189, 1199 superficial, 1178 coeliac, 815 colic, 803 facial, 1280

deep, 1309 gastric, 815 hepatic, 816 humeral, 424, 434 ileo-colic, 800 iliac, common, 849, 852 external, 855 internal, 927 infraclavicular, 416, 434 inguinal, 558 deep, 559 superficial, 558 innominate, 1101 intercostal, 1095, 1101 of intestine, large, 803 small, 799 juxta-aortic, 833 lingual, 1217

mammary, internal (or sternal), 1101

mastoid, 1161

mediastinal, anterior, 1014.

See also Innominate posterior, 1101 mesentric, inferior, 802 superior, 789 obturator, 855 occipital, 1148 pancreatic, 815 pararectal, 964 paratracheal, 1199, 1227 parotid (pre-auricular), 1285 pectoral, 424, 434 popliteal, 551 pre-aortic, 832

  • 744


Lymphatic glands ( continued ,)— pre-laryngeal, 1199, 1386 pretracheal, 1199, 1225 pubic, 558 retro-aortic, 833 retro-femoral, 855 sacral, 946 splenic, 815 submandibular, 1198 submental, 1199, 1203 subscapular, 424, 434 supratrochlear, 452 thoracic, 1101 tibial, anterior, 610 tracheo-bronchial, 1103 Lymphatic nodules of spleen, 896 system, development of, 1377 trunk, intestinal, 832 lumbar, 833 vessels of—

abdominal wall, deep, 733 superficial, 558, 712 anal canal, 964 antebrachial, 514 anus, 964 auricle, 1672 bladder, 952 brachial, 514 buttock, 658 carpal, 513 clitoris, 695, 715 colon, ascending, 800 descending, 802 pelvic, 802, 943 transverse, 800 diaphragm, 834 digital, foot, 658 hand, 513 epididymis, 750 face, 1283 gall-bladder, 891 genitals, external, 558 gluteal region, 540, 558 gums, 1338 heart, 1067 inguinal region, 558 intercostal spaces, 999 intestine, large, 800, 802, 943 small, 799, 869 kidney, 907 larynx, 1396 lips, 1336 liver, 887

lower limb, 558, 658 lungs, 1029 mammary gland, 416 nasal cavity, 1363 nose, 1298 oesophagus, 1088 ovary, 982

palate, mucous membrane, of hard, 1338 palm, 513 pancreas, 893 parotid gland, 1288

Lymphatic vessels ( continued )— penis, 715 pericardium, 1019 perineum, female, 693 male, deep, 690 superficial, 558, 690 pharynx, 1373 pleura, ion rectum, 964 scalp, 1162 scrotum, 717 seminal vesicles, 959 spleen, 897 stomach, 860 suprarenals, 898 testis, 750 thyroid gland, 1222 tongue, 1347 tonsils, 1355 trachea, 1225 upper limb, 513 ureter, 909 urethra, female, 988 male, 942, 943 uterine tubes, 983 uterus, 986 vagina, 986 vulva, 704 Lymph sacs, 1137

jugular, 1137 posterior, 1137 retro-peritoneal, 1137

McBurney, point of, 708 Macrocephaly, 268 Macrosomes, 25 Macula, lutea, 1653 sacculi, 1688 utricli, 1688 Magma reticulare, 32 Malleolar arteries, 609, 627 Malleolus, lateral, 364 medial, 361 Malleus, 1678

development of, 74, 1678 Mamillo-thalamic tract, 1517, 1543 Mammalia, 23

Mammary artery, internal —•

cervical part, 1242 thoracic part, 999 gland, 412, 414 accessory, 416 blood-supply, 415 development of, 417 lymphatics of, 416 nerves, 416 structure of, 416 lymphatic glands, 11 or Mammillary process, 139 Mandibular arch, 66 canal, 231 foramen, 231 fossa, 186 joint, 1316 notch, 232



Mandible, 229 angle of, 232 base, 231 body, 229 changes in age, 234 condyloid process, 233 coronoid process, 232 development, 234 lingula, 231 ossification of, 234 structure, 234 symphysis of, 229 Mantle layer of cord, 54, 1437 Manubrium sterni, 161 Marginal layer of cord, 54, 1437 sinus of placenta, 106, no tubercle of zygomatic, 220 Marrow, 121 Massa intermedia, 1534 Masseter muscle, 1301 Masseteric artery, 1307 nerve, 1309 Mastoid air-cells, 188 emissary vein, 1608 foramen, 187, 259 lymphatic glands, 1161 notch, 187, 258 process of temporal, 187 Maternal connections of foetus, 104 Maturation of ovum, 19 Maxilla, 211

alveolar process, 214 body, 211

development of, 277 frontal process, 214 ossification of, 218 palatine process, 215 structure of, 217 zygomatic process, 214 Maxillary processes—

of inferior nasal concha, 223 of palatine, 226 of zygomatic, 220 sinus, 217

Meatus, auditory, external, 193, 1671

bloodvessels of, 1672 early condition of, 1672 lymphatics, 1672 nerves of, 1672 internal, 190, 264 definition, 115 inferior, 1357 middle, 1357 of nasal fossae, 250 superior, 1356

Medial and median, definition, 122 Median artery, 478 , 498, 516 basilic vein, 450 cephalic vein, 450 nerve in arm, 458

digital branches of, 489 in forearm, 480 in hand, 489 lateral root of, 432

Median artery, medial root of, 423

palmar cutaneous branch of, 466, 481

summary of, 490 vein, 448

deep, 450

Mediastinal space, ion Mediastinum, 1003, ion anterior, 1006, 1013 middle, 1006, 1015 superior, 1006, 1012 testis, 750

Medulla oblongata, 1443, 1451 central canal of, 1446 development of, 1581 grey matter of, 1456 structure, internal, of, 1456 white matter of, 1462 Medullary cords in gonads, 100 groove, 34

laminae of nucleus lentiformis, 1528 * 1538

rays of kidney, 901 ridges, 34 spaces, 118 vela, 1485, 1491 Megakaryocytes, 121 Megaseme, 269 Membrana eboris, 284, 287 flaccida, 1676, 1677 granulosa, 982 limitans retinae, 1654 nictitans, 1292 propria, 1688 pupillaris, 1652 sacciformis, 315, 521 tectoria, 1407

of cochlea, 1693 Membrane or membranes—

atlanto-occipital, 1406, 1407 basilar, 1690 cell, 9

crico-vocal, 1384 intercostal, 994, 995 interosseous, of arm, 521 of leg, 660 nuclear, 8, 9 obturator, 993 perineal, 683

secondary, of tympanum, 1677 suprapleural, 1007, 1246 thyro-hyoid, 1384 tympanic, 1675 vestibular, 1690 Membranous labyrinth, 1687 Meningeal arteries, 1599 veins, 1601

Meninges of brain, 1598

of spinal cord, 1410 •*»

Menstruation, 19 Mental foramen, 229, 245 nerve, 1277 , 1313 point, 244, 268 protuberance, 229 tubercle, 229




Mentalis muscle, 1271 Mercier, bar of, 951 Meridian of eyeball, 1641 Meroblastic ova, 25 Mesaticephalic skulls, 243, 269 Mesencephalon, 1547 Mesenchyme, 112 Mesenteric artery, inferior, 801 superior, 796 hernia, 786

lymphatic glands, inferior, 802 superior, 789 plexus, inferior, 811 superior, 809 vein, inferior, 802 superior, 798 windows, 787

Mesentery, definition of, 780 primitive dorsal, 79, 793 ventral, 61, 79 proper, 786

ventral gastro-duodenal, 793 of vermiform appendix, 787 Mesoblast, 22, 26 Mesocardium, 90 Mesocephalic skulls, 268 Meso-colon, pelvic, 787 transverse, 787, 794 Mesoderm, 22

chorionic, 30, 33 covering fore-brain, 56 of visceral arches, 68 embryonic, 33 formation of, 26 gastral, 36 intra-embryonic, 30 lateral sheet of, 40, 41 paraxial, 40, 41 primitive, 26 prostomial, 36 somatic, 41 splanchnic, 41

structures derived from, 112 Meso-gastrium, 793 Mesognathion, 218 Mesognathous skulls, 244, 269 Mesonephros, 92, 94, 91^ Mesorchium, 740 Mesorhine skulls, 269 Meso-salpinx, 968 Mesoseme, 269 Mesothelium, 112 Mesovarium, 968 Metacarpal arteries, dorsal, 511 palmar, 498 bone, first, 323

Metacarpo-phalangeal joints, 527 Metacarpus, 323

ossification of, 329 as a whole, 327 Metakinesis, 10 Metanephros, 92, 94, 910 Metatarsal arteries, dorsal, 613 first plantar, 657 Metatarso-phalangeal joints, 671

Metatarsus, 378

ossification of, 386 varieties of, 384 as a whole, 384 Metathalamus, 1538 Metopic suture, 238 Meynert, ganglion of, 1544 Microcephalic skulls, 268 Microseme, 269 Mid-gut, 45, 61 Mid-tarsal joints, 665 Mitral cells, 1570 orifice, 1156

position of, 1064 valve, 1061

Moderator band of heart, 1057 Modiolus, 1686 Molar glands, 1272 teeth, 280

Molecular layer of cerebellum, "i486 Mons pubis, 692 Montgomery, glands of, 415 Morbus cseruleus, 1085 Morgagni, sinus of, 1370 Morphology, 1

of intrinsic muscles of hand, 515 Morula, 22

Moss-fibres of Cajal, 1488 Mouth cavity, 1335

development of, 86 I proper, 1336

vestibule of, 1336 Movable kidney, 822 Movements of joints, 395 Multifidus muscle, 409 Munzer, bundle of, 1558 Muscles—

abductor digiti minimi— foot, 646 hand, 496 hallucis, 644

ossis metatarsi quinti, 643 pollicis brevis, 493 longus, 505 adductor brevis, 577 hallucis, 649 longus, 576 magnus, 577 minimus, 578 pollicis, 494, 496 anconeus, 500 antitragicus, 1296 articularis genu, 573 ary-epiglotticus, 1394 arytenoideus, 1393 obliquus, 1393 transversus, 1394 auricularis, anterior, 1160 posterior, 1160 superior, 1160 of Bell, 951 biceps brachii, 452 femoris, 542 biventer cervicis, 407 brachialis, 452


17 47

Muscles ( continued )— brachio-radialis, 501 buccinator, 1269 bulbo-spongiosus, of female, 702 of male, 680 ciliary, 1648 coccygeus, 948 compressor naris, 1267 sacculi laryngis, 1394 venae dorsalis penis, 680 constrictor inferior, of pharynx, 1368 middle, of pharynx, 1368 radicis penis, 680 superior, of pharynx, 1369 coraco-brachialis, 452 corrugator cutis ani, 675 supercilii, 1266 costalis, 405 cremaster, 723

crico-arytenoideus lateralis, T392 posterior, 1392 crico-thyroideus, 1390 dartos, 716 deltoid, 436

depressor alae nasi, 1268 anguli oris, 1270 labii inferioris, 1270 detrusor urnae, 950 diaphragm, 1833

central tendon of, 833 development of, 837 orifices of, 835 digastric, 1227 dilator naris, anterior, 1268 posterior, 1268 pupillae, 1650, 1652 extensor carpi radialis brevis, 502 longus, 501 ulnaris, 503 digiti minimi, 303 digitorum, 302 brevis, 611 longus, 607 hallucis brevis, 611 longus, 606 indicis, 506 pollicis brevis, 305 longus, 505 flexor accessorius, 647 carpi radialis, 470 ulnaris, 470 digiti minimi, 496

brevis, 650 digitorum brevis, 645 longus, 621 profundus, 481 sublimis, 470 hallucis brevis, 648 longus, 623 pollicis brevis, 494 longus, 482, 496 gastrocnemius, 617 gemellus inferior, 535 superior, 535 genio-glossus, 1230

