Difference between revisions of "Talk:Book - Buchanan's Manual of Anatomy including Embryology 16"

From Embryology
(Created page with "==CHAPTER XVI THE EYE== The eyeball is almost spherical. It consists of the segments of two spheres—namely, a large posterior or sclerotic segment, which is opaque, and...")
 
 
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of the ectodermal cells of the edge of the optic cup, which has extended forward  
 
of the ectodermal cells of the edge of the optic cup, which has extended forward  
 
in front of the lens, and the back of the iris receives a pigmentary covering {uvea)  
 
in front of the lens, and the back of the iris receives a pigmentary covering {uvea)  
from the pars iridica retince.  
+
from the pars iridica retince.
 
 
 
 
/
 
 
 
 
 
CHAPTER XVII
 
 
 
THE EAR
 
 
 
 
 
The organ of hearing is divided into three parts—the external,
 
middle, and internal ear.
 
 
 
 
 
External Ear.
 
 
 
The external ear consists of the auricle (or pinna) and the external
 
auditory meatus. The former has been already described (see p. 1294)*
 
The external auditory meatus extends from the bottom of the
 
concha to the membrana tympani, and is about 1 inch in length.
 
It consists of two parts—outer, or cartilaginous, and inner, or osseous.
 
The cartilaginous part, which is also fibrous, is about J inch in length,
 
and the osseous part, which lies within the petrous portion of the
 
temporal bone, is about § inch long. The widest part of the meatus
 
is its orifice, which is oval, the long measurement being vertica .
 
The narrowest part is situated in its osseous portion, about T mch
 
from the tympanic membrane, and it is known as the isthmus. There
 
is another constriction of the canal situated near the deep end of t e
 
cartilaginous part, and produced by a projection which is placed
 
antero-inferiorly. The chief direction of the canal is inwards and
 
slightly forwards. At first it is also inclined upwards, then backwards,
 
 
 
and finally downwards. . ,
 
 
 
The cartilaginous part is continuous with the cartilage of the auricle,
 
and is attached to the external auditory process of the temporal bone.
 
Its cartilage is folded so as to form a deep groove which is open at its
 
upper and back part, the cartilaginous deficiency being completed
 
by fibrous tissue. In the anterior wall of the cartilaginous part are
 
two clefts (called the fissures of Santorini ) which are occupied by fibrous
 
Ssuf In important and close inferior relation of the cartilaginous
 
 
 
meatus is the parotid gland (see Fig. 1027). ,
 
 
 
The osseous part has been described in connection with the temporal
 
hone (d IQ4) At its deep end there is a narrow groove, called the
 
sulcus tvmianicus, which forms about five-sixths of a circle, the
 
 
 
deficiency being placed superiorly, at the V^femporaf^The
 
rinp- ic completed by the squamous part of the temporal bone, me
 
 
 
tympanic membrane is set obliquely within the tympanic sulcus
 
being inclined in such a way that its front part is nearer the nudd
 
line of the body than its back, and its lower part nearer the middle
 
line than the upper. The floor and anterior wall of the meatus
 
consequently longer than the roof and posterior wall.
 
 
 
^ 1671
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
1672
 
 
 
 
 
A MANUAL OF ANATOMY
 
 
 
 
 
The meatus is lined with skin, which is continuous with that of
 
the auricle. In the osseous part of the canal the skin is very thin,
 
and is provided with vascular papillae, but is destitute of glands and
 
hairs.. It is reflected over the outer surface of the membrana tympani,
 
of which it forms the outer layer. In the cartilaginous part of the canal
 
the skin is thicker, and is provided with hairs, connected with the
 
follicles of which are sebaceous glands. In addition to these there are
 
convoluted tubular glands, similar in structure to sweat-glands, and
 
called the ceruminous glands, which secrete the ear-wax.
 
 
 
Blood-supply.—The arteries are derived from the posterior auricular
 
of the external carotid, the deep auricular of the first part of the maxil
 
 
 
Upper Part ofHelix
 
 
 
 
 
Lateral Ligament of the Malleus
 
 
 
1
 
 
 
Incus
 
 
 
 
 
Semicircular Canals
 
 
 
 
 
Concha
 
 
 
 
 
External Auditory
 
Meatus
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Malleus
 
Vestibule
 
__ Cochlea
 
x , Tympanum
 
 
 
Tensor Tympani Muscle
 
 
 
Apex of Pet. Portion
 
of Temporal Bone
 
 
 
_Anterior Lig. of
 
 
 
the Malleus
 
 
 
-Internal Carotid
 
 
 
Artery
 
 
 
 
 
Lobule
 
 
 
Pharyngotympanic Tube
 
 
 
 
 
Parotid Gland
 
 
 
 
 
Tip of Styloid Process of
 
Temporal Bone
 
 
 
 
 
Tympanic Membrane
 
 
 
Iug. 1027. General View of the Right Organ of Hearing (after
 
 
 
Hirschfeld and Leveill£).
 
 
 
The external ear and middle ear are seen in section.
 
 
 
 
 
iary, and the anterior auricular branches of the superficial temporal.
 
The veins follow the course of the arteries.
 
 
 
Lymphatics. These pass to the mastoid glands and to the preauricular lymphatic glands.
 
 
 
Nerves. The auriculo-temporal nerve gives two branches to the
 
meatus, upper and lower, which enter it by passing between the
 
cartilaginous and osseous walls. The upper branch supplies the skin
 
covering the upper part of the membrana tympani, while the auricular
 
branch (Arnold s nerve) of the vagus supplies that of the osseous
 
part of the canal in its lower and back part, and also that covering
 
the lower part of the membrana tympani.
 
 
 
Early Condition of the Meatus.—At birth the osseous part of the
 
 
 
canal is represented by the tympanic annulus and a small portion of
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
THE EAR
 
 
 
 
 
1673
 
 
 
the squamous part of the temporal bone. It is connected by fibrous
 
tissue to the cartilaginous framework of the auricle, and within this
 
fibrous tissue the osseous canal is formed by two outgrowths from the
 
tympanic annulus.
 
 
 
 
 
Middle Ear.
 
 
 
I he middle ear, or tympanum, is an irregular space within the
 
petrous part of the temporal bone, which lies between the membrana
 
tympani externally and the outer osseous wall of the internal ear or
 
labyrinth internally. It is lined with mucous membrane, and it
 
communicates with the naso-pharynx by means of the pharyngotympanic tube, through which it receives air. It has three parts:
 
(1) the tympanum proper, or cavum tympani; (2) the attic, or epitympanic recess; and (3) the tympanic or mastoid antrum.
 
 
 
The tympanum proper (or cavum tympani) is situated between the
 
tympanic membrane and the outer wall of the internal ear. Its
 
contents are as follows:
 
 
 
1. A chain of ossicles (malleus,
 
 
 
incus, and stapes), with
 
their ligaments.
 
 
 
2. Muscles.
 
 
 
The vertical and antero-posterior diameters (inclusive of the attic)
 
are fully \ inch. The transverse measurement is from | to £ inch,
 
except opposite the centre of the membrana tympani, where it is
 
only T V inch, and the shape of its cavity may, perhaps, be visualized
 
by likening a cast of it to a biconcave disc about the size of a threepenny piece.
 
 
 
The tympanic cavity has six walls—lateral, medial, roof, floor,
 
anterior, and posterior.
 
 
 
The lateral wall is formed chiefly by the tympanic membrane,
 
which has the handle of the malleus fixed to it, and slightly by the
 
tympanic annulus, within the circumference of which there is a groove,
 
called the tympanic sulcus, in which the membrane is set. The tympanic annulus and sulcus are interrupted superiorly by a notch, called
 
the tympanic notch. In front of the tympanic annulus is the open,
 
inner extremity of the squamo-tympanic fissure, which lodges the
 
processus gracilis of the malleus, and transmits the tympanic branch
 
of the internal maxillary artery. At the inner end of the fissure is
 
the opening of the iter chordce anterius, by which the chorda tympani
 
nerve leaves the tympanum.
 
 
 
The (medial) wall (see Fig. 1028) separates the tympanum from the
 
internal ear or labyrinth. It is very irregular, and is formed by the
 
following parts :
 
 
 
1 The fenestra vestibuli. 3 - The promontory.
 
 
 
2. Projection of the facial canal. 4 - The fenestra cochleae.
 
 
 
5. The sinus tympani.
 
 
 
 
 
3. Nerves.
 
 
 
4. Bloodvessels.
 
 
 
5. Air.
 
 
 
 
 
A MANUAL OF ANATOMY
 
 
 
 
 
^74
 
 
 
 
 
The fenestra vestibuli is situated in a depression, called the fossa
 
ovalis, at the upper part of the inner wall, and it leads into the cavity
 
of the vestibule. It is irregularly oval, and is elongated from before
 
backwards. It is occupied by the foot-piece of the stapes, and the
 
annular ligament which connects the circumference of the foot-piece
 
to the margin of the opening, the margin being covered by cartilage.
 