Muscles ( continued )— genio-hyoid, 1230 gluteus maximus, 531 medius, 532 minimus, 334 quartus, 534 gracilis, 376 hamstring, 542, 544 helicis major, 1296 minor, 1296 hyo-glossus, 1231 iliacus, 842 ilio-capsularis, 842 ilio-costalis, 404 ilio-costo-cervicalis, 404 ilio-psoas, 571 infraspinatus, 437 intercostal, external, 994 internal, 995 intercostales intimi, 996 interosseous, of foot, 650 of hand, 494, 512 interspinales, 410 intertransversales, 410 ischio-cavernosus, of female, 702 of male, 679

of larynx, intrinsic, 1390 latissimus dorsi, 399 » 439 levator anguli oris, 1268 ani, 947

glandulae thyroidae, 1221 labii superioris, 1268

alaeque nasi, 1267 palati, 1353, 1378 palpebrae superioris, 1247 prostatae, 947 scapulae, 400 levatores costarum, 410 longiores, 411 longissimus, 406 capitis, 406 cervicis, 406

longitudinalis linguae inferior, 1346 superior, 1346 longus, capitis, 1397 cervicis, 1398 lumbricales, of foot, 648 of hand, 492 masseter, 1301 of mastication, 1301 mentaiis, 1271 multifidus, 409 mylo-hyoid, 1229 obliquus auriculae, 1297 capitis inferior, 1150 superior, 1150 externus abdominis, 717 inferior, of eye, 1251 internus abdominis, 722 superior, of eye, 1250 obturator externus, 579 internus, 535, 949 occipito-frontalis, 1154 omo-hyoid, 1200

inferior belly of, 402, 437



Muscles ( continued )—

opponens digiti minimi, 496 pollicis, 494 orbicularis ciliaris, 1647 oculi, 1264

lacrimal part, 1265 orbital part, 1264 palpebral part, 1265 oris, 1271

palato-glossus, 1351 palato-pharyngeus, 1352 palmaris brevis, 484 longus, 470, 487 papillary, 1057 pectineus, 571 pectoralis major, 418 minor, 420

perinaeum, deep, transverse muscle of, 681 peroneus brevis, 617 longus, 613 tertius, 607 plantaris, 620 platysma, 1175 popliteus, 621 prevertebral, 1397 procerus, 1267 pronator quadratus, 482 teres, 469, 470 psoas major, 841 minor, 842

pterygoid, lateral, 1302 medial, 1304 pubo-vesical, 922 pyramidalis, 727 pyriformis, 534, 948 quadratus femoris, 535 lumborum, 843 quadriceps femoris, 572, 573 rectus abdominis, 726 capitis anterior, 1397 lateralis, 1397 posterior major, 1149 minor, 1150 femoris, 572 inferior, of eye, 1249 lateralis, of eye, 1249 medialis, of eye, 1249 superior, of eye, 1249 of respiration, 1115 rhomboideus major, 401 minor, 401 risorius, 1269 rotatores, 410 sacro-spinalis, 404 salpingo-pharyngeus, 1378 sartorius, 568 scalenus anterior, 1235 medius, 1236 posterior, 1236 scansorius, 534 semimembranosus, 543 semispinalis capitis, 407 cervicis, 408 thoracis, 408

Muscles ( continued )— semitendinosus, 543 serratus anterior, 401, 434 posterior inferior, 403 superior, 402 of soft palate, 1351 soleus, 619

sphincter ani externus, 675 internus, 961, 963 pupillae, 1650, 1652 urethrae, female, 702 male, 680 vesicae, 950 spinalis, 406

thoracis, 406 splenius, 404 capitis, 404 cervicis, 404 stapedius, 1680 sternalis, 420 sterno-costalis, 1002 sterno-hyoid, 1201 sterno-mastoid, 1145, 1182 sterno-thyroid, 1201 stylo-glossus, 1232 stylo-hyoid, 1228 , 1272 stylo-pharyngeus, 1323 subanconeus, 459 subclavius, 421 subcostal, 995 subscapularis, 440 supinator, 504 supraspinatus, 437 temporalis, 1302 tensor fasciae latae, 570 palati, 1353 , 1378 tympani, 1680 teres major, 439 minor, 438

thyro-arytenoideus, 1392 thyro-epiglotticus, 1392, 1394 thyro-hyoid, 1201 tibialis anterior, 606 posterior, 622 of tongue, intrinsic, 1346 tragicus, 1296 transversus abdominis, 724 auriculae, 1296 linguae, 1346 superficialis perinaei, 678 thoracis, 996 trapezius, 398

in neck, 1144 triceps brachii, 458 , 501 vastus intermedius, 573 lateralis, 572 medialis, 573 verticalis linguae, 1346 vocalis, 1392 zygomaticus major, 1269 minor, 1268 Musculi pectinati, 1054 Musculo-cutaneous nerve of arm, 432, 458 of leg, 604

Musculus-uvulae, 1352



Myelinization in cord, 1440 Myeloplasm, 53 Myenteric plexus, 863, 869 Mylo-hyoid groove, 232 line, 231 muscle, 1229 Myocardium, 1068 structure of, 1072 Myotomes of visceral arches, 1375

Nabothi, ovula, 985 Nasal bones, 221 crest, 222

development of, 277 ossification of, 222 capsule, 86, 1363 conchse, inferior, 223 middle, 209 superior, 209 crest of maxilla, 216 of palatine, 225 folds, 83 fossae, 248, 1356

arteries of, 1361 development of, 83, 85, 1363 lymphatics of, 1363 nerves of, 1360 groove, 208 index, 269

mucous membrane, 1359 notch of frontal, 181 part of maxilla, 212 of pharynx, 1371 pits, 83

process of frontal, 181 septum, osseous, 248 slit, 207, 250, 261 spine of frontal, 181 posterior, 225 Nasion, 240, 244, 268 Naso-lacrimal canal, 248 duct, 1294

Naso-pharyngeal tonsil, 1373 Natal cleft, 529 Navicular bone, 372

ossification, 378 tuberosity of, 373, 388, 641 varieties, 373

Naviculo-cuboid joint, 668 Neck, landmarks of, 1172 N 41 aton's line, 552 Neopallium, 1592 Nephric tubules, 93 Nephrocoele, 93 Nephrostome, 93 Nerves—

of abdominal wall, deep, 728 abducent. See Cranial nerves accessory. See Cranial nerves accessory obturator, 580, 847 to anconeus, 461 ansa hypoglossi, 1206 subclavia, 1335 auditory. See Cranial nerves auricular, great, 1142 , 1278

Nerves ( continued )—

auricular, posterior, 1160, 1272 of vagus, 1161 , 1328, 1672,


auriculo-temporal, 1157, 1277,


bigeminus, 928 brachial plexus, 439, 1193

infraclavicular branches, 431 in neck, 1193

supraclavicular branches,

43 °> 1194 buccal, 1277, 1310 of facial, 1274 carotico-tympanic, 1404 cervical branches of facial, 1275 plexus, 1185 branches, deep, 1188

superficial, 1141, 1187 spinal, posterior rami, 1142, 1152

chorda tympani, 1347, 1402 , 1619 as pretrematic nerve, 69 ciliary, long, 1256 circumflex, 432 , 436 coccygeal, 530, 928, 929 cochlear, 1404, 1693 cutaneous nerves. See also Cutaneous nerves

of arm, lateral, 448

medial, 432, 448, 457 posterior, 448, 460 of calf, lateral, 551 of forearm, lateral, 448 medial, 432, 448 , 457 posterior, 448

of ilio-hypogastric, anterior, 710 lateral, 531, 728 of neck, anterior, 1143, 1187 palmar, of median, 466, 481 of ulnar, 466, 477 perforating, of sacral plexus, 931 of subcostal, lateral, 531, 728 of thigh, intermediate, 555 lateral, 534, 564, 846 medial, 556 of ulnar, 448, 466, 499 dental, inferior, 1311 of maxillary—

anterior superior, 1319,1361 middle, 1320 posterior, 1320 digastric, 1272 digital, of foot, 652, 654 of hand, 489, 499 dorsal, of penis, 691 dorso-lumbar, 844 of dura mater, 1601 ethmoidal, anterior, 1361 posterior, 1257 of face, 1272

facial. See Cranial nerves femoral, 575, 846 branches of, 576 frontal, 1254

175 o


Nerves ( continued )—

furcalis, 847, 928, 931 genicular, 550, 580, 637 genito-femoral, 554, 846

femoral branch of, 554 , 846 genital branch of, 846 glosso-pharyngeal. See Cranial nerves

gluteal, inferior, 539, 930 superior, 539, 930 haemorrhoidal, inferior, 675, 691 hypoglossal. See Cranial nerves ilio-hypogastric, 728, 845 cutaneous branches—anterior, 710 lateral, 531, 728 ilio-inguinal, 554, 845, 729 incisive, of inferior dental, 1313 infra-orbital, 1276, 1319 infratrochlear, 1256, 1276 intercostal, 996, 1099 branches of, 997 lower five, 728 intercosto-brachial, 433 , 447 interosseous, anterior, 481

of nerve to popliteus, 550 posterior, 506 lacrimal, 1254 , 1276 laryngeal, external, 1329, 1395 internal, 1329, 1395 recurrent, 1044, 1045, 1330,1395 superior, 1329, 1395 to latissimus, dorsi, 431 lingual, 1313 , 1347 lumbo-sacral trunk, 847 mandibular, 1168, 1309 distribution, 1616 summary of, 1316 masseteric, 1309 maxillary, 1168, 1319

branches of, 1259, 1319 distribution of, 1616 summary of, 1323 median, in arm, 458

branches of, 459, 481 digital branches of, 489 in forearm, 480 in hand, 489 lateral root of, 432 . medial root of, 432 palmar cutaneous branch of, 466, 481

summary of, 490 meningeal, 1168 mental, 1277 , 1313 musculo-cutaneous, of arm, 432, 458 of leg, 604 mylo-hyoid, 1312 nasal nerves—

of greater palatine, 1361 of infra-orbital, 1276 of spheno-palatine ganglion, 1360 naso-ciliary, 1255 nutrient, to fibula, 627 to radius, 481

Nerves ( continued )—

nutrient, to tibia, 550 to ulna, 481

obturator, 557, 579, 846 accessory, 580, 847 genicular branch of, 580 to obturator internus, 539, 930 occipital, greater, 1141, 1152 lesser, 1142 third, 1142, 1152 ophthalmic, 1254, 1258 distribution, 1616 optic. See Cranial nerves palatine, greater, 1322, 1338, lesser, 1322

palmar cutaneous, of median, 466, 481

of ulnar, 466, 477 patellar plexus, 557 pectoral, 431

pelvic splanchnics, 930, 947 of penis, dorsal, 691 perforating cutaneous, 931 perineal, 691

deep branch of, 691 of fourth sacral, 675, 932 long, 691

to peroneus tertius, 610 petrosal, deep, 1404

external, 1169, 1402, 1403 superficial, greater, 1168, 1401 lesser, 1169, 1402, 1403 pharyngeal plexus, 1329

of spheno-palatine ganglion, 1321 of vagus, 1329 phrenic, in neck, 430, 1189 in thorax, 1015 plantar, lateral, 653 medial, 652

popliteal, lateral, 550 , 931 medial, 550 , 931 to popliteus, 550 post- and pre-trematic, 69 of pterygoid canal, 1321, 1360 pudendal, 690, 704, 931 to pyriformis, 930 to quadratus femoris, 540, 930 radial, 433

in arm, 459

cutaneous branches of, 433, 460, 467

in forearm, 475

muscular branches of, 433, 460, 461

rami communicantes, 1635 in abdomen, 838 cervicales, 1189, 1206 in neck, 1334 in pelvis, 947 in thorax, 1104

ramus descendens hypoglossi, 1189,


to rhomboids, 402, 430 , 1194 sacral, 928, 929

posterior rami, 529, 530



Nerves ( continued )— saphenous, 557 sciatic, 540, 544, 931 scrotal, posterior, 691 to serratus anterior, 430, 1194 spinal nerves, origins of, 1418

posterior primary rami of,

4 11 , I 4 1 9 roots of, 1419

thoracic, 1099 spinosus, 1168, 1399 splanchnic, 1105 pelvic, 930, 947 to stapedius, 1402 stylo-hyoid, 1272 to subclavius, 431, 1195 subcostal, 728, 849

lateral cutaneous branch of, 531, 728

suboccipital, 1141, 1152 subsartorial plexus, 431 subscapular, 431 subtrapezial plexus, 399 supraclavicular, 412, 1144 supra-orbital, 1153 , 1254, 1276 suprascapular, 431, 438, 1195 supratrochlear, 1154 , 1254, 1276 sural, 550, 615

communicating, 551 sympathetic trunk in abdomen, 838 ganglia of—

cervical, inferior, 1335 middle, 1334 superior, 1333 impar, 946 in neck, 1333 , 1335

cardiac branches, 1334, 1335

constitution of, 1335 in pelvis, 946 plexuses—

aortic, 811 cardiac, 1046 carotid, internal, 1170 coeliac, 807, 809 coronary, 1048 diaphragmatic, 809 gastric, 809 hepatic, 809 hypogastric, 811, 922 mesenteric, inferior, 811 superior, 809 ovarian, 811 pelvic, 922 phrenic, 809 renal, 809 splenic, 809 suprarenal, 809 testicular, 811 in thorax, 1104 temporal, deep, 1309, 1311 tentorii, 1168 thoracic, spinal, 1099

anterior rami, 996 to thyro-hyoid, 1206

Nerves ( continued )—

tibial, anterior, 610, 614 posterior, 627 of tongue, 1347 trochlear. See Cranial nerves tympanic, 1325 ulnar, 432

in arm, 458

cutaneous branches of, 448, 466, 499

deep division of, 499 digital branches of, 499 dorsal branch of, 467 in forearm, 480 in hand, 499

palmar cutaneous branch of, 466,


vagus. See Cranial nerves vestibular, 1404, 1622, 1693 in visceral arches, 69, 1121 zygomatic, 1319 zygomatico-facial, 1259, 1277 zygomatico - temporal, 1158, 1259,



annularis, of cornea, 1645

aortic, 811

brachial, 429, 1193

buccal, 1275, 1277

cardiac, deep and superficial, 1046

carotid, internal, 1170

cervical, 1185

coccygeal, 531, 931

coeliac, 807, 809

coronary, 1048

diaphragmatic, 809

gastric, 809

hepatic, 809

hypogastric, 811, 922

infra-orbital, 1274, 1276

intra-epithelial, of eye, 1645

lumbar, 844

mesenteric, inferior, 811 superior, 809 myenteric, 863, 869 oesophageal, 1043, 1087 ovarian, 811 parotid, 1273 patellar, 557 pelvic, 922 pharyngeal, 1329 phrenic, 809 , t

pudendal, 929 pulmonary, 1043, 1045 renal, 809 sacral, 928 splenic, 809

subepithelial, of eye, 1645 of submucosa of small intestine,

863, 869

subsartorial, 558 subtrapezial, 399 suprarenal, 809 testicular, 811 tympanic, 1325

T 75 2


Nerve-roots, 1419 Nervous system, 1410

development, 53 Neural canal, 40 crest, 54 groove, 34, 40 tube, 42, 53

Neurenteric canal, 34, 35, 37 Neuroblasts, 54, 1438 Neuro-central lip, 126 synchondrosis, 142 Neuroglia of spinal cord, 1410 Nictitans, membrana, 1292 Nigra, substantia, 1539, 1560 Node, atrio-ventricular, 1071 sino-atrial, 1070 Nodules of aortic valve, 1063 Normal, definition of, 5 Nose, 1298

cartilages of, 1298 development of, 83, 1363 lymphatics of, 1298, 1363 nerves of, 1360 Notch or notches— acetabular, 340 carotid, 200

cystic, of liver, 756, 777 ethmoidal, of frontal, 182 fibular, of tibia, 363 frontal, 181 intercondylar, 353 interlobar, of liver, 777 jugular, 176 mandibular, 232 mastoid, 187, 258 nasal, 212

of frontal, 181 of maxilla, 221 parietal, 188 pre-occipital, 1499 sciatic, greater and lesser, 340 spheno-palatine, 228 spino-glenoid, 294 supra-orbital, 181, 247 suprasternal, 162 trochlear, of ulnar, 312 tympanic, 1673 umbilical, of liver, 777 Notochord, 23, 39 , 167 in vertebras, 59 Notochordal groove, 35, 167 Nuchae, ligamentum, 399, 1144 Nuchal flexure, 58 furrow, 1141 groove, 397

Nuck, canal of, 743, 744, 969 Nuclear membrane, 9, 15 reticulum, 9, 15 Nuclein, 9 Nucleolus, 9, 15 Nucleoplasm, 8 Nucleus or nuclei— abducent, 1473 accessory, 1628 ambiguous, 1626 , 1626, 1627

Nucleus or nuclei ( continued )— amygdaloid, 1524, 1632 arcuate, 1462 caudatus, 1526 of cell, 9, 15 cochlear, 1620 cuneatus, 1460 dentate, 1485 emboliformis, 1485 of facial nerve, motor, 1472, 1617 sensory, 1619

of fasciculis solitarius, 1619, 1626

globosus, 1485

gracilis, 1459

hypoglossal, 1629

of lateral lemniscus, 1475

lateralis, 1462

lentiformis, 1526

oculo-motor, 1561, 1611

olivary, 1461, 1472

pontis, 1469, 1470

pulposus, 1107, 1108

red, 1539, 1553

subthalamic, 1540

thoracici, 1424, 1425

of trapezium, 1471

of trigeminal nerve —

mesencephalic root of, 1561, 1615 motor of, 1474, 1615 pontine, 1474

sensory of, 1472, 1474, 1615 trochlear, 1561 , 1614 vago-pharyngeal, dorsal, 1624 vestibular, 1622 Nutrient arteries— of femur, 587 of fibula, 626 of humerus, 455, 456 of radius, 478 of tibia, 626 of ulna, 478 Nutrient foramina— of clavicle, 290 of fibula, 366 of humerus, 300 of radius, 307, 311 of ribs, 157 of scapula, 295 of tibia, 361 of ulna, 314 nutrient nerves— to fibula, 627 to radius, 481 to tibia, 550 ' to ulna, 481

Obelion, 238, 243, 268 Obex, 1490

Oblique cord of forearm, 521 ligament of Cooper, 518 Obliquus capitis inferior, 1150 superior, 1150 externus abdominis, 717 inferior, of eye, 1251 internus abdominis, 722



Obliquus, superior, of eye, 1250 Oblongata, medulla, 1443, 1451 Obstetrical hinge-joint, 177 Obturator artery, 589, 925 , 927 abnormal, 566 canal, 579, 993 crest, 340

externus muscle, 579 fascia, 920 foramen, 340 groove, 340

internus muscle, 535, 949 nerve to, 539, 93° membrane, 993 nerve, 557, 579, 846 accessory, 580 , 847 Occipital artery, first part, 1218 second part, 1146 third part, 1146 bone, 172

condyles, 175, 258 crests of, 174, 259, 264 ossification of, 177 point, 243, 268

protuberance, 172, 174, 243, 1141 varieties, 176 groove, 258 lobe of brain, 1148 lymphatic glands, 1148 nerve, greater, 1141 , 1152 lesser, 1142 third, 1142 , 1152 point, 243, 268

protuberance, external, 172, 243, 1141 sinus, 1606 triangle, 1184 veins, 1148 venous plexus, 1147 Occipito-axial ligaments, 1407 Occipito-frontalis, 1154 Ocular appendages, 1289 Oculo-motor nerve, 1165, 1253, 1446 nucleus, 1561, 1611 Odontoblasts, 284, 287 Odontoid process of axis, 131 (Esophagus, cervical part of, 1227 development of, 66, 78, 1088 lymphatics of, 1088 structure of, 1088 thoracic part of, 1087 Olecranon, 312 bursa, 447 fossa, 304 rete, 479

Olfactorium, trigonum, 1511 Olfactory apparatus, development of, 1511 bulb, 1165, 1510 , 1570 structure of, 1570 capsule, 271, 276 foramina; 261 groove of ethmoid, 207 of sphenoid, 197 lobe, 1510

mucous membrane, 1359 nerves, 1165, 1360 ? i6ji

[ Olfactory organ, 271

tract, 1445, 1511 , 1570 Olivary nuclei, 1461, 1472 Olive of medulla, 1453, 1454 Omentale, tuber, of liver, 774 of pancreas, 807 Omentalis, bursa, 79, 81 Omentum, definition of, 779 greater, 756, 784 lesser, 785 Omo-hyoid, 1200

inferior belly of, 402, 437 Ontogeny, 7 Oocyte, 13, 14, 16, 17 Oogenesis, 16 Oogonia, 13, 16 Opening into lesser sac, 790 saphenous, 551, 561 , 707 to tympanic antrum, 188, 1681 Openings in diaphragm, 835 Opercula insulae, 1506 Operculum, frontal, 1498 fronto-parietal, 1498 orbital, 1498 Ophryon, 244, 268 Ophthalmic artery, 1170, 1259

nerve, 1168, 1254, 1258, 1616 veins, 1261 Opisthion, 258, 268 Opisthotic centre, 195 Opponens digiti minimi, 496 pollicis, 494 Optic chiasma, 1545 cup, 1666, 1668 disc of retina, 1653 foramen, 200, 245, 247, 261 groove, 197, 261 nerve, 1545

development of, 1668 in orbit, 1253 origin, deep, 1611 superficial, 1446 radiation, 1547 , 1566, 1568 recess, 1545 stalk, 1665, 1668 tract, 1445, 1545 vesicle, 1664 Oral fissure, 1337 Ora serrata of retina, 1652 structure of, 1658 Orbicularis ciliaris, 1647 oculi, 1264, 1265 oris, 1271 Orbit, 245

contents of, 1247 fascia of, 1252

Orbital area of cerebrum, 1493 fascia, 1252 fissure, inferior, 247 superior, 247 index, 269

plate of ethmoid, 208 of frontal, 182 of maxilla, 213 process of zygomatic, 219



Organ, spiral, 1691 Organogeny, 48 Orifice or orifices— aortic, 1062 of bladder, 951 cardiac, topography of, 1064 of coronary sinus, 1055 mitral, 1061

oesophageal, of stomach, 760, 761 pulmonary, 1059 pyloric, 760 tricuspid, 1055, 1057 urethral—

female, 695 male, 715, 938 of vagina, external, 695 vena cava, inferior, 1054 superior, 1054