 
 
The projection of the facial canal lies above the fenestra ovalis.
 
The canal, which contains the facial nerve, is here directed backwards,
 
and has walls of a paper-like thinness.
 
 
 
The promontory is seen below the fossa ovalis, between it and the
 
fossa rotunda, and slightly in front of both. It is a rounded promin
 
 
 
Mastoid
 
 
 
Antrum
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Sinus Tympam Outlet of Facial Canal at
 
Stylo-mastoid Foramen
 
 
 
kiG. 1028. Section through the Petrous and Mastoid Portions of the
 
Temporal Bone, showing the Tympanum and Mastoid Cells.
 
 
 
ence made by the first turn of the cochlea, and is grooved by the nerves
 
of the tympanic plexus.
 
 
 
The fenestra cochlese is situated in a funnel-shaped depression
 
called the fossa rotunda, below and behind the promontory. It leads
 
into the scala tympani of the cochlea, and in the recent state is closed
 
by the secondary membrane of the tympanum.
 
 
 
1 he sinus tympani is a depression behind the promontory, and
 
between the fossa ovalis and fossa rotunda. In close relation to this
 
is the ampulla of the posterior semicircular canal.
 
 
 
The roof of the tympanum is a thin plate of bone, called the tegmen
 
tympani, which forms part of the anterior surface of the petrous part
 
of the temporal bone.
 
 
 
The floor, narrower than the roof, is a thin plate of bone which
 
separates the tympanum from the jugular fossa.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
THE EAR
 
 
 
 
 
1675
 
 
 
 
 
The anterior wall is narrow, owing to the descent of the roof, and
 
the inclination towards each other of the outer and inner walls. In
 
it are the openings of two canals, the upper of which lodges the tensor
 
tympani muscle, whilst the lower is the osseous part of the pharyngotympanic tube. The two orifices are separated by the margin of the
 
processus cochleariformis. The carotid canal lies just in front of the
 
lower part of the anterior wall.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Fig. 1029.—Diagrammatic Outline of Tympanum and Associated
 
 
 
Recesses.
 
 
 
 
 
The posterior wall is formed by the anterior or tympanic surface
 
of the petrous part of the temporal bone. From above downwards
 
the following parts are seen: (1) the opening of the mastoid antrum,
 
which communicates with the attic of the tympanum, or epitympanic
 
recess; (2) a depression called the fossa incudis, receiving the short
 
process of the incus* (3) a small conical projection, called the pyramid,
 
at the summit of which is an opening for the tendon of the stapedius
 
muscle (posteriorly the canal within the pyramid, which contains the
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Mastoid Antrum
 
 
 
 
 
Lateral Semicirc.C. ~ *
 
Pyramid •
 
Sinus Tympanum —
 
 
 
 
 
-Epitympanic Recess
 
 
 
-Site of Geniculate Ganglion
 
 
 
Fenestra Vestibuli
 
 
 
Promontory
 
 
 
Fenestra Cochleae
 
 
 
 
 
Fir jo^o_ Diagram to show Course and Relations of Facial Canal on
 
 
 
' 'the Medial and Posterior Walls of the Tympanum.
 
 
 
 
 
stapedius muscle, passes downwards in the posterior wall of the
 
tympanum, and communicates with the descending part of the canal
 
which contains the facial nerve; this explains how the branch of that
 
nerve to the stapedius reaches the muscle); and (4) the iter chordae
 
 
 
posterius, for the chorda tympani nerve. .
 
 
 
Tympanic Membrane.-This is the membrane which closes the
 
inner extremity of the external auditory meatus. It is situated on
 
the outer wall of the tympanum, of which it forms the chief part, and
 
it is set for the most part in the sulcus tympamcus, which marks the
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
1676
 
 
 
 
 
A MANUAL OF ANATOMY
 
 
 
 
 
inner surface of the tympanic annulus. Superiorly, however, where
 
the ring is wanting, the membrane is attached to the tympanic notch
 
(of Rivinus). This part of it is thinner and looser than the rest, and
 
is called the membrana flaccida, or Shrapnell’s membrane. The
 
attachment of the membrana tympani to the sulcus is by a thickened
 
ring of fibres, called the annulus fibrosus. This annulus passes from
 
the extremities of the notch to the short process of the malleus in the
 
form of two bands, the anterior and lateral ligaments of the malleus,
 
which form the lower boundary of the membrana flaccida. The membrane is set obliquely in the tympanic sulcus, so that its lower part
 
forms an acute angle with the floor of the meatus externus, and its
 
upper part an obtuse angle with the roof of the passage.
 
 
 
 
 
Superior Ligament of Malleus
 
 
 
 
 
Head of Malleus
 
Insertion of Tensor Tympani
 
 
 
Chorda Tympani Nerve
 
 
 
 
 
Pharyngo-tympanic
 
Tube
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Superior Ligament of Incus
 
Body of Incus
 
 
 
Attic of Tympanum
 
 
 
^ Short Process of
 
Incus
 
 
 
L ’\ST ^Posterior Liga^ ment of Incus
 
 
 
s ^_Long Process of
 
 
 
 
 
_Processus Orbicu
 
1 & • laris of Incus
 
 
 
y ' 0 _Handle of Malleus
 
 
 
 
 
 
_Membrana Tympani
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Fig. 1031.—The Right Membrana Tympani, Malleus, and Incus
 
(Internal, Posterior, and Superior View) (Spalteholz).
 
 
 
 
 
The tympanic membrane is somewhat oval. In the vertical
 
direction it measures about 10 mm., and horizontally from 8 to 9 mm.
 
The handle of the malleus lies between the mucous and fibrous layers
 
of the membrane, and descends to a point a little below its centre,
 
where it ends in a small knob, from which the radiating fibres of the
 
membrane proceed. This knob is firmly attached, and, being directed
 
inwards, the membrane is consequently drawn inwards at that point,
 
and its outer surface presents a slight conical depression, the deepest
 
part of which is called the umbo.
 
 
 
Structure.— The membrane consists of three layers—external,
 
middle, and internal.
 
 
 
The external or cutaneous layer is very thin, and is derived from
 
the skin of the external meatus. It contains no glands, is freely provided with bloodvessels and nerves, and is covered by stratified
 
squamous epithelium.
 
 
 
 
 
/
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
THE EAR
 
 
 
 
 
1677
 
 
 
The middle or fibrous layer forms the proper substance of the
 
membrane, and consists of fibrous tissue. The fibres are radial and
 
circular. The radial fibres lie beneath the cutaneous layer, and radiate
 
from the handle of the malleus to the annulus fibrosus. The circular
 
fibres are deep to the radial fibres, and are most numerous towards the
 
circumference of the membrane. Both sets of fibres are absent from
 
the membrana flaccida.
 
 
 
The internal or mucous layer is continuous with the mucous membrane of the tympanum, and is covered by a single layer of squamous
 
epithelium.
 
 
 
The membrana flaccida, pars flaccida, or Shrapnell’s membrane, has
 
cutaneous and mucous layers only. These are united by connective
 
tissue, which is so loosely arranged that the membrane is flaccid. This
 
part is very liable to perforation.
 
 
 
Cone of Light.—Extending from the knob, in which the handle of
 
the malleus terminates, downwards and inwards to the antero-inferior
 
margin of the membrana tympani there is seen a specially bright
 
reflection, triangular in outline, with the apex towards the umbo.
 
This is called the cone of light.
 
 
 
Arterial Supply of the Tympanic Membrane.—(1) Deep auricular
 
branch of the maxillary artery. This vessel, which passes through the
 
anterior wall of the external meatus, supplies the cutaneous layer. It
 
descends from the skin of the roof of the meatus along the course of the
 
handle of the malleus to the umbo, where it divides into branches
 
which radiate towards the circumference of the membrane. (2) The
 
stylo-mastoid branch of the posterior auricular; and (3) the tympanic
 
branch of the maxillary. The former artery enters the tympanum from
 
the facial canal, and the latter through the squamo-tympanic fissure.
 
Branches from them supply the mucous layer, and form an anastomotic
 
ring around the circumference of the membrane. The fibrous layer
 
receives its arterial supply from the vessels of the cutaneous and
 
mucous layers.
 
 
 
The veins join the external and internal jugular.
 
 
 
Nerve-supply.—(1) The auriculo-temporal of the mandibular, (2) the
 
auricular branch of the vagus, and (3) branches from the tympanic
 
plexus.
 