Oropharyngeal isthmus, 1350 Orthognathous skulls, 244, 269 Os centrale, 322 dentatum, 133 japonicum, 221 pubis, 331 trigonum, 370 of uterus, external, 974 internal, 976 Ossa suturarum, 265 Ossification of bones, 119 centres, 119 law of, 304 of named bones—of atlas, 142 of axis, 143 of carpal bones, 322 of clavicle, 292 of coccyx, 151 of ethmoid, 211 of femur, 354 of fibula, 367 of hip bone, 341 of humerus, 305 of lacrimal, 223 of maxillae, 218 of metacarpals, 329 of metatarsals, 386 of nasal, 222

concha, inferior, 224 of occipital, 177 of palatine, 228 of phalanges of foot, 386 of hand, 386 of radius, 311 of sacrum, 149 of scapula, 298 of sphenoid, 205 of sternum, 164 of tarsal bones, 378 of temporal, 195 of tibia, 363 of ulna, 315 of vomer, 229 of zygomatic, 221

Osteoblasts and osteoclasts, 120, 121 Osteogenic fibres, 120

Ostium abdominale, 19, 972 Otic capsule, 75, 272 ganglion, 1314 Otoconia, 1688

Ovarian follicles, vesicular, 982 plexus, nervous, 811 venous, 979 pregnancy, 19 Ovary, 969

abnormal positions of, 104, 971 descent of, 970 development of, 100, 980 ligament of, 970, 982 suspensory, of, 970 ovulation in, 18, 19 structure of, 98 Ovocentre, 21 Ovulation, 18, 19 Ovum, 8, 14 , 16

fertilization of, 20 growth in pregnancy, 105 maturation of, 19 segmentation of, 21 transit to uterus, 19

Pacinian bodies of foot, 653 of hand, 490 Palate folds, 84 soft, 1350

development of, 86, 1354 glands of, 1351 muscles of, 1351 nerves of, 1354 relation to structures in, 1354 Palatine arteries—

ascending, 1217 of ascending pharyngeal, 1220 greater, 1308 , 1338, 1362 lesser, 1308 bones, 224

development of, 277 foramina of, 226 ossification of, 228 tubercle of, 226 nerves, 1322, 1338 Palatino-vaginal canal, 199 Palato-glossal arches, 1350 Palato-glossus, 1351 Palato-pharyngeal arches, 1350 Palato-pharyngeus, 1351 Pallidus, globus, 1528 Palmar aponeurosis, 484

arch, deep, 484, 497, 499

superficial, 483, 484, 498 cutaneous branch of median, 466, 481 of ulnar, 466, 477 metacarpal arteries, '498 space, 492

Palmaris brevis, 484 longus, 470, 487 Palpebral arteries, 1260, 1281 Pampiniform plexus, 738 Pancreas, 806

blood^supply, 893



Pancreas connections, position and relations of, 806 development of, 80, 894 lymphatics of, 893 structure of, 891 tuber omentale of, 807 Pancreatic duct, 892

accessory, 892 Panniculus carnosus, 1175 Papilla, duodena], 865 lacrimalis, 1289 Papillae of tongue, 1344 Paracentral lobule, 1499 Parachordal cartilages, 271 Paradidymis, 750 Parafloccular fossa, 191 Paraflocculus, 1481 Paraganglia, 1105 Paramesonephric duct, 101, 987 Parametrium, 974 Paranasal sinuses, 250

development of, 1364 Pararectal recess, 919 Parasympathetic system, 1410, 1639 cranial, 1639 sacral, 1640

Parathyroid glands, 1223

development of, 76 Paravesical recess, 919 Paraxial mesoderm, 40, 41 Parietal bones, 178

ossification of, 180 varieties of, 180 eminence, 178, 1633 foramen, 179, 243 notch of temporal, 188 Paroccipital process, 176 Paroophoron, 971

development of, 754, 987 Parotid duct, 1287 gland, 1284

development of, 1289 structure of, 1288 lymphatic glands, 1283 plexus, 1273 Pars iridica retinae, 1650 Patella, 355

ossification of, 357 structure, 356 Patellar plexus, 557 retinacula, 629 Pectineus muscle, 571 Pectoral lymphatic glands, 424, 434 nerves, 431 region, 412 ridge, 300

Pectoralis major, 418 minor, 420

Pedicles of vertebrae, 128 Pelvic fascia in female, visceral, 968 in male, parietal, 919 visceral, 921

Pelvis, 914

axes of, 344

bony, 342

Pelvis, brim of, 342 of child, 345 contents of, 915 diameters, 342 false, 342 female, 965

peritoneum, 966 viscera, position of, 966 inclination, 344 inlet, 342 of kidney, 907 male, 916

peritoneum of, 917 viscera, position of, 916 measurements of, 345 outlet, 344

sexual differences of, 345 true, 342 Penis, 712

angle of, 942 bulb of, 682, 953 composition of, 714 corona glandis, 712, 715 corpora cavernosa, 953 corpus spongiosum, 953 coverings of, 712 crus, 682

fascial sheath of, 713 frenulum of, 713 glans, 715 prepuce, 713 septum of, 953 structure of, 953 suspensory ligament of, 713 Perforaculum, 13

Perforating arteries of foot, 613, 657 of hand, 498 of profunda femoris, 586 cutaneous nerve, 931 Pericardium, 1017

development of, 46, 67, 1019 lymphatics of, 1019 sinus, transverse, of, 1018 structure of, 1019 Perichoroidal lymph space, 1643 Pericranium, 1157 Perilymph of internal ear, 1687 Perilymphatic duct, 193 Perineal body, female, 701 male, 681 fascia, 675 fold, 957

membrane, 683, 701 pouch, 679 triangle, deep, 682 Perineum, female, 692, 701 male, 674

Periodontal membrane, 287 Periosteum, 121

Periotic cartilaginous capsules, 195 Perirenal capsule, 818 Peritoneum, 779

course of transverse, 782 vertical, 780 development of, 81, 795



Peritoneum in foetus, 793 folds of, 744, 792 ligaments, 788 mesenteries, 786 omenta, 784 fossae, 744, 791 parietal, 744 pelvic, in female, 966 in male, 917 primitive, of testis, 741 recesses of, 791, 919 sac, greater, 789

lesser, 81, 785, 790 structure of, 795 Perivascular spaces, 1436 Peroneal artery, 610, 626 retinaculum, 601 tubercle, 372, 388 Peroneus brevis, 617 longus, 615 tertius, 607

Perpendicular plate, ethmoid, 208 of palatine, 214 Pes hippocampi, 1525 Petrosal process, posterior, 198 sinus, inferior, 1607 superior, 1606

Petro-sphenoid ligament, 193 Pfliiger, cords of, 753 Phalanges of foot, 384, 385 ossification of, 386 of hand, 329

ossification of, 329 Pharyngeal artery, ascending, 1219 bursa, 168, 1373 plexus, 1329 pouches, 70, 76, 1373 recess, 1372 tubercle, 258

Pharyngo-basilar fascia, 1371 Pharyngo-epiglottic folds, 73, 1380 Pharyngo-tympanic canal, 257 " groove, 257 tube, 1378

development of, 73, 74, 1378 Pharynx, 1366

blood-supply of, 1373 development of, 1373 laryngeal part of, 1373 lymphatics of, 1373 muscles of (constrictor), 1368 nasal part of, 1371 oral part of, 1373 Phenozygous skulls, 243 Philtrum, 1336 Phrenic artery, 827

nerve in neck, 430, 1189 in thorax, 1015 Phylogeny, 7 Pia mater, cranial, 1610 spinal, 1414

Pigmentary layer of retina, 1657 Pillars of fornix, 1516, 1517 Pineal body, 1540

development of, 58, 1390

1 Pineal recess, 1534 Pinna, development of, 67, 1697 Pisiform bone, 318, 333

ossification of, 322 joint, 524

Piso-hamate ligament, 473, 524 Piso-metacarpal ligament, 473, 524 Pit for ligament of head of femur, 346 Placenta, 24, 108

formation of, 106 separation of, 107 septa, 109

sinus, marginal, of, 106, no structure of, 108 Plagiocephalus, 270 Plane, intertubercular, 755 subcostal, 755 Plantar aponeurosis, 642 arch, 655, 657 artery, lateral, 655 , 657 medial, 654 , 657 ligament, long, 667 short, 667 nerve, lateral, 653 medial, 652 triangle, 650 Plantaris, 620 Planum temporale, 178 Plasmodi-trophoblast, 27 Plasmodium in embedding of ovum, 27 Platycnemism, 363 Platymeria, 354 Platyrhine skulls, 269 Platysma, 1175 Pleura, 1005

development of, 78, ion lymphatics of, ion reflection of, 1005 lines of, 1007

Pleural sacs, development of, 78 differences between, ion Plexus, choroid, of fourth ventricle, 1492 of lateral ventricle, 1521

of inferior horn of, 1525

of nerves—

annularis, of cornea, 1645 aortic, 811 brachial, 429, 1193 buccal, 1275, 1277 cardiac, deep and superficial, 1046

carotid, internal, 1170 cervical, 1185 coccygeal, 531, 931 coeliac, 807, 809 coronary, 1048 diaphragmatic, 809 gastric, 809 hepatic, 809 hypogastric, 811, 922 infra-orbital, 1274, 1276 intra-epithelial, of eye, 1645 lumbar, 844

mesenteric, inferior, 811 superior, 809



Plexus of nerves ( continued )— myenteric, 863, 869 oesophageal, 1043, 1087 ovarian, 811 parotid, 1273 patellar, 557 pelvic, 922 pharyngeal, 1329 phrenic, 809 pudendal, 929 pulmonary, 1043, 1045 renal, 809 sacral, 928 splenic, 809

subepithelial, of eye, 1645 of submucosa of small intestine, 863, 869 subsartorial, 558 subtrapezial, 399 suprarenal, 809 testicular, 811 tympanic, 1325 of veins—

dorsal, of foot, 610 of hand, 467 spinous, 1435 occipital, 1147 ovarian, 979 pampiniform, 738 prostatic, 952 pterygoid, 1308 suboccipital, 1152 vesical, 952 Plica fimbriata, 1343

semilunaris of conjunctiva, 1289, 1292

sublingualis, 1336 Plicae villosae, 858 Point, alveolar, 244, 268 auricular, 251, 268 jugal, 251, 268 mental, 244, 268 nasal, 240, 244, 268 occipital, 243, 268 pre-auricular, 1629 Rolandic, inferior, 1633 superior, 1633 subnasal, 244, 268 Sylvian, 1632 Polar bodies, 16, 17 Pollicis, abductor brevis, 493 longus, 505 adductor, 494, 496 dorsalis artery, 511 extensor brevis, 505 longus, 505 flexor brevis, 494 longus, 482, 496 opponens, 494 princeps artery, 487, 497 Pons of brain, 1444, 1468 hepatis, 775, 777 Pontine flexure, 57 Pontis, cisterna, 1609 Poto-bulbar body, 1584

Popliteal artery, 541, 546

genicular branches, 548 fascia, 546 fossa, 541, 545 groove, 352 lymphatic glands, 551 nerve, lateral, 550 , 931 Popliteal nerve, medial, 550 , 93 i vein, 546, 549 Popliteus, 621 nerve to, 550 Porta hepatis, 775 Portal canals, 885 sinus, 816 vein, 816 , 885 Porus opticus, 1653 Position, formal, 3 Post-anal gut, 98 Post-auditory process, 193 Post-axial, definition, 5, 122 Post-glenoid tubercle, 183 Post-trematic nerves, 69 Pouch or pouches—

of epitympanic recess, 1681 perineal, 679 of Rathke, 87 , 206, 1171 recto-uterine, 966 recto-vesical, 918 vesico-uterine, 967 Praecuneus of brain, 1502 Pre-auricular, 1629 Pre-axial, definition, 5, 122 Precervical sinus, 67 Preglenoid tubercle, 186 Pregnancy, extra-uterine, 19 Pre-interparietal bone, 265 Prelaryngeal lymphatic glands, 1199, 1386

Premaxilla, 218, 277 Prepatellar bursa, 554, 640 rete, 548

Prepuce of clitoris, 695 of penis, 713

Pretracheal lymphatic glands, 1199, 1225 Pretrematic nerves, 69 Primitive jugular, 51, 1127 mesoderm, 26 oesophagus, 66 pharynx, 44, 65, 66 floor, 70 segments, 40 streak, 33 , 34

Princeps pollicis artery, 487, 497 Process or processes—

alveolar, of maxilla, 214 angular, medial, 181 articular, 139

auditory, external, of temporal, 194 clinoid, anterior and middle, 200, 261 posterior, 198, 261 condyloid, of mandible, 233 coracoid, 296 coronoid, of mandible, 232 of ulna, 312

costal, of cervical vertebrae, 128



Process or processes ( continued )—

ethmoidal, of inferior nasal concha, 223

frontal, of maxilla, 214 of zygomatic, 220 infra-orbital, of zygomatic, 220 jugular, of occipital, 176 , 258 of lacrimal, descending, 222

of inferior nasal concha, 223 mamillary, 139 maxillary—

of inferior nasal concha, 223 of palatine, 226 of zygomatic, 220 nasal, of frontal, 181 odontoid, 131 orbital, of zygomatic, 219 palatine, of maxilla, 215 paroccipital, 176 petrosal, posterior, 198 post-auditory, 195 pterygoid, of sphenoid, 203 sphenoidal, of palatine, 227 spinous, of cervical vertebrae, 127 styloid, of fibula, 364 of radius, 309 of temporal, 194, 257 of ulna, 315 supracondylar, 302 temporal, of zygomatic, 220 transverse, of cervical vertebrae, 128 uncinate, of ethmoid, 210 of pancreas, 806 vaginal, of sphenoid, 198 of temporal, 192, 194 xiphoid, 163

zygomatic, of frontal, 181 of maxilla, 214 of temporal, 185

Processus cochleariformis, 193, 1675 reticularis of spinal cord, 1421 tubarius, 204 Proctodaeum, 698 Profunda brachial artery, 455 femoris artery, 584 , 588 Prognathous skulls, 244, 269 Projection of facial canal, 1674 fibres of cerebrum, 1565 Proligerus, discus, 18, 982 Promontory of middle ear, 1674 of sacrum, 144 Pronator quadratus, 482 teres, 469, 470 Prone, definition, 5 Pronephros, 92, 94 , 912 Pronucleus, female, 8, 16 male, 8

Pro-otic centre, 196 Prostate gland, 937

blood-supply of, 960 development of, 960 lymphatics of, 960 structure of, 959 Prostatic fissure, 937 sinus, 939

Prostatic utricle, 939 Prostomial mesoderm, 36 Protocardiac area, 34 Protoplasm, 8 . Protuberance, mental, 229 occipital, external, 172 internal, 174

Pseudo-ganglion. See Gangliform enlargement Psoas major, 841 minor, 842 sheath, 839

Pterion, 180, 239, 253, 268, 1631 Pterotic centre, 196 Pterygoid canal, 204, 255, 263 artery of, 1308, 1362 nerve of, 1321, 1360 fissure, 203 fossa, 203, 257 hamulus, 204 muscle, lateral, 1302 medial, 1304

plates of sphenoid, 203, 204 development, 277 plexus of veins, 1308 processes, 203 tubercle of sphenoid, 204 Pterygo-mandibular ligament, 1181 Pterygo-maxillary fissure, 253 Pterygo-palatine canal, 227 fissure, 253 fossa, 254

Pterygo-spinous foramen, 203 ligament, 1181 Pubic angle, 339, 552 artery, 731 crest, 339, 552 guide to, 707

relation of structures at, 728 lymphatic glands, 558 symphysis, 992 tubercle, 339

guides to, 551, 706 Pubis, os, 339

Pubo-femoral ligament, 599 Pudendal arteries—

external, deep, 584

superficial, 548, 710 internal, 539, 686, 703, 925 accessory, 689 band, 929 canal, 688 nerve, 690, 704, 931 Pulmonary alveoli, 1028 groove of thorax, 166 orifice of heart, 1059

position of, 1064 outgrowth from foregut, 70, 77 valve of heart, 1059, 1064 Pulvinar of thalamus, 1537 Punctum lacrimale, 1289 Pupil, 1648

Pupillaris, membrana, 1652 Purkinje, cells of, i486 fibres of, 1070




Pyloric antrum, 760 glands, 859 sphincter, 857, 861 valve, 861 Pylorus, 861

position of, 761 Pyramid of cerebellum, 1480 of medulla, 1452 , 1470 of middle ear, 190, 1765 Pyramidal fibres in mid-brain, 1559 layer of cortex, 1562 lobe of thyroid, 1221 tract, 1565

Pyramids, decussation of, T451, T433 Pyriform fossa, 76, 1373, 1386 Pyriformis, 534, 948

Quadrate lobe of liver, 774 lobule of brain, 1502 Quadratus femoris, 535

nerve to, 540, 930 lumborum, 843 Quadriceps femoris, 572, 573 Quadrigemina, corpora, 1547 Quadrilateral space, 441

Radial artery, 473

first part, 474

recurrent branch of, 475 second part, 509 third part, 497 varieties of, 475, 498 nerve, 433

in arm, 459

cutaneous branches of, 433, 460, 467

in forearm, 475

muscular branches of, 433,

460, 461 vein, 450

Radiata, corona, 1515, I 53 1 of ovum, 14, 19 Radiatio corporis callosi, 1513 Radiation, auditory, 1568 callosal, 1568 optic, 1566, 1568 thalamic, 1567 Radius, 306

grooves of, 309 head of, 306 lines, 307 ossification of, 311 styloid process, 309 tubercle, dorsal, of, 309 tuberosity of, 307 Rami communicantes, 1635 in abdomen, 838 cervicales, 1189, 1206 in neck, 1334 in pelvis, 947 of pubis, 339 in thorax, 1104

Ramus descendens hypoglossi, 1205 of ischium, 338 of mandible, 231

Raphe, palpebral lateral, 1265 scrotal, 716

Rathke, pouch of, 87 , 206, 1171 Rays, medullary, of kidney, 901 Receptive cone, 21 Recess or recesses— cochlear, 1683 elliptical, 1683 epitympanic, 1681

infundibular, of third ventricle, 1533 lateral, of fourth ventricle, 1489 optic, of third ventricle, 1533 peritoneal, duodenal, 791 duodeno-jejunal, 792 inguinal, 745 pararectal, 919 paravesical, 919 pericaecal, 792 sphero-ethmoidal, 1337 suprapineal, 1334 tubo-tympanic, 73 of the utricle, 1687 Rectal arteries, inferior, 963 middle, 925, 963 superior, 802, 963 pits, 961

Recti muscles of eyeball, 1249 Recto-uterine folds, 967 pouch, 966

Recto-vesical pouch, 918 Rectum, ampulla of, 944 blood-supply of, 963 development of, 965 female, 978 flexures of, 944 horizontal folds of, 961 lymphatics of, 964 male, 943

peritoneal relations of, 944 structure of, 960 Rectus abdominis, 726 sheath of, 727 capitis anterior, 1397 lateralis, 1397 posterior major, 1149 minor, 1150 femoris, 572

Recurrent artery, anterior tibial, 609 ulnar, 477

interosseous, posterior, 508 radial, 475

laryngeal nerve, 1044, 1045, 1330 , 1395

Red nucleus, 1539, 1553 Reduction division, 14, 16, 17 Refracting media of eyeball, 1661 Reichert’s cartilage (of second arch), 74, 75, 273, 278 scar, 104

Reid, base line of, 1633 Renal artery, 827

sympathetic plexus, 809 vein, 828

Respiratory apparatus, development of, 1029



Rete, carpal, anterior, 478, 479 , 498 cords, 100, 752 olecranon, 479 prepatellar, 548 testis, 751 Retina, 1652

central artery of, 1260, 1658 ciliary part of, 1647 development of, 1667 fovea centralis, 1653, 1658 macula lutea, 1653, 1658 nerve cells of, 1660 optic disc, 1653 ora serrata, 1652, 1658 rods and cones layer, 1656 structure of, 1653 sustentacular fibres of, 1657 Retinaculum or retinacula— of ankle, 601 extensor, of ankle, 603 of hand, 508 flexor, of ankle, 602 of hand, 493 of hip-joint, 393 patella, 629 peroneal, 601

Retro-pharyngeal space, 1179 Retro-pubic cellular tissue, 919 Retzius, cave of, 339 Rhinencephalon, 1512 Rhinion, 240, 244, 268 Rhombencephalon, 1451 Rhomboideus major, 401 minor, 401

Rhomboids, nerve to, 402, 430 Rib, first, 157 second, 158 Ribs, 154

development of, 59, 170 ossification of, 160 varieties, 159 Rider’s bone, 354 Ridge, pectoral, 300

pelvic, transverse, 101 supinator, of ulna, 314 teres, 300

Rima glottidis, 1388 Ring, femoral, 551, 566 guide to, 707 inguinal, deep, 735

guide to, 708 superficial, 551, 720 guide to, 707 Risorius, 1269 Rods of retina, 1656 Rolandic angle, 1633 points, 1633 Roof-plate, 53 Roots of spinal nerves, 1419

development of, 54 Rostrum of corpus callosum, 1514 Rotatores, 410 Rotunda, fossa, 1674 Rotundum, foramen, 201 , 255, 263 Rugarum, columnae, of vagina, 986

Sac, lacrimal, 1293

development of, 1294 peritoneal, greater, 786, 789 lesser, 785, 790

opening into, 790 Saccule of internal ear, 1688 of larynx, 1387

Sacculus endolymphaticus, 1688 Sacral groove, 153

nerves, posterior rami, 528, 530 plexus, 928 spina bifida, 154 Sacro-spinous ligament, 991 Sacro-tuberous ligament, 542, 990 Sacro-vertebral angle, 15T Sacrum, 144 alae, 148 apex, 148 canal of, 148 ossification, 149 promontory of, 144 sexual characteristics, 149 varieties, 148 Sagittal line, 1630 suture, 237, 1630