 
 
Secondary Membrane of the Tympanum.—This membrane closes
 
the fenestra cochleae on the inner wall of the tympanum, and separates
 
the tympanic cavity from the scala tympani of the cochlea. It is
 
concave towards the tympanum, and, like the membrana tympani,
 
consists of three layers. The external layer is formed by the tympanic
 
mucous membrane; the middle layer is fibrous; and the internal layer is
 
formed by the lining membrane of the cochlea.
 
 
 
The mastoid antrum and mastoid air-cells are described with the
 
temporal bone on p. 188, while the Eustachian or pharyngo-tympanic
 
tube is dealt with on p. 1378.
 
 
 
 
 
1678
 
 
 
 
 
A MANUAL OF ANATOMY
 
 
 
 
 
Lateral Process
 
Long Process
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Ant.
 
 
 
Process
 
 
 
 
 
Plandie
 
 
 
 
 
Fig. 1032.—The Malleus.
 
 
 
1. anterior view; 2, posterior view.
 
 
 
 
 
Ossicles of the Tympanum.
 
 
 
The tympanum contains three small bones, arranged in the form
 
of a chain which extends from the membrana tympani to the fenestra
 
vestibuli. The bones are the malleus, the incus, and the stapes. The
 
malleus is related to the membrana tympani, the stapes to the fenestra,
 
and the incus occupies an intermediate position between these two.
 
 
 
The malleus is so named from its resemblance to a hammer. It is
 
composed of a head, neck, handle, and two processes, long and short.
 
 
 
T 2 The head is the upper, enlarged,
 
 
 
Facet for incus rounded end. Posteriorly it has
 
 
 
a saddle-shaped facet, directed
 
obliquely downwards and inwards,
 
for articulation with the incus in a
 
synovial joint. The neck is the
 
constricted part below the head.
 
The handle (; manubrium) is directed
 
downwards, inwards, and backwards
 
from the neck; it is compressed
 
from before backwards, slightly
 
curved, and ends in a knob. It
 
lies between the fibrous and mucous layers of the membrana tympani,
 
descending to a point a little below the centre of the membrane. It
 
is firmly attached to the fibrous layer by its periosteum. The tensor
 
tympani muscle is inserted into the inner part close to its root. The
 
long or anterior process (processus gracilis ), which is slender, springs
 
from the front of the neck, and is directed forwards and downwards to
 
the petro-tympanic fissure, where it is embedded in fibres which form
 
part of the anterior ligament of the malleus, and connect it to the
 
margins of the fissure. The long process is in the adult for the most
 
part replaced by fibrous tissue except close to the neck of the malleus.
 
In early life it is continuous with Meckel’s cartilage. The short or
 
lateral process is situated immediately below the long process. It is
 
directed laterally to the upper part of the
 
membrana tympani, with which it is connected by the annulus fibrosus. It is also
 
connected with the extremities of the notch
 
by the anterior and posterior malleolar
 
ligaments.
 
 
 
Ihe incus resembles an anvil. It consists
 
of a body and two processes—short and
 
 
 
long. The body is thick, somewhat four- ^ ~ Head ° f Sta fu
 
 
 
sided, and laterally compressed. Anteriorly y^ 08 '
 
 
 
it presents a saddle-shaped articular surface
 
 
 
for the head of the malleus, with which it forms a synovial joint.
 
The short process is directed backwards, is tipped with cartilage, and
 
articulates with the fossa incudis on the posterior wall of the tympanum. The long process is directed downwards and medially, behind
 
 
 
 
 
Facet
 
 
 
for Malleus
 
 
 
/ Short Process
 
 
 
/
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Long Process
 
 
 
 
 
'*■' Lentiform Nodule for
 
Head of Stapes
 
 
 
 
 
THE EAR
 
 
 
 
 
1679
 
 
 
 
 
and parallel to the handle of the malleus. Its lower extremity is bent
 
inwards, and becomes narrowed into a neck, upon which is placed a
 
disc-like knob of bone, called the os orbiculare, which is covered by
 
cartilage for articulation with the head of the stapes. In early life,
 
and up to the sixth month of intra-uterine life, this process forms a
 
separate ossicle.
 
 
 
The stapes resembles a stirrup. It has a head, neck, two crura,
 
and a foot-piece or base. The head is directed laterally, is concave
 
and covered by cartilage, and articulates with the processus lenticularis
 
of the incus. The neck is the constricted part which lies immediately
 
internal to the head. Posteriorly it gives
 
insertion to the stapedius muscle. The
 
crura are anterior and posterior respectively,
 
and spring from the neck. They diverge as
 
they pass inwards, and are attached to the
 
foot-piece near its extremities. The anterior
 
crus is straighter and shorter than the
 
 
 
posterior. The foot-piece or base is some- Malleus
 
what oval, is directed medially, and occupies incus,,
 
the fenestra ovalis, which it almost completely fills; its circumference is covered by
 
cartilage, being attached to the margins of
 
the fenestra by annular ligamentous fibres. Stapes-
 
The arch formed by the crura and foot-piece _ ~
 
 
 
is occupied by a delicate membrane, which tympanic Os
 
is attached to a slight groove on the inner sicles in Position.
 
aspect of the arch.
 
 
 
Development of the Tympanic Ossicles— The malleus and incus are usually
 
regarded as being developed from the proximal end of Meckel’s cartilage,
 
which forms the cartilaginous bar of the first or mandibular arch. According to
 
some authorities, however, the incus is developed from the hyoid bar. The stapes
 
is developed from the dorsal part of the hyoid bar of the second visceral arch.
 
 
 
Ligaments of the Ossicles.—The synovial joints between the malleus
 
and incus and between the incus and stapes are provided with thin
 
capsular ligaments. The ligaments which connect the ossicles to the
 
walls of the tympanic cavity are five in number, three of them belonging
 
to the malleus, one to the incus, and one to the stapes.
 
 
 
The ligaments of the malleus are anterior, lateral, posterior, and
 
superior. The anterior ligament is arranged as a fibrous band which
 
extends from the root of the long process to the petro-tympanic fissure,
 
through which it passes to be attached to the spine of the sphenoid
 
bone. The lateral ligament (or malleolar fold) extends from the
 
short process to the anterior extremity of the tympanic notch. The
 
posterior ligament extends from the short process to the posterior
 
extremity of the notch. The superior ligament extends from the head
 
of the malleus to the roof of the attic or epitympanic recess.
 
 
 
The ligament of the incus connects the short process, near its
 
posterior extremity, to the fossa incudis.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
i68o
 
 
 
 
 
A MANUAL OF ANATOMY
 
 
 
 
 
The annular ligament of the stapes connects the circumference of
 
the foot-piece, which is covered by cartilage, to the margin of the
 
fenestra vestibuli, which is also covered by cartilage.
 
 
 
Muscles of the tympanum are the tensor tympani and the stapedius.
 
 
 
Tensor Tympani— Origin .—(i) The cartilaginous part of the
 
pharyngo-tympanic tube; (2) the apex of the petrous part of the
 
temporal bone; and (3) the wall of the osseous canal through which
 
the muscle passes.
 
 
 
Insertion, —The medial aspect of the handle of the malleus close to
 
its root.
 
 
 
Nerve-supply.—A branch from the otic ganglion, and through it
 
from the internal pterygoid branch of the mandibular division of the
 
fifth cranial nerve.
 
 
 
The muscle consists of a fleshy belly, about inch long, and a
 
delicate tendon. In passing backwards to the tympanum it lies in a
 
canal, the entrance to which is situated within the petro-squamous
 
angle of the temporal bone. The canal is placed above the osseous
 
part of the tube, from which it is separated by the processus cochlearifor mis. On entering the tympanum the tendon of the muscle bends
 
sharply over the edge of the processus cochleariformis, and then passes
 
laterally to reach its insertion. The tendon forms very nearly a
 
right angle with the fleshly belly.
 
 
 
Action. —To render tense the membrana tympani by drawing
 
inwards the handle of the malleus, and along with it the membrane.
 
 
 
Stapedius Origin. —The wall of the canal within the pyramid, and
 
of the continuation of this canal in front of the descending part of the
 
facial canal.
 
 
 
The tendon emerges from the canal within the pyramid through a
 
small orifice on the apex.
 
 
 
Insertion. —The posterior aspect of the neck of the stapes.
 
 
 
Nerve-supply. —The facial nerve.
 
 
 
Action. To draw the head of the stapes backwards. The result
 
is that the front part of the foot-piece of the stapes is tilted away
 
 
 
from the vestibule, and its back part is pressed inwards towards the
 
vestibule.
 
 
 
Movements of the Ossicles.—The malleus and incus both act as
 
levers of the first kind, the fulcra of which are represented by an axis
 
passing backwards from the slender process of the malleus. When a
 
sound-wave presses the tympanic membrane inward, the handle of the
 
malleus travels inward with it, and the head of the malleus, or short
 
arm of the lever, moves outward. The upper part, or short arm of
 
the incus lever, must move out too, since it is attached to the head
 
of the malleus, and the long process moves inward, thus pressing the
 
 
 
stapes into the fenestra ovalis and compressing the perilymph in the
 
cochlea.
 