Saphenous branch of descending genicular artery, 587, 589 nerve, 557

opening, 551, 552, 561 guide to, 707 vein, long, 559, 600 short, 600, 615 Sartorius, 568 Sauropsida, 23, 33 Scala tympani, 1689 vestibuli, 1689 Scalene tubercle, 157 Scalenus anterior, 1235 medius, 1236 posterior, 1236 Scalp, anterior part of, 1153 fascia of, 1153

superficial veins and nerves of, 1153' as a whole, 1162 Scansorius, 534 Scaphocephalus, 270 Scaphoid bone, 316

ossification of, 322 tubercle of, 316, 332 fossa of auricle, 1295 of sphenoid, 204 Scapula, 292

acromion, 296 coracoid process, 296 glenoid cavity, 294 ossification, 298 spine, 295 varieties, 298 Scapular anastomosis, 441 circumflex artery, 427 ligaments, 445 Schindylesis, 242 , 394 Sciatic band, 929

nerve, 540, 544, 931 notch, greater, 340



Sciatic notch, lesser, 340 Sclera, 1642 Scrotum, 715

arteries of, 717 development of, 700, 717 lymphatics of, 717 nerves of, 717 septum, 716 skin of, 716

structures forming wall, 716 Segmentation, 40 cavity, 24

in archenteron, 38 cells, 21, 22 nucleus, 21 in ovum, 21

Sella turcica of sphenoid, 197, 261 Sellae, diaphragma, 1163, 1603 Semicircular canals, 1684 ducts, 1688

Semicircularis stria, 1532 Semilunar cartilages of knee, 632 tract of cord, 1430 Semilunaris, hiatus, 1357 Semimembranosus, 543 Seminal vesicles, 936

blood-supply of, 959 development of, 959 lymphatics of, 959 structure of, 958 Seminiferous tubules 752 Semispinalis capitis, 407 cervicis, 408 thoracis, 408 Septum of clitoris, 694 ilio-pectineal, 856 linguae, 1346 lucidum, 1518 of nose, 248

formation of, 85 of penis, 953 primum, 1075

  • secundum, 1076

transversum, 46, 78, 79 of ear, 1688

Serial homology, 6, 41, 122 Serosa, 32

Serrata, ora, of retina, 1652, 1658 Serratus anterior, 401, 434 posterior, inferior, 403 superior, 402

Sesamoid bones, foot, 386

gastrocnemius, 618 great toe, 648 hand, 329 patella, 574

in peroneus longus, 617 thumb, 494

in tibialis posterior, 623 Sheath, axillary, 429 carotid, 1207 femoral, 565 , 568 of Hertwig, 287 of rectus, 727

Shoulder-girdle generalized, 298

Shoulder-joint, 4&1 ligaments of, 461 Sigmoid groove of temporal, 188 sinus, 1606

guide to, 1632 Sino-atrial node, 1070 Sinus, annularis, 1124 basilar, 1607 cavernous, 1169, 1606 cervicalis, 1377 circular, 1606 of epididymis, 748 ethmoidal, 210 frontal, 184 of larynx, 1387 marginal, 1606

of placenta, 106, no maxillary, 217 of Morgagni, 1370 occipital, 1606

guide to, 1631 petrosal, inferior, 1607 superior, 1606

petro-squamosal, of foetus, 241 petro-squamous, 1607 portal, 816 precervical, 67 prostatic, 939 sagittal, inferior, 1604 superior, 1603

guide to, 1631 sigmoid, 1606

guide to, 1632 spheno-parietal, 1606 straight, 1605 tarsi, 370, 390 tonsillaris, 1355 transverse, 1605 guide to, 1631 of pericardium, 1018 tympani, 1674 uro-genital, 99 venosus, 46, 52, 90, 1124 sclerae, 1645

Sinuses of dura mater, 1163, 1603 paranasal, 250 Sinusoids, 1125 Skeleton, 113

general principles, 122 Skull at birth, 265

deformities of, 269 development of, 270 of female, 267 racial peculiarities of, 268 sexual characters, 267 as a whole, 237 Smegma, prseputii, 713 Snuff-box, anatomical, 484 Sockets of mandible, 231 of maxilla, 214 Sole of foot, 641 Soleal line, 361 Soleus, 619

Solitarius, fasciculus, 1625, 1626 nucleus of, 1619, 1625




Solitary lymphatic nodules, 868 Somatopleure, 40 Somites, mesodermal, 40 Space or spaces—

interglobular, 285 intervillous, 105, 108 of irido-corneal angle, 1645 middle palmar, 492 perivitelline, 14 quadrilateral, 441 retropharyngeal, 1179 suprasternal, 1179 thenar, 492 triangular, 441 zonular, 1664 Spermatic cord, 736

coverings of, 739 fascia, external, 739 internal, 739

Spermatids, 12, 14, 16, 752 Spermatocytes, 13 , 1 7 > 752 Spermatogenesis, 13, 14 Spermatozoa, 8 , 12 , 14. 752 Sphenodon, 302 Spheno-ethmoidal plate, 90 recess, 1357

Spheno-mandibular ligament, 234, 1181, 1316

Spheno-palatine artery, 1308, 1361 foramen, 255 ganglion, 1320 nerves, 1322, 1338, 1361 notch, 228 Sphenoid bone, 197 lingula, 200 openings in, 204 ossification of, 205 spine of, 201, 257

ethmoidal, of, 197 varieties 205 wing, greater, 201 lesser, 200 Sphenoidal air-cells, 199 chonchae, 204 crest, 199

process of palatine, 227 Sphincter ani externus, 675 internus, 961, 963 pupillae, 1650, 1652 pyloric, 857, 861 vesicae, 950

Spinal arteries, anterior, 1434, 1447, 1575 posterior, 1434, 1447, 1575 cord, 1410 cauda equina, 1417 caudal end of, 1440 central canal of, 1422 columns of, 1418 commissures of, 1418 conus medullaris, 1416 development of, 53, 1436 enlargements of, 1416 fibres, association of, 1425 filum terminale of, 1417 grey matter of, 1420

Spinal arteries, growth of, 1442 horns of, 1421, 1422 ligamenta denticulata of, 1415 meninges of, 1410 nerve fibres of, course of, 1426 processus reticularis, 1421 sections of, 1423 structure of, internal, 1420 minute, 1424 sulci of, 1418 surfaces of, 1420 tracts of, 1429 white matter of, 1423, 1426 ganglia, 1419, 1428 groove, 397 nerves, 1418

origin of, 1418

relation of vertebrae to, 1420 posterior primary rami of, 411, 1419

roots of, 1419 Spinalis, 406

thoracis, 406 Spindle, 10 Spine or spines — definition, 115 ethmoidal, of sphenoid, 197 iliac, anterior, 334, 335, 551, 707 posterior, 335 of ischium, 338

nasal, anterior, of maxilla, 221 of frontal, 181 posterior, 225 of scapula, 295 of sphenoid, 201, 257 suprameatal, 187 Spino-glenoid ligament, 445 notch, 294

Spino-thalamic tract, 1432 Spino-umbilical lines, 707 Spiral ganglion, 1694

groove of humerus, 300 organ, 1691 Spireme, 10

Splanchnic ganglion, 1105 nerves, pelvic, 930, 947 thoracic, 1105 Splanchnopleure, 41 Spleen, 768

accessory, 771

component parts, connections and position of, 768 development of, 81, 897 ligaments of, 771, 789 lymphatic nodules of, 896 lymphatics of, 897 nerves of, 897 peritoneal relations of, 771 structure of, 895 Splendens, linea, 1415 “ Splenic dulness, area of, 771 sympathetic plexus, 809 Splenium of corpus callosum, 1514 Splenius, 404 capitis, 404




i 7 6 3

Splenius cervicis, 404 Spongioblasts, 54 Spongioplasm, 8 Squamo-mastoid suture, 241 Squamosal suture, 239, 1631 Squamo-tympanic fissure, 1673 Stapedius, 1680 Stapes, 1679

development of, 75, 1679 Stellate ganglion, 1104 Stephanion, 251, 268 Sternal angle, 162, 1013 plate, 170 Sternalis, 420 Sternebrae, 161 Sterno-clavicular joint, 443 Sterno-costalis, 1002 Sterno-hyoid, 1201 Sterno-mastoid, 1145, 1182 Sterno-pericardial ligaments, 1018 Sterno-thyroid, 1201 Sternum, 160

angle of, 162 body,162

development of, 164, 170 foramen of, 164, 171 manubrium, 161 ossification of, 164 sexual characteristics, 164 varieties, 163 xiphoid process, 163 Stomach, 758

blood-supply of, 860 component parts, connections and position of, 758 curvatures of, 759 development of, 79, 862 divisions of, 760 gastro-phrenic ligament, 789 gastro-splenic ligament, 789 glands of, 858 lymphatics of, 860 nerves of, 860 orifices of, 760 peritoneal relations of, 761 structure of, 856 topography of, 761 trigone or uncovered area of, 761 Stomodaeum, 46, 81, 1339 Straight sinus, 1605 ,

Stratum cinereum, 1550 granulosum, 1570 laciniosum, 1569 lemnisci, 1550 opticum, 1550, 1564 radiatum, 1569 zonale, 155°

Stria longitudinalis and medialis, 1510,

1513, 1514

Striae, auditory, 1471, 1489, 1620 habenulae, 1534, 1541 Striatum, corpus, 1526 Strio-frontal fibres, 1529 Stylo-glossus, 1232 Stylo-hyal, 75, 197

Stylo-hyoid ligament, 1232 muscle, 1228

Stylo-mandibular ligament, 1181, 1317 Stylo-mastoid foramen, 192 Stylo-pharyngeus, 1323 Styloid, definition of, 115 pr^pess of fibula, 364 of radius, 309 of temporal, 194, 257 of ulna, 315

Subacromial bursa, 436, 464 Subanconeus, 459 Subarachnoid space of brain, 1608 of spinal cord, 1413 Subarcuate fossa, 191, 264 Subcallosal gyrus, 1514 Subclavian artery, 1237

development of, 1240 left, first part of, 1240 in thorax, 1040 right, first part of, 1237 second part of, 1240 third part of, 1191

guide to, 1192

groove, 290 triangle, 1190 vein, 1192, 1244 Subclavius, 421

nerve to, 431, 1195 Subcostal angle, 165 line, 755 nerve, 728, 849

lateral cutaneous branch of, 531, 728

plane, 755

Subdural space of brain, 1599, 1608 of spinal cord, 1412 Sublingua, 1343 Sublingual artery, 1216 ducts, 1235 fossa, 230 gland, 1234

development of, 1235 Submandibular duct, 1233 fossa, 230 ganglion, 1315 gland, 1233

development of, 1234 lymphatic glands, 1198 triangle, 1196

Submental lymphatic glands, 1199, 1203 triangle, 1202 Subnasal fossa, 244 point, 244, 268

Suboccipital nerve, 1141, 1153 region, 1149 triangle, 1150 venous plexus, 1152 Subpubic angle, 344 arch, 344

Subsartorial canal, 580 plexus, 558

Subscapular artery, 427 nerves, 431 Subscapularis, 440



Substance, perforated, anterior, 1445, 1511 posterior, 1445, 1561 Substantia ferruginea, 1491

gelatinosa, 1421, 1426, 1459 nigra, 1539, 1560 reticularis of medulla, 1458 Subthalamic nuclei, 1540 region, 1539 tegmental region, 1558 Subtrapezial plexus, 399 Suctorial pad of fat, 1270, 1337 Sulcus, callosal, 1507 central, 1495 centralis insulae, 1506 cingulate, 1496 circular, 1497 ethmoidal, of nose, 221 fimbrio-dentate, 1509 frontal, 1498 hypothalamic, 1533 interaminar, 54 intermedius, 759 intraparietal, 1500 lateralis, of mid-brain, 1551 occipital, lateral, 1503 transverse, 1503 occipito-temporal, 1505 oculo-motor, 1551 olfactorius, 214 olfactory, 1498 orbital, 1498 postcentral, 1500

postero-lateral, of spinal cord, 1418 precentral, 1500 sagittal, 181 temporal, 1505

terminalis, of right atrium, 1052 of tongue, 1342 tympanic, 1673 Superciliary arch, 181 Supination, 5