 
 
Ihe secondary membrane of the tympanum, stretched across the
 
fenestra rotunda, is bulged outward by the perilymph, thus allowing
 
vibrations to travel through that fluid.
 
 
 
 
 
/
 
 
 
 
 
THE EAR
 
 
 
 
 
1681
 
 
 
Mucous Membrane of the Tympanum.—The tympanic mucous
 
membrane is continuous anteriorly with that of the naso-pharynx
 
through the pharyngo-tympanic (or Eustachian) tube. Posteriorly it is
 
prolonged into the mastoid antrum, and thence into the mastoid cells.
 
It forms the internal layer of the tympanic membrane, and the external
 
layer of the secondary membrane of the tympanum. It also furnishes
 
sheaths for the tendons of the tensor tympani and stepedius muscles,
 
and for the chorda tympani nerve. Two folds extend downwards from
 
the roof of the attic or epitympanic recess, one in front of and the other
 
behind the superior ligament of the malleus. The former is connected
 
with the head of the malleus, and the latter (sometimes described as
 
the superior ligament of the incus) with the incus.
 
 
 
Attic or Epitympanic Recess and its Pouches.—The part of the
 
tympanic cavity which lies above the level of the upper margin of the
 
tympanic membrane is called the attic or epitympanic recess, as distinguished from the atrium or tympanum proper. It contains the
 
head and neck of the malleus, and the body and short process of the
 
incus. These divide it incompletely into two compartments—outer
 
and inner. The outer attic is subdivided into two pouches—superior
 
and inferior. The superior pouch is partially separated from the
 
inner attic by the two mucous folds which have been already referred
 
to as descending from the roof of the attic in front of and behind the
 
superior ligament of the malleus. The inferior pouch of the outer attic
 
is known as the pouch of Prussak. It is bounded laterally by the
 
membrana flaccida, superiorly by the lateral ligament of the malleus,
 
which partially separates it from the superior pouch, and internally
 
by the neck of the malleus. The pouch communicates posteriorly
 
with the tympanic cavity by an opening which is situated a little above
 
the level of the bottom of the pouch. If fluid, therefore, should
 
accumulate in Prussak’s pouch, it may readily lead to perforation of
 
the membrana flaccida.
 
 
 
Two other pouches are present—namely, the anterior and posterior
 
recesses or pouches of Troltsch. These lie one in front of and the other
 
behind the handle of the malleus, and are produced by the fold of
 
mucous membrane which invests the chorda tympani nerve.
 
 
 
The tympanic mucous membrane is covered for the most part by
 
columnar ciliated epithelium, except over the ossicles and membrana
 
tympani, where the epithelium consists of a single layer of squamous,
 
non-ciliated cells.
 
 
 
The tympanic or mastoid antrum is supplementary to the tympanum proper, or cavum tympani, behind which it is situated. It
 
communicates by a large irregular opening with the attic, and is
 
lined with mucous membrane, which is continuous with that of the
 
attic and cavum tympani. Opening from the antrum there are the
 
mastoid cells, which are lined with mucous membrane, continuous
 
with that of the antrum.
 
 
 
The average measurements of the antrum are as follows: vertical,
 
about Q millimetres; antero-posterior, about n millimetres; and
 
 
 
106
 
 
 
 
 
1682
 
 
 
 
 
A MANUAL OF ANATOMY
 
 
 
 
 
transverse, about 8 millimetres. The roof is formed by the thin
 
tegmen tympani, which enters into the formation of the middle fossa
 
of the base of the skull, and is consequently related to the temporal
 
lobe of the cerebrum and its meninges. The genu and descending
 
limb of the sigmoid sinus lie behind the antrum, and a little farther
 
back is the cerebullum. The facial nerve, as it traverses the descending part of its canal, lies in the posterior wall of the cavum tympani,
 
close to the medial wall and in front of the mastoid antrum. This
 
part of the nerve is on a plane anterior to the mastoid process, and is
 
nearly flush with the opening of the antrum. The ampulla of the
 
lateral semicircular canal of the internal ear gives rise to a slight
 
eminence on the medial wall at its anterior part.
 
 
 
The lateral wall corresponds on the surface with the area of the
 
suprameatal triangle of Macewen, and is formed by the postmeatal
 
plate of the squamous portion of the temporal bone. For a description
 
of this triangle, which is the region selected for mastoidectomy , and also
 
for the mastoid cells, see the description of the temporal bone.
 
 
 
Summary of Important Structures closely related to the Mastoid Antrum.
 
 
 
1. Temporal lobe of cerebrum and its meninges (roof).
 
 
 
2. Genu and descending limb of sigmoid sinus, and farther back the cerebellum (posterior wall).
 
 
 
3 - Facial nerve (posterior wall of cavum tympani, close to medial wall and
 
nearly flush with antral opening).
 
 
 
4 - Lateral semicircular canal (anterior part of medial wall).
 
 
 
The upper part of the antrum communicates, as stated, with the
 
attic of the cavum tympani, but the lower part is shut off by bone from
 
the cavity of the cavum tympani.
 
 
 
The mucous membrane of the mastoid antrum is continuous with
 
that which lines the mastoid cells. Anteriorly it is also continuous
 
with the mucous membrane of the attic and cavum tympani or tympanum proper. The mucous membrane of the cavum tympani is
 
continuous anteriorly with that of the pharyngo-tympanic tube, and
 
the mucous membrane of the tube is continuous with that of the
 
naso-pharynx. This extensive and continuous tract of mucous
 
membrane is covered by columnar ciliated epithelium except in the
 
following regions: (1) the promontory; (2) the tympanic ossicles;
 
(3) the tympanic membrane; (4) the mastoid antrum; and (5) the
 
mastoid cells. In these regions the epithelium consists of a single
 
layer of squamous, non-ciliated cells.
 
 
 
It is of considerable importance to note that micro-organisms
 
may pass from the naso-pharynx through the tube into the cavum
 
tympani and attic, and thence into the mastoid antrum and mastoid
 
cells. Purulent affections of these regions may therefore readily be
 
caused in this manner. Such affections may subsequently involve
 
(1) the temporal lobe of the cerebrum and its meninges, (2) the genu
 
and descending limb of the sigmoid sinus, and (3) the internal ear or
 
labyrinth.
 
 
 
 
 
/
 
 
 
 
 
THE EAR
 
 
 
 
 
1683
 
 
 
Arteries of the Tympanum. —The principal arteries are: (1) the tympanic
 
branch of the maxillary, and (2) the stylo-mastoid branch of the posterior
 
auricular. The tympanic artery enters through the petro-tympanic fissure, and
 
supplies the membrana tympani and front part of the tympanum. The stylomastoid artery enters the facial canal through the stylo-mastoid foramen, and
 
passes from the descending part of the canal into the tympanum. It supplies
 
the back part of the cavity and the mastoid cells, and it forms, with the tympanic
 
artery, a ring round the circumference of the membrana tympani.
 
 
 
In addition to the foregoing two arteries, the following three arteries enter
 
the tympanic cavity: (1) the petrosal branch of the middle meningeal, which
 
enters from the facial canal, into which it passes through the hiatus; (2) the
 
tympanic branch of the ascending pharyngeal, which accompanies the nerve
 
through the tympanic canaliculus; and (3) the tympanic branch of the internal
 
carotid, which enters by a minute foramen on the posterior wall of the ascending
 
part of the carotid canal in company with a sympathetic twig from the carotid
 
plexus.
 
 
 
The veins of the tympanum pass to the pterygoid plexus, the superior petrosal
 
sinus, the internal jugular vein, and the pharyngeal plexus.
 
 
 
Nerves of the tympanum are described on pp. 1325 and 1400.
 
 
 
Internal Ear.
 
 
 
The internal ear is the essential part of the organ of hearing, and
 
is known as the labyrinth from its remarkable complexity. It consists
 
of two parts—namely, the osseous labyrinth and the membranous
 
labyrinth.
 
 
 
Osseous Labyrinth.
 
 
 
The osseous labyrinth is a cavity situated within the petrous part
 
of the temporal bone, and is divided into three parts—namely, the
 
vestibule, the semicircular canals, and the cochlea. These divisions
 
are lined with a delicate periosteum, between which and the contained
 
membranous labyrinth there is a clear fluid, called the perilymph.
 
 
 
Vestibule.—The vestibule is the central division of the osseous
 
labyrinth. The semicircular canals lie behind it, and the cochlea is
 
situated in front of it. In the lateral wall is the fenestra vestibuii, which
 
is occupied by the foot-piece of the stapes and its annular ligament.
 
The medial wall has anteriorly a depression called the fovea spherica
 
or spherical recess, which corresponds to the lamina cribrosa at the
 
deep end of the meatus auditorius internus. It is pierced by apertures
 
for the passage of filaments of the auditory nerve to the saccule.
 
Behind and above the fovea spherica there is a ridge, called the vestibular crest, which lies obliquely. Posteriorly it bifurcates, and
 
between its two divisions there is a small depression, called the cochlear
 
recess, in which are openings for nerve filaments to the canalis cochlese.
 
Anteriorly it becomes somewhat triangular, and forms a pyramid,
 
which is pierced by nerves to the utricle.
 
 
 
The roof of the vestibule, behind and above the crista vestibuii,
 
has an oval depression, called the elliptical recess, which encroaches on
 
the inner wall and lodges the recess of the utricle. It is pierced by
 
nerves to the ampulke of the superior and external semicircular canals.
 
Below the fovea elliptica is the opening of the aqueduct of the vesti
 
 
 
1684
 
 
 
 
 
A MANUAL OF ANATOMY
 
 
 
 
 
bule, which leads to the posterior surface of the petrous part of the
 
temporal bone about J inch external to the orifice of the meatus
 
auditorius internus. It transmits the ductus endolymphaticus and
 
a minute vein.
 
 
 
Anteriorly the vestibule communicates with the scala vestibuli
 
of the cochlea, and posteriorly are the five openings of the semicircular
 
canals.
 
 
 
Semicircular Canals.—The osseous semicircular canals are situated
 
behind the vestibule. They are three in number—superior, posterior,
 
 
 
 
 
Cupola of Cochlea
 
Petrous part of Tern- 5
 
 
 
poral Bone
 
 
 
 
 
Facial Canal
 
A
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Superior Semicircular Canal
 
 
 
 
 
Fenestra Vestibuli
 
 
 
Lateral Semicircular
 
Canal
 
 
 
 
 
Posterior Semicircular
 
Canal
 
 
 
Vestibule
 
 
 
 
 
Fenestra Cochleae
 
 
 
 
 
_ Superior Semicircular Canal
 
 
 
 
 
Inner Wall of Canal '
 
of Cochlea
 
 
 
Helicotrema
 
 
 
 
 
Lamina Spiralis
 
 
 
 
 
Crus Commune of Sup. and
 
Post. SemicircularCanals
 
 
 
 
 
Posterior Semicircular
 
Canal
 
 
 
Lateral Semicircular
 
Canal
 
Elliptical Recess
 
\ Crista Vestibuli
 
Spherical Recess
 
 
 
 
 
1 \ .
 
 
 
1 '
 
 
 
> Orifice of Aqueductus Vestibuli
 
Recessus Cochlearis
 
 
 
 
 
Fenestra Cochleae
 
Scala T.ympani Scala Vestibuli
 
 
 
Fig. 1035. —The Osseous Labyrinth of the Left Side (Lateral View).
 
A, entire; B opened (Hirschfeld and Leveille; B, modified).
 
 
 
 
 
and lateral—and they open into the vestibule by five circular apertures,
 
the contiguous ends of the superior and posterior canals having a
 
common orifice. Each canal forms about two-thirds of a circle, and
 
each presents at one end an enlargement, called the ampulla. The
 
superior semicircular canal occupies a vertical position, and lies transversely as regards the long axis of the petrous part of the temporal
 
bone, giving rise to the eminentia arcuata on its superior surface.
 
Its ampullary end (antero-external) opens independently into the upper
 
part of the vestibule above the ampullary orifice of the external canal.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
THE EAR
 
 
 
 
 
1685
 
 
 
 
 
Its non-ampullary end unites with the non-ampullary end of the
 
posterior canal to form the crus commune, and the two open by a
 
common orifice into the vestibule. The posterior semicircular canal
 
arches backwards towards the posterior surface of the pars petrosa,
 
with which it is almost parallel, and, like the superior, it occupies a
 
vertical position. Its ampullary end (inferior) opens independently
 
into the lower and back part of the vestibule, and its non-ampullary
 
end, as just stated, joins that of the superior canal. The lateral
 
semicircular canal arches outwards, and occupies a horizontal position.
 
Its extremities are independent of those of the other two canals,
 
and they open by separate apertures into the upper and back part
 
of the vestibule. Its ampullary end is in front.
 
 
 
Cochlea.—The osseous cochlea is situated in front of the vestibule.
 
It consists of a tube coiled spirally upon itself, like a snail s shell,
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Fig. 1036. _Median Section of the Left Osseous Cochlea of Man
 
 
 
from Apex to Base (Arnold).
 
 
 
 
 
S.V. Scala Vestibuli
 
S.T. Scala Tympani
 
 
 
 
 
L.S.O. Lamina Spiralis Ossea
 
C.C. Central Canal of Modiolus
 
 
 
 
 
M.A.I. Internal Auditory Meatus
 
 
 
 
 
and is conical. Its base is opposite the lamina cribrosa at the deep
 
end of the meatus auditorius interims; and its apex, known as the
 
cupola is directed outwards and slightly forwards towards the canal
 
which contains the tensor tympani muscle. Its length from base to
 
apex is about i inch. It consists of (1) a winding tube, called the
 
spiral canal of the cochlea ; (2) a central pillar, called the modiolus,
 
round which the spiral canal turns; and (3) a thin plate of bone, called
 
the osseous spiral lamina, which winds spirally round the modiolus
 
and projects into the spiral canal of the cochlea. . .
 
 
 
The spiral canal of the cochlea (cochlear canal or tube) winds round
 
the modiolus which forms its inner wall. It describes two and threenuarter turns, and its basal turn or coil gives rise to the promontory on
 
the inner wall of the tympanum. At the cupola it ends in a blind
 
extremity. It gradually diminishes in size from base to cupola; its
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
i686
 
 
 
 
 
A MANUAL OF ANATOMY
 
 
 
 
 
length is about 32 millimetres; and its diameter is about 2 millimetres
 
at the base, where it is greatest.
 
 
 
The modiolus is the central pillar round which the spiral canal of
 
the cochlea turns, and it forms the inner wall of that canal. It commences at the cochlear area of the lamina cribosa at the deep end of the
 
internal auditory meatus, and extends almost to the cupola, gradually
 
tapering. It is traversed by minute canals for branches of the cochlear
 
division of the auditory nerve. One of these canals occupies the
 
centre of the modiolus, and is called the central canal of the modiolus.
 
This canal begins at the foramen centrale of the cochlear area of the
 
lamina cribrosa, and it transmits the nerve-filaments for the apical
 
coil. The other canals, which have no special name, commence at
 
the tractus spiralis foraminosus of the cochlear area of the lamina
 
cribrosa, and they transmit the nerve-filaments for the other coils—
 
middle and basal. At successive levels these canals change their
 
direction, and pass outwards to the attached margin of the lamina
 
spiralis, to be presently described. Here they coalesce and form a
 
winding canal, called the spiral canal of the modiolus, which lodges
 
the spiral ganglion or ganglion of Corti. From this canal secondary
 
canals for nerve-filaments pass into the lamina spiralis.
 
 
 
The osseous spiral lamina is a thin plate of bone, which winds
 
spirally round the modiolus, to which it is attached. It projects from
 
the modiolus into the spiral canal of the cochlea throughout the windings
 
of the latter, and it extends for about half-way towards the outer wall
 
of the cochlear canal. It divides that canal incompletely into two
 
passages or scalar —an upper or scala vestibuli, and a lower or scala
 
tympani, the commencement of which is at the fenestra cochleae.
 
Close to the cupola the lamina spiralis terminates in a hook-like process,
 
called the hamulus. The spiral lamina consists of two plates of bone,
 
between which there are canals for nerve-filaments, these canals being
 
offsets of the spiral canal of the modiolus, which, as has been said,
 
contains the spiral ganglion or ganglion of Corti. They extend to the
 
free margin of the spiral lamina. The free margin of the lamina
 
spiralis is, in the recent state, attached to the outer wall of the spiral
 
canal of the cochlea by means of the basilar membrane or basilar
 
lamina, and the scala vestibuli and scala tympani are now completely
 
separated, except in the region of the hamulus, where they communicate
 
through an opening, called the helicotrema.
 
 
 
The lamina cribrosa, at the deep end of the internal auditory
 
meatus, will be found described in connection with the temporal
 
bone (p. 190).
 
 
 
At the lower end of the scala tympani is the upper opening of the
 
aqueductus cochleae, which passes downwards and medially to the
 
posterior border of the petrous part of the temporal bone. It transmits
 
a small vein to the inferior petrosal sinus, and establishes a communication between the scala tympani and the subarachnoid space.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
THE EAR
 
 
 
 
 
1687
 
 
 
 
 
Membranous Labyrinth.
 