Supinator ridge of ulna, 314 Supracallosal gyrus, 1514 Supraclavicular branches of brachial plexus, 430, 1194 *

nerves, 412, 1144

Supracondylar process of humerus, 302 Suprahyoid muscles, 1227 region, 1202 Supramastoid crest, 185 Suprameatal spine, 187 triangle, 187, 1682 Supra-occipital bone, 275 Supra-orbital artery, 1154, 1260 foramen, 244 margin, 181

nerve, 1153, 1254, 1276 notch, 181, 247 vein, 1154

Suprapatellar tendon, 574 Suprapineal recess, 1534 Suprapleural membrane, 1007, 1246 Suprarenal glands, 823

blood-supply of, 898 development of, 899

Suprarenal glands, lymphatics of, 898 nerves of, 899 structure of, 897 plexus, 809

Suprascapular artery, 402, 438, 1193, 1243 nerve, 431, 438, 1195 notch, 294 vein, 1193

Supraspinatus, 437

Suprasternal bones, 165

branch of suprascapular atrery, 438,


notch, 162 space, 1179

Supratrochlear arteries,— of brachial, 456 ophthalmic, 1154, 1261 nerve, 1154, 1254, 1276 vein, 1154

Sural cutaneous arteries, 548 nerve, 550, 616

communicating, 551

Suspensoria, ligamenta, of mammary gland, 414

Suspensory ligament of lens, 1664 of penis, 713

Sustentacular cells of testis, 14, 752 fibres of retina, 1657

Sustentaculum hepatis, 789 lienis, 767 tali, 371, 388

Sutural bones, 180, 237, 265

Sutures, 237, 394 closure of, 240 coronal, 238 frontal, 238 fronto-maxillary, 240 fronto-nasal, 240 fronto-parietal, 239 fronto-squamosal, 240 harmonic, 394 intermaxillary, 240 internasal, 240 interpalatine, 241 lambdoid, 237 limbous, 238 maxillo-maxillary, 255 metopic or frontal, 238 naso-maxillary, 240 occipito-mastoid, 237 palato-maxillary, 241 parieto-mastoid, 238 petro-basilar, 242 petro-sphenoid, 241 petro-squamosal, 241 premaxillary, 216, 218 sagittal, 237, 1630 schindylesis, 242, 394 serrated, 394 spheno-parietal, 239 spheno-squamosal, 240 squamo-mastoid, 240 squamosal, 239, 1631 zygomatico-maxillary, 240 zygomatico-temporal, 240



Sylvian line, 1632 point, 1632

Sympathetic ganglia, 1635

cervical, inferior, 1335 middle, 1334 superior, 1333

plexuses. See Nerves or Plexus system, 1410, 1635 trunk in abdomen, 838 in neck, 1335 in pelvis, 946 in thorax, 1104 Symphysis of mandible, 229 pubis, 992

Synapsis in reduction division, 18 Synchondroses, 242

petro-occipital, 242 spheno-occipital, 242 spheno-petrosal, 242 Syndesmosis, 392 Synovia, 393 Synovial bursae, 395 joints, 393 membrane, 393, 395

of ankle-joints, 663 of elbow-joint, 519 of hip-joint, 595 of knee-joint, 553, 634 of radio-ulnar joint, 520 inferior, 521 superior, 520 of shoulder-joint, 463 of tibio-fibular joint, 659 superior, 659 of wrist-joint, 523 sheaths at ankle, 602, 603 ^ .

of biceps tendon, 465 of extensor tendons of hand, 509 of flexor digitorum longus, 622 hallucis longus, 624 tendons in hand, 491 of toes, 646 of hand, 490 palmar, great, 332 of peroneal tendons, 617 of tibialis posterior, 623 at wrist, 490

Taeniae coli, 768 Tali-sustentaculum, 371, 388 Talo-calcaneal joint, 664 Talo-calcaneo-navicular joint, 665 Talus, 367

ossification of, 378 os trigonum of, 370 varieties of, 370 Tapetum of choroid, 1647

of corpus callosum, 1515 Tarsal arteries, 612 tunnel, 370, 390 Tarso-metatarsal joints, 669 Tarsus, 367

of conjunctiva, 1290 varieties of, 378 as a whole, 378

Taste-buds, 1347

Tectoria, membrana, of occipital joint, 1407

of spiral organ, 1693 Teeth, 278

auditory, 1691 canine, 280 development of, 285 eruption of, 282, 288 incisor, 279 molar, 280 premolar, 280 present at birth, 288 sockets of, 214, 231 structure of, 283 temporary or milk, 282 Tegmen tympani, 187, 189, 263, 1674 Tegmentum of brain, 1552 Tela choroidea of fourth ventricle, 1492* 1610

of third ventricle, 1553, 1610 Telencephalon, 1493 Telolecithal eggs, 25 Telophase, 11

Temporal arteries, deep, 1307

artery, superficial, 1158 bone, 184

mastoid portion of, 187 process of, 187 ossification of, 195 petrous portion of, 188 squamous portion of, 185 structure of, 195 styloid process, 194, 257 varieties, 195 zygomatic process, 185 fascia, 1161 fossa, 251

gyn of cerebrum, 1505 line, 178

lobe of cerebrum, 1504 nerves, deep, 1309, 1311 pole of cerebrum, 1444 process of zygomatic, 220 region, 1153 sula of cerebrum, 1505 vein, superficial, 1159 veins, deep, 1308 Temporalis, 1302

Tendinous intersections of rectus abdominis, 726

Tendo calcaneus, 599, 619 Tendon, conjoint, 725 suprapatellar, 574 Tensor fasciae latae, 570 palati, 1353, 1378 tympani, 1680

Tentorium cerebelli, 1163, 1602, 1633 development of, 90 Teres major, 439 minor, 438 ridge, 300

Terminale, filum, of cord, 1417 Terms, embryological, 4 position, 2



Testicular artery, 738, 829 plexus, 811 vein, 829, 830 Testis, 749

abnormal positions of, 104, 743 descent of, 103, no, 739 development of, 100, 752 lymphatics of, 750 structure of, 750 Thalamencephalon, 58 Thalamic radiation, 1539, 1567 Thalamo-frontal fibres, 1529 Thalamo-striate fibres, 1529 Thalamus, 1535

connections of, 1539 development of, 58, 1539 pulvinar of, 1537 structure of, 1538 Theca folliculi, 982

of spinal cord, 1410 Thenar space, 492 Theories of nerve growth, 55 Thoracic artery, alar, 427 lateral, 427 superior, 426 cavity, 1002

contents of, 1002 diameters of, 1114, 1115 duct, abdominal part of, 838 cervical part of, 1246 cisterna chyli, 838, 1100 thoracic part of, 1100 vertebras, 134 wall, 994 Thorax, 165

apertures of, 165 boundaries of, 165 in different animals, 78 sexual characteristics, 167 as a whole, 165 Thymus, 1019

in adult, 1019 development of, 76, 1020 structure of, 1020 Thyro-arytenoideus, 1392 Thyro-epiglottic ligament, 1380 Thyro-epiglotticus, 1392, 1394 Ihyro-glossal duct, 1222 Thyro-hyals, 236 Thyro-hyoid arch, 278 ligaments, 1384 membrane, 1384 muscle, 1201

Thyroid artery, inferior, 1242 superior, 1213, 1242 cartilage, 1380

development of, 1381 gland, 1204, 1220 accessory, 1221 blood-supply of, 1221 development of, 70, 76, 1222 pyramidal lobe of, 1221 structure, 1222 veins, 1222, 1215, 1245 Ihyroidea ima artery, 1038, 1204, 1221

Tibia, 357

condyles of, 357 crest of, 359 head of, 357

retroverted, 363 intercondylar eminence, 358 medial malleolus, 361 guide to, 599 notch, fibular, 363 ossification of, 363 pressure (squatting) facet, 363 shaft, 359 structure, 363 torsion of shaft, 363 tubercle of, 357, 553 guide to, 598 varieties of, 363 Tibial artery, anterior, 607 guide to, 599 posterior, 624

guide to, 599 nerve, anterior, 610, 614 posterior, 627 recurrent arteries, 609 Tibialis anterior, 602 posterior, 622

Tibio-fibular joints, 659, 660 Tomes, fibres of, 284 Tongue, 1342

arteries of, 1347 development of, 72, 1348 lymphatics of, 1347 mucous membrane of, 1343 muscles of, intrinsic, 1346 nerves of, 1347 veins of, 1347

Tonsil, naso-pharyngeal, 1373 Tonsils, 1354

development of, 76 structure of, 1355 Tooth, structure of, 283 Topography, cranio-cerebral, 1629 Torticollis, 1183

Torus occipitalis transversus, 177 palatinus, 216, 1338 Trabeculae carneae, 1056 Trachea, cervical part of, 1223, 1224 development of, 77, 1226 lymphatics of, 1225 thoracic part of, 1085 Tracheotomy, 1205 Tract, arcuate, 1464

cortico-thalamic, 1566 fronto-pontine, 1529, 1566 fronto-striate, 1529 fronto-thalamic, 1529 ilio-tibial, 560

mamillo-thalamic, 1517, 1543 olfactory, 1445, 1511, 157° olivo-cerebellar, 1484

optic, 1445, 1545

pallido-rubro-olivary, 1556 pyramidal, 1565 strio-thalamic, 1529 temporo-pontine, 1566



Tract, trigemino-thalamic, 1615

vago-glosso-pharyngeal, ascending thalamic, 1627

Tracts of spinal cord. See also Fasciculi cerebro-spinal, anterior, 1431 lateral, 1430 intersegmental, 1431 olivo-spinal, 1432 ponto-spinal, 1464 rubro-spinal, 1432, 1553 semilunar, 1430 spino-cerebellar, dorsal, 1432 ventral, 1432 spino-thalamic, 1432 spino-tectal, 1433

tecto-spinal, 1432, 1464. 1353. 1555 vestibulo-spinal, 1431 Tractus spiralis foraminosus, 1686 Tragicus, 1296 Transversalis fascia, 733 Transverse carpal joints, 525 ligament of atlas, 1405 of foot, deep, 671 of hip-joint, 595 of knee-joint, 633 of palm, deep, 526 of perinaeum, 682 of shoulder-joint, 453, 463 of tibio-fibular joint, inferior, 660 pelvic ridge, 101 processes, development of, 59 sinus of dura mater, 1605 of pericardium, 1018

development of, 90 Transversus abdominis, 724 nuchae, 1145

perinaei, superficialis, 678 Trapezium, 318 crest of, 319 groove of, 319, 333 ossification of, 322 of pons, 1470, 1620 Trapezius, 398

cervical portion of, 1144 Trapezoid bone, 319

ossification of, 322 line, 290, 297

Trapezoides, corpus, of cerebellum, 1484 Triangle or triangles—

anterior, of neck, 1196 of auscultation, 400 Bryants’, 552 carotid, of neck, 1196 digastric, of neck, 1198 femoral, 552, 563 inguinal, 708, 736 of Lesser, 1228 lumbar, 400, 708, 772 muscular, of neck, 1196 occipital, of neck, 1184 perineal, deep, 682 plantar, 650 posterior, of neck, 1183 subclavian, of neck, 1190 submandibular, 1196