 
 
The membranous labyrinth is situated within the osseous labyrinth,
 
and its constituent parts receive the terminal branches of the auditory
 
nerve. It is separated from the periosteal lining of the osseous labyrinth by the perilymph, and it contains the fluid known as the endolymph. In the case of the vestibule and the osseous semicircular
 
canals the. membranous labyrinth corresponds more or less with
 
them; but in the case of the osseous cochlea it forms part of the septum
 
between the scala tympani and scala vestibuli, and contains a passage
 
called the membranous canal of the cochlea (ductus cochleae).
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Fig. 1037. —Diagram of Membranous Labyrinth.
 
 
 
Vestibular Part of the Membranous Labyrinth.—The vestibule
 
contains two membranous sacs—namely, the utricle and the saccule
 
 
 
_which are in close contact, but do not communicate with each other
 
 
 
directly. These sacs contain endolymph.
 
 
 
The utricle is the larger of the two sacs, and into it the membranous
 
semicircular ducts open. It occupies the upper and back part of the
 
vestibule, a portion of it, known as the recessus utriculi, lying in the
 
fovea elliptica. Near the crista vestibuli the wall of this recess receives
 
fibres of the auditory nerve and is thickened, this part of it being called
 
the macula utriculi. From the anterior and medial part of the utricle
 
a minute canal, called the ductus utriculi («ductus utriculo-saccularis ),
 
passes to join the ductus sacculi, and so form the ductus endolymphaticus (see Fig. 1037).
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
1688
 
 
 
 
 
A MANUAL OF ANATOMY
 
 
 
 
 
The saccule, which is somewhat oval, lies in front of the utricle,
 
and occupies the fovea spherica, where it is near the opening leading
 
into the scala vestibuli of the cochlea. Through the openings of the
 
fovea spherica it receives filaments of the auditory nerve, and this
 
portion of the saccule, being thickened, is known as the macula sacculi.
 
Interiorly the saccule is connected with a small canal, called the
 
ductus reuniens, which opens into the canal of the cochlea, or ductus
 
cochlearis, not far from its closed vestibular end. From the posterior
 
part of the saccule a minute canal, called the ductus sacculi, passes off,
 
which is soon joined by the ductus utriculi, and so the ductus endolymphaticus is formed. This latter duct traverses the aqueductus
 
vestibuli, and, having reached the posterior surface of the petrous
 
part of the temporal bone, it ends in a small blind dilatation, called the
 
saccus endolymphaticus , which lies beneath the dura mater. The saccule
 
and utricle are thus indirectly connected by means of the ductus sacculi
 
and ductus utriculi; and the saccule communicates with the ductus
 
cochlearis by means of the ductus reuniens.
 
 
 
Semicircular Ducts.—The membranous semicircular ducts correspond in outline to the osseous semicircular canals, within which they
 
lie; they form about two-thirds of a circle, and each has an ampulla
 
at one end, which is situated within the ampulla of the osseous canal.
 
They are elliptical in transverse section, and open into the utricle by
 
five orifices, the non-ampullated ends of the superior and posterior
 
canals being united, so that these two open by a common orifice
 
forming the crus commune. The convex wall of each canal is attached
 
to the periosteal lining of the osseous canal, whilst the concave wall is
 
practically free from the osseous wall, and is bathed by the perilymph.
 
These canals contain endolymph.
 
 
 
Structure.—The walls of the utricle, saccule, and membranous
 
semicircular canals consist of three layers: an outer or fibrous layer,
 
which is vascular; a middle layer, or membrana propria, which is translucent; and an inner or epithelial layer. In each ampulla the middle
 
layer, or membrana propria, projects into the cavity of the canal from
 
the peripheral wall, this projecting part being known as the septum
 
transversum. It partially divides the interior of the ampulla into two
 
compartments, and its free margin, which is covered by the auditory
 
epithelium, is called the crista acustica or ampullaris. The epithelial
 
layer consists of a single stratum of squamous cells, except in those
 
regions to which the filaments of the auditory nerve are distributed. These regions are as follows: (i) the macula (acustica)
 
utriculi; (2) the macula (acustica) sacculi; and (3) the crista of each
 
ampulla.
 
 
 
The macula utriculi is the thickened part of the antero-inferior wall
 
of the recessus utriculi, and is lined with auditory epithelium. The
 
macula is covered by calcareous particles, called otoconia, which
 
consist of crystals of calcium carbonate. The macula sacculi is the
 
thickened part of the anterior wall of the saccule, and is also lined with
 
auditory epithelium covered by otoconia. The crista ampullaris, as
 
 
 
 
 
THE EAR
 
 
 
 
 
1689
 
 
 
 
 
we have seen, is the free margin of the septum trailsversum in each
 
ampulla, and is covered by auditory epithelium.
 
 
 
The auditory epithelium is of the columnar variety, and consists of
 
two kinds of cells, auditory and sustentacular. The auditory cells are
 
nucleated, and each is provided at its free extremity with a slender,
 
tapering, hair-like filament, which projects into the cavity. These
 
filaments are sometimes spoken of collectively as auditory hairs, and
 
the cells are hence called hair-cells. Their deep extremities fall short
 
of the membrana propria. The sustentacular cells lie between the haircells, and are elongated and nucleated. Their deep extremities are
 
attached to the membrana propria, and their free extremities give rise
 
to a kind of limiting membrane. The auditory nerve-fibres pierce
 
the membrana propria, and, having lost their medullary sheaths, the
 
axons end in arborizations round the deep ends of the auditory or
 
hair cells.
 
 
 
Superior Semicircular Duct
 
 
 
 
 
Lateral Semicircular Duct i
 
 
 
 
 
Posterior Semicircular Duct
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Facial Nerve
 
 
 
 
 
Crus Commune of Superior and
 
' l Posterior Semicircular Ducts
 
 
 
j r Ampulla
 
 
 
_ l Nerve to Ampulla
 
Nerve to Utricle
 
~ . Nerve to Saccule
 
_ Cochlear Nerve
 
 
 
 
 
Fig. 1038. —The Membranous Semicircular Ducts, showing the Distribution of the Branches of the Auditory Nerve to their Ampullae
 
 
 
(Breschet).
 
 
 
Membranous Cochlea.—The membranous cochlea is situated within
 
the osseous cochlea, and fills the gap which is left by the lamina
 
spiralis. It consists of two membranes, the basilar membrane and the
 
vestibular membrane (membrane of Reissner, Fig. 1040), which enclose
 
between them the ductus cochlearis, or scala media. 1 he osseous
 
cochlea in the recent state is therefore divided into three spiral
 
passages—the scala tympani, the scala vestibuli, and the ductus
 
cochlearis. The scala vestibuli is continuous with the scala tympani
 
at the cupola through an aperture, called the helicotrema ; and at the
 
base of the cochlea it opens upon the anterior wall of the vestibule.
 
The scala tympani begins at the fenestra cochleae, and in the recent
 
state is separated from the tympanic cavity by the secondary membrane of the tympanum. The scala media, or ductus cochlearis,
 
communicates near its lower end with the saccule by means of the ductus
 
reuniens. The scala vestibuli and scala tympani contain perilymph,
 
which is continuous with the perilymph of the vestibule and osseous
 
semicircular canals. The scala media contains endolymph, which is
 
continuous with that of the saccule,
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
1690
 
 
 
 
 
A MANUAL OF ANATOMY
 
 
 
 
 
Basilar Membrane.—The basilar membrane extends from the free
 
margin of the lamina spiralis to the crista basilaris, or lower part of
 
the spiral ligament, a thickening of the periosteum of that part of the
 
outer wall of the cochlea which forms the outer wall of the scala media,
 
or ductus cochlearis. It separates the ductus cochlearis from the scala
 
tympani, and is divisible into two zones, inner and outer. The inner
 
is called the zona arcuata, and supports the spiral organ. The outer
 
is known as the zona pectinata, and extends from the foot-plates of
 
the outer rods of this organ to the crista basilaris. The basilar membrane consists of a homogeneous membrana propria, with fibres embedded in it, the fibres being most numerous in the zona pectinata.
 
 
 
Vestibular Membrane, or Membrane of Reissner.—This is a delicate
 
membrane which extends from the upper surface of the lamina spiralis
 
a short distance from its free margin to the outer wall of the cochlea,
 
where it is attached to the periosteum a little above the outer attachment of the basilar membrane. It separates the cochlear duct from the
 
scala vestibuli, and consists of very delicate connective tissue lined on
 
each side with a single layer of squamous epithelium.
 
 
 
 
 
Osseous Spiral Lamina
 
 
 
 
 
Vestibular Membrane
 
Basilar Membiane
 
 
 
 
 
Scala Vestibuli
 
 
 
Ductus Cochlearis
 
 
 
 
 
Sc' NYll ESy/: ,'-.;
 
 
 
| Scala Tympan*
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Fig. 1039.
 
 
 
 
 
-Vertical Section of the Cochlea of a Fcetal Calf, showing
 
THE SCALAE AND MODIOLUS (KoLLIKER).
 
 
 
 
 
The scala media, or ductus cochlearis, is situated between the
 
basilar membrane and the vestibular membrane. It is triangular in
 
transverse section, and has a roof, an outer wall, and a floor. The
 
roof is formed by the vestibular membrane (see Fig. 1040). The
 
outer wall is the wall of the cochlea and its periosteum, between the
 
external attachments of the basilar membrane and the vestibular
 
membrane. The periosteum in this region is much thickened, and
 
forms the spiral ligament of the cochlea, the lower part of which gives
 
rise to the crista basilaris. The floor is formed by the basilar membrane, and a part of the upper surface of the lamina spiralis. It has
 
been seen that the basilar membrane separates the ductus cochlearis
 
from the scala tympani. The ductus ends above in a closed extremity
 
at the cupola, and it has a similar ending at the base of the cochlea.
 
Near its lower blind extremity it receives the ductus reuniens, by
 
which it communicates with the saccule.
 
 
 
It has just been shown that part of the floor of the cochlear duct
 
is formed by some of the lamina spiralis. In the recent state it is
 
of some thickness, which is due to a thickening of its periosteal
 
 
 
 
 
/
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
THE EAR
 
 
 
 
 
1691
 
 
 
 
 
covering. This fibrous thickening forms the limbus laminae spiralis
 
(see Fig. 1040).
 
 
 
Its outer margin is crescentic, the deep notch being called the sulcus lamince
 
spiralis. The sulcus has two lips, upper and lower. The upper is called the
 
labium vestibulare, the upper surface of which is marked by several interlacing
 
prominences and grooves. At the free margin of this labium the prominences
 
assume the form of tooth-like projections, which are known as the auditory
 
teeth. The lower lip of the sulcus is called the labium tympanicum. It is continued into the basilar membrane, and is perforated by a great number of apertures
 
for the branches of the cochlear division of the auditory nerve.
 
 
 
Spiral Organ (of Corti).—Over the upper surface of the inner part
 
(zona arcuata) of the basilar membrane the epithelium undergoes
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Fig. 1040.—The Organ of Corti (Wiedersheim, after Lavdowsky).
 
 
 
 
 
1. Spiral Ligament
 
 
 
2. Limbus
 
 
 
3. Sulcus Spiralis
 
 
 
4. Inner Rod of Corti
 
 
 
5. Outer Rod of Corti
 
 
 
6. Tunnel of Corti
 
 
 
7. Phalangeal Process of Outer Rod
 
 
 
8. Inner Hair-cells
 
 
 
 
 
9. Outer Hair-cells
 
 
 
10. Cells of Deiters
 
 
 
11. Lamina Reticularis
 
 
 
12. Cells of Hensen
 
 
 
13. Cells o Claudius
 
 
 
14. Spiral Ganglion
 
 
 
15. Cochlear Nerve
 
 
 
16. Nerve-fibres to Hair-cells
 
 
 
 
 
remarkable modification, and gives rise to the spiral organ or organ
 
of Corti. The constituent parts of this very complicated organ are as
 
 
 
follows:
 
 
 
1 The rods of Corti. 4. The cells of Hensen and of Claudius.
 
 
 
2 The auditory or hair cells. 5 - The lamina reticularis.
 
 
 
3! The cells of Deiters. 6. The membrana tectona.
 
 
 
The rods of Corti are arranged in two rows, inner and outer (see
 
Fig 1041). Each rod consists of a foot-plate or base, an intermediate
 
portion, and a head. The foot-plate, which is expanded, rests upon
 
the zona arcuata of the basilar membrane, and the foot-plates of the
 
inner rods are separated from those of the outer rods by a slight
 
interval. As the rods rise the intermediate portions of the inner and
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
1692
 
 
 
 
 
A MANUAL OF ANATOMY
 
 
 
 
 
outer rods incline towards each other, and the heads of the two sets
 
of rods come into contact. In this manner a triangular tunnel is
 
enclosed between the two sets of rods and the basilar membrane,
 
which is called the tunnel of Corti. This extends along the entire
 
length of the ductus cochlearis.
 
 
 
 
 
phalangeal
 
 
 
PROCESS
 
 
 
 
 
IfSNER ROD
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
BASILAR. MEMBRANE
 
 
 
 
 
The inner rods are more numerous than the outer, there being from
 
5,000 to 6,000 of the former and about 4,000 of the latter. They
 
incline upwards and outwards. The head of each has a concavity on
 
its outer side, above and below which there is a projecting portion, so
 
 
 
that it resembles the upper extremity
 
of the ulna, with its great sigmoid
 
cavity and olecranon and coronoid
 
processes. The concavity on the head
 
of the inner rod receives the round
 
head of the outer rod. Finally, the
 
tic. 1041. A Pair of Rods of inner rods are shorter than the outer.
 
Corti from the Rabbit’s Coch- The ou + pr rn d<? lpcc nnmprrmQ
 
 
 
lea (Side View, highly mag- An ? ouler * oas j ^ re . Aess nui ? e 5 , 0US
 
 
 
nified) (Schafer, in Quain’s ? nd lon § er than the inner, and they
 
 
 
‘Anatomy’). ~ incline upwards and inwards. The
 
 
 
head of each is divisible into two
 
parts—inner and outer. Ihe inner part is round, and is received
 
mto the concavity on the outer aspect of the head of the inner rod.
 
The outer part is prolonged into a beak-like projection, called the
 
phalangeal process, which forms part of the lamina reticularis, to be
 
presently described.
 
 
 
The auditory or hair cells are arranged in two sets—inner and
 
outer. Ihe inner hair-cells lie internal to the row of inner rods, and
 
form a single row. They are from 3,000 to in number. Their
 
 
 
free extremities, which lie close to the heads of the inner rods, are each
 
provided with a tuft of short, hair-like filaments. The deep, nucleated
 
ends of the cells are related to the terminal arborizations of nervefibres. Internal to the row of inner hair-cells there are two or more
 
rows of columnar cells, which are continuous with the columnar
 
epithelium of the sulcus spiralis laminae. The outer hair-cells are
 
disposed in three or four rows external to the outer row of rods. They
 
are much more numerous than the inner hair-cells. Their free extremities, like those of the inner cells, are each provided with a tuft
 
of short, hair-like filaments, and their deep, nucleated ends are related
 
to the terminal arborizations of nerve-fibres.
 
 
 
 
 
1 he cells of Deiters, which are sustentacular, are situated between
 
the rows of outer hair-cells. Each cell is nucleated and contains a
 
slender filament, known as the sustentacular filament or phalangeal
 
process. This filament is attached by its base to the basilar membrane, and is prolonged into the tapering upper end of the cell. It
 
terminates in an expansion, which forms a phalanx of the lamina
 
reticularis, to be presently described.
 
 
 
The cells of Hensen are disposed as a continuous layer external
 
to the lamina reticularis.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
THE EAR 1693
 
 
 
External to the cells of Hensen there are the cubical or columnar
 
cells of Claudius: these are merely an epithelial lining layer.
 
 
 
The reticular lamina extends between the heads of the rods of
 
Corti and the cells of Hensen. It consists of phalanges, which are
 
arranged in two (or more) rows—inner and outer. The phalanges of
 
the inner row are formed by the phalangeal processes of the heads of the
 
outer rods of Corti. The phalanges of the outer row (or rows) are
 
formed by the phalangeal processes of the cells of Deiters. Between
 
the phalanges there are openings through which the outer ends of
 
the outer hair-cells, with their crescentic tufts of hair-like filaments,
 
project.
 
 
 
The membrana tectoria, or membrane of Corti, which is elastic,
 
is the most superficial structure in connection with the spiral organ.
 
It extends from the limbus spiralis near, and external to, the attachment of the vestibular membrane to the region of the outer hair-cells.
 
It covers (1) the limbus laminae spiralis; (2) the labium vestibulare,
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
- Hehcotrema
 
 
 
 
 
Scala Vestibuli
 
 
 
 
 
Membranous Spiral
 
Lamina
 
 
 
 
 
Scala Tympani
 
 
 
 
 
1
 
 
 
1
 
 
 
Expansion of Cochlear Nerve
 
 
 
Fig. 1042.—Section of the Cochlea, showing the Distribution of the
 
Cochlea Branch of the Auditory Nerve (magnified) (Hirschfeld
 
and Reveille).
 
 
 
and the auditory teeth; (3) the sulcus laminae spiralis; (4) the inner
 
hair-cells; (5) the inner and outer rods of Corti; (6) the cells of Deiters;
 
and (7) the lamina reticularis.
 
 
 
Auditory Nerve.—The auditory nerve, within the meatus auditorius
 
internus, breaks up into two divisions—vestibular and cochlear.
 