Triangle or triangles ( continued )—submental, 1202 suboccipital, 1150 suprameatal, 187 vagal, 1490

Triangular spaces (shoulder), 441 Triceps brachii, 458, 501 Tricuspid orifice, 1057

position of, 1064 valve, 1057

Trigeminal ganglion, 1167 impression, 189, 263 nerve. See Cranial nerves Trigone, external, of bladder, 934 internal, of bladder, 951 Trigonocephaly, 270 Trigonum, habenulae, 1541 olfactorium, 1511 Trilaminar blastoderm, 34 Triquetral bone, 317

ossification of, 322 Trochanter, definition, 115 greater, 346, 529 guide to, 552 lesser, 348 third, 354

Trochanteric anastomosis, 585 fossa, 348

Trochlea, definition, 115 of humerus, 304 Trochlear fossa, 183, 245, 1251 notch of ulna, 312 Trophoblast, 26, 27, 28 Tubal pregnancy, 19 Tube, pharyngo-tympanic, 1378

development of, 73, 1378 muscles connected with, 1378 uterine, 971

development of, 987 Tuber cinereum, 1445, 1544

development of, 58, 1589 omentale, of liver, 774 of pancreas, 807 valvulae, 1480

Tubercle, adductor, 350, 354, 553 amygdaloid, 1524 anterior, of thalamus, 1537 articular, of temporal, 185 auricular, 1295 carotid, 134, 1172 condylar, 235 conoid, 289 cuneate, 1455 dorsal, of radius, 309 of epiglottis, 1380 of fifth metacarpal, 327 genial, 230 hyoid, 235 infraglenoid, 294 mental, 229 of palatine, 226 peroneal, 372, 388 pharyngeal, 174 post-glenoid, 185 pre-glenoid, 186



Tubercle, pterygoid, 204 pubic, 339, 551, 706 quadrate, 350 of rib, 156 scalene, 157 of scaphoid, 316, 332 of talus, 368 of tibia, 357, 553, 598 vestibular, 1491 Tuberculum impar, 70 sellae, 197

Tuberosity of calcaneum, 370 deltoid, 300 gluteal, 350

greater, of humerus, 299 of ischium, 338, 529 lesser, of humerus, 300 of maxilla, 213 of navicular, 373, 388 of radius, 307 of ulna, 312

Tubo-tympanic recess, 73 Tubules, seminiferous, 752 uriniferous, 901 Tunica albuginea, 750 vaginalis, 748 vasculosa, 750 Tympani, sinus, 1674 Tympanic annulus, 1672 antium, 188, 1681 canaliculus, 191, 258 cavity, 1673 membrane, 1675

arterial supply, 1677 nerves of, 1677 secondary, 1677 structure of, 1676 part of temporal, 194, 195 ring, 195 sulcus, 1673

Tympano-hyal, 75, 197, 276 Tympano-mastoid fissure, 192 Tympanum, 1673 arteries of, 1683

development of, 73, 74, 75, 1696 mucous membrane of, 1681 muscles of, 1680 nerves of, 1325, 1400 ossicles of, 1678

ligaments of, 1679 movements of, 1680 Typical, definition of, 6

Ulna, 312

beak, 312

coronoid process, 312 oblique line, 314 olecranon, 312 ossification, 315 radial notch, 313 shaft, 313 structure of, 315 styloid process, 315 supinator ridge, 314 trochlear notch, 313

Ulnar artery, 475

first part, 476

recurrent branches of, 477 second part, 480 third part, 487 varieties, 479, 498 collateral artery, 456 nerve, 433 nerve, 432

in arm, 458

cutaneous branches of, 448, 466, 499

deep division of, 499 digital branches of, 499 dorsal branch of, 467 in forearm, 480 in hand, 499

palmar cutaneous branch of, 466,

477 .

vein, anterior, 451 posterior, 451 U-loop, 62, 64, 875 Ultimo-branchial body, 76 Umbilical cord, 65, 105, 108, 110 hernia, 748 notch of liver, 756 sac with gut, 62 vessels, 51, 923, 1083 zone of abdomen, 755 subdivisions of, 755 Umbilicus, 63, 65, 705 Umbo, 1676

Uncinate process of ethmoid, 210 of pancreas, 806 Uncus of brain, 1507 Urachus, 65, 933 Ureter in abdomen, 822, 907 blood-supply of, 909 development of, 95, 910 lymphatics of, 909 nerves of, 909 structure of, 908 varieties, 823 Urethra, female; 978

development of, 988 external orifice of, 978 lymphatics of, 988 male, 938

bulb of, 941 development of, 956 external orifice of, 938 lymphatics of, 942 membranous part of, 940 prostatic part of, 939 spongy part of, 941 structure of, 940, 941, 942 Urethral crest, 939 glands, 942

Uriniferous tubules, 901 structure of, 901 summary of, 903

Uro-genital division of perinseum— female, 692 male, 677 sinus, 99, 700



Uterine tube, 971

development of, 987 fimbriae, 972 lymphatics of, 983 ostia, 972 structure of, 982 Uterus, 972

anteflexion of, 975 anteversion of, 975 at birth, 977 body of, 973

cavity of, 976 broad ligament of, 968 cervix of, 973

arbor vitae of, 977 canal of, 976 development of, 101, 987 fundus of, 973 glands of, 985 gravid, 104

iigamentum teres of, 968 lymphatics of, 986 parametrium, 974 position of, 974 relations, general, of, 974 peritoneal, 974 structure of, 983 varieties of, 977 Utricle of internal ear, 1687 prostatic, 939 Uvula of cerebellum, 1480 of soft palate, 1350 vesicae, 951

Uvulae, musculus, 1352

Vagina, 977

arteries of, 986 development of, 101, 987 fornices of, 974 lymphatics of, 986 orifice, external, of, 695 structure of, 986 Vaginal process, 741

abnormal conditions of, 743 metamorphosis of, 742 of sphenoid bone, 198 of temporal bone, 192, 194, 257 vestige of, 969

Vagus nerve. See Cranial nerves Valentin, ganglion of, 1320 Vallecula of cerebellum, 1479 cerebri, 1444, 1495 of tongue, 1343, 13 80 Value of anatomy in medicine, 1 Valve or valves— anal, 962 aortic, 1062 of coronary sinus, 1055 of Gerlach, 872 of Guerin, 942 ileo-colic, 873 mitral, 1061 pulmonary, 1059, 1064 pyloric, 861 spiral, 890

I Valve, tricuspid, 1057 Valvulae, tuber, 1480 Valvule of Guerin, 942 Variable terms, descriptive, 4 Varieties of joints, 394 Vas aberrans of brachial artery, 456, 475 deferens, 757

ampulla of, 935 blood-supply of, 738 development of, 100, 102, 753 pelvic portion of, 935 structure, of 737 Vasa recta, false, of kidney, 905 Vastus intermedius, 573 lateralis, 572 medialis, 573

Vegetative pole of ovum, 25 Veins—

auricular, posterior, 1161, 1219 axillary, 428, 451 azygos. See Vena azygos basilar, 1521, 1579 basilic, 450, 451 median, 450 of brain, 1578 bronchial, 1029, 1091 capsular, of liver, 885 cardiac, 1065, 1066 cardinal, 51, 92, 1127 central, of liver, 885 cephalic, 450, 451 median, 450 cerebellar, 1579 cerebral, 1578

anterior, 1521 deep middle, 1521 superficial middle, 1578 cervical, deep, 1149

transverse, 1193, 1245 chorionic, 51 choroid, 1521, 1578 clitoris, dorsal, of, 704 condylar, emissary, 1608 coronary sinus, 1065 of corpus striatum, 1521, 1578 cystic, 815, 891

development of principal veins, 1123 digital, of foot, 644 hand, 467 diploic, 1154, 1601 dorsal plexus of foot, 610 of hand, 467 emissary, 1608 epigastric, inferior, 731 superficial, 712 superior, 731

extraspinal, anterior, 1435 facial, anterior, 1218, 1280 common, 1218 deep, 1308 transverse, 1281 femoral, 563, 589 cutaneous, 559 profunda, 589 frontal, diploic, 1601



Veins [continued )— gastric, left, 813 gastro-epiploic, left, 813 right, 815

gluteal, inferior, 538 superior, 536 hepatic, 885

iliac, circumflex, deep, 732 common, 852 external, 854 internal, 927 infra-orbital, 1282 innominate, 1031, 1032 development, 927 intercostal, 999 anterior, 999 collateral, 999, 1094 posterior, 999, 1094 superior, 1094 intralobular, of liver, 885 intraspinal, 1435 jugular, anterior, 1175 arch, 1175 external, 1x76 internal, 1211

posterior, external, 1148, 1178 primitive, 51, 92 lingual, 1217 lumbar, 848

ascending, 839, 848 mammary, internal, 1001 mastoid, emissary, 1608 maxillary, 1308 median, 448 deep, 450 meningeal, 1601 mental, 1283 mesenteric, inferior, 802 superior, 798 nasal arch, 1154 emissary, 1608

oblique, of left atrium, 1052, 1066 occipital, 1148 diploic, 1601 emissary, 1148, 1608 ophthalmic, 1261 ovarian, 830, 979 plexus, 979

palpebral, lateral, 1281 pampiniform plexus, 738 pancreatico-duodenal, superior, 815 parietal emissary, 1147, 1608 parumbilical, 712, 789 penis, dorsal, of, 714 pharyngeal, descending, 1220 phrenic, 827 popliteal, 549 portal, 816, 885, 886 prepyloric, 815 prostatic plexus, 952 pudendal, internal, 689 pulmonary, 1028, 1043 radial, 450

rectal, inferior, 698, 964 middle, 964

Veins ( continued )—

rectal, superior, 964 renal, 828 sacral, median, 946 saphenous, long, 559, 600 short, 615

of spinal cord, 1436 spinous plexus, dorsal, 1435 splenic, 813

subcardinal, 1132, 1133 subclavian, 1192, 1244 subcostal, 848, 1098 sublobular, of liver, 885 suboccipital plexus, 1152 supracardinal, 1132, 1133 supra-orbital, 1154 suprarenal, 827 suprascapular, 1193, 1245 supratrochlear, 1154 temporal, diploic, anterior, 1601 superficial, 1159 testicular, 738, 829, 830 thyroid, 1222

inferior, 1245 superior, 1215 ulnar, anterior, 451 posterior, 451 umbilical, 51, 92, 1083 uterine, 980 vaginal, 980

of liver, 885 of vas deferens, 738 vertebral, 1244

anterior, 1245

4 vitelline, 46, 63, 79, 91, 1124 Veli frenulum, 1485, 1548 Velum, medullary, inferior, 1485, 1491 superior, 1485, 1491 Vena azygos, 839, 1096

cava, inferior, 830, 1033

development of, 92, 1133 tributaries of, 831 superior, 1032

development of, 92, 1130 comitans hypoglossi, 1217 hemiazygos, inferior, 839, 1097 superior, 1097 magna cerebri, 1521 Venae advehentes, 1125 comites, brachial, 455

pudendal, internal, 689 radial, 474 tibial, anterior, 608 posterior, 624 ulnar, 477

cordis minimae, 1067 rectae of kidney, 907 revehentes, 1125 stellatae of kidney, 907 vorticosae, 1643 Venous plexuses—

dorsal, of foot, 610 of hand, 467 spinous, 1435 occipital, 1147