 
 
The vestibular nerve, as it traverses the meatus auditorius internus, has a gangliform enlargement, the vestibular ganglion, and
 
divides into three branches. These enter the vestibule through the
 
foramina in the superior vestibular area of the lamina cribrosa at the
 
deep end of the internal meatus. They are distributed to the macula
 
utriculi and to the cristae acusticas of the ampullae of the superior
 
and external semicircular canals.
 
 
 
The cochlear nerve in the meatus auditorius internus divides into
 
two branches—one to the macula sacculi, and the other to the crista
 
of the ampulla of the posterior semicircular canal. The filaments of
 
the former, which has a gangliform enlargement, pass through the foramina in the inferior vestibular area of the lamina cribrosa, and the
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
A MANUAL OF ANATOMY
 
 
 
 
 
1694
 
 
 
latter passes through the foramen singulare in the lamina cribrosa.
 
The cochlear nerve, having parted with these two branches, breaks
 
up into filaments which pass through the foramina of the cochlear
 
area of the lamina cribrosa, and so reach the base of the modiolus
 
of the cochlea. They traverse the canals of the modiolus, from which
 
they pass into the canals between the two layers of the lamina spiralis.
 
In doing so they have to cross the spiral canal of the modiolus, which
 
is situated close to the attached margin of the lamina spiralis. This
 
canal contains a ganglion, called the spiral ganglion, which follows
 
the windings of the canal, and contains bipolar nerve-cells. As the
 
auditory fibres pass from the canals of the modiolus into those of
 
the lamina spiralis the course of each fibre is probably interrupted
 
by a bipolar cell of the spiral ganglion. The nerve-fibres, leaving
 
these bipolar cells, traverse the canals between the two layers of the
 
lamina spiralis. Having lost their medullary sheaths, they pass
 
through the foramina of the labium tympanicum on the outer margin
 
of the limbus spiralis, and enter the basilar membrane, where they
 
end in arborizations which are connected with the inner and outer
 
hair-cells.
 
 
 
Blood-supply of the Labyrinth.—The labyrinth derives its blood
 
from the internal auditory, which is a branch of the basilar artery
 
or of the anterior inferior cerebellar. The vessel traverses the meatus
 
auditorius internus, and divides at its deep end into two branches—
 
vestibular and cochlear. The vestibular artery supplies the utricle,
 
saccule, and semicircular canals, and the cochlear artery supplies the
 
cochlea.
 
 
 
The veins of the labyrinth ultimately join to form one vessel, called
 
the internal auditory vein, which opens into the inferior petrosal
 
sinus. The aqueductus cochleae and the aqueductus vestibuli each
 
transmit a vein; that which passes through the former joins the inferior
 
petrosal sinus or the bulb of the internal jugular vein, and that which
 
passes through the latter opens into the superior petrosal sinus.
 
 
 
 
 
Development of the Ear.
 
 
 
Internal Ear—Membranous Labyrinth. —The membranous labyrinth is
 
developed from the surface ectoderm in a manner similar to the development
 
of the crystalline lens. Over a circumscribed area, corresponding to the upper
 
end of the first visceral cleft, and upon the side of the hind-brain, the ectoderm
 
becomes thickened and invaginated. A depression is thus formed, which is
 
called the auditory pit. This pit becomes deepened, its mouth becomes constricted, and its lips, coming together, unite. The auditory pit then becomes
 
transformed into a closed sac, called the auditory or otic vesicle, or otocyst.
 
The auditory vesicle now becomes isolated from the surface ectoderm, and sinks
 
into the adjacent mesoderm, taking up a position close to the side of the hindbrain.
 
 
 
The auditory vesicle, which is at first almost spherical, soon becomes pyriform, this being due to the formation of a process, called the recess of the labyrinth
 
or vestibule, which is prolonged from its dorsal wall. As this process lengthens
 
it gives rise to the ductus endolymphaticus, which occupies the aqueductus
 
vestibuli of the petrous portion of the temporal bone. The expanded terminal
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
THE EAR
 
 
 
 
 
1695
 
 
 
part of the ductus endolymphaticus is called the saccus endolymphaticus, and it
 
lies underneath the dura mater. The ventral aspect of the vesicle gives off a
 
tapering diverticulum, which gives rise to the ductus cochlearis, or scala media,
 
of the cochlea. This duct describes a bend, within which lies the cochlear
 
ganglion of the cochlear division of the auditory nerve. As the duct elongates
 
it continues to bend in a spiral manner, and so the ductus cochlearis is formed.
 
The cochlear ganglion elongates, and follows the spiral turns of the duct, from
 
which circumstance the ganglion is known as the ganglion spirale.
 
 
 
The three semicircular ducts are developed from the upper or cephalic part
 
of the auditory vesicle, this part representing the future utricle. This portion
 
of the vesicle presents two folds—vertical and horizontal. From the vertical
 
fold the superior and posterior semicircular canals are formed, whilst the horizontal fold gives rise to the lateral semicircular canal.
 
 
 
The auditory vesicle now becomes transversely constricted, and is divided
 
into two sacs—large and small. The large sac is called the utricle, from which
 
the semicircular ducts have just been developed. The small sac is called the
 
saccule, from which the ductus cochlearis has been developed. The portion
 
of this duct which communicates with the saccule becomes constricted, and
 
forms the canalis reuniens of Hensen.
 
 
 
The constriction which completely divides the auditory vesicle into utricle
 
and saccule also involves the vesicular end of the ductus endolymphaticus, and
 
divides it into two ducts, called the ductus utriculi and ductus sacculi. This
 
arrangement constitutes the only communication which now exists between the
 
utricle and the saccule.
 
 
 
As stated, the cochlear ganglion, or ganglion spirale, of the cochlear division
 
of the auditory nerve lies within the spiral turns of the ductus cochlearis. As
 
the osseous cochlea becomes formed, the ganglion spirale comes to occupy the
 
spiral canal of the modiolus. The vestibular ganglion of the vestibular division
 
of the auditory nerve lies in the internal auditory meatus after the completion
 
of ossification.
 
 
 
The membranous labyrinth, hitherto considered, is entirely epithelial.
 
Certain of its epithelial cells undergo important specializations to fit them for
 
sensorial purposes. These cells form six groups in definite regions. These groups
 
are as follows: (1) The crista acustica ampullaris, of which there are three, one in
 
the ampulla of each of the three epithelial semicircular canals; (4) the macula
 
(1 acustica) utriculi’, (5) the macula ( acustica) sacculi', and (6) the spiral organ {of
 
Corti), specialized from the epithelial ductus cochlearis. The groups connected
 
with the ampullae of the semicircular canals, the utricle, and the saccule, receive
 
their nerve-fibres from the vestibular ganglion of the vestibular division of the
 
auditory nerve. The organ of Corti receives its nerve-fibres from the cochlear
 
ganglion, or ganglion spirale, of the cochlear division of the auditory nerve.
 
 
 
Osseous Labyrinth. —The membranous labyrinth is surrounded by mesodermic
 
tissue, which becomes disposed in four layers. These layers, from within outwards,
 
may be spoken of as (1) the connective-tissue layer, (2) the gelatinous layer,
 
(3) the perichondrial layer, and (4) the cartilaginous layer. The connectivetissue layer forms the connective tissue of the various parts of the epithelial
 
labyrinth. The fibrous tissue of the gelatinous layer acquires vacuoles, and gives
 
place to the various perilymphatic spaces, which contain a fluid called the perilymph. In the case of the cochlea, the scala vestibuli and scala tympani alone
 
contain perilymph, the cochlear duct containing endolymph. The perichondrial
 
layer forms the lining perichondrium of the periotic cartilaginous capsule, and
 
subsequently becomes the lining periosteum of the osseous labyrinth. The
 
cartilaginous layer forms the periotic cartilaginous capsule, which undergoes
 
ossification, and gives rise, amongst other parts, to the osseous labyrinth, which
 
jg q£ i ar ger size than the membranous labyrinth. The osseous semicircular canals
 
conform in shape to the membranous semicircular ducts, but are of larger size.
 
The osseous vestibule differs from the membranous vestibule in being a single
 
osseous case, whereas its contents are the utricle and the saccule.
 
 
 
Whilst the perilymph lies external to the membranous labyrinth, the interior
 
 
 
 
 
1696
 
 
 
 
 
A MANUAL OF ANATOMY
 
 
 
 
 
of the semicircular ducts, utricle, saccule, and scala media contain endolymph,
 
the latter being in communication with the saccule by means of the canal is
 
reuniens.
 
 
 
The middle ear or tympanum and pharyngo-tympanic tube (see p. 73 et seq.)
 
 
 
are developed from the tubo-tympartic recess of the pharynx. This is the widest
 
part of the early pharynx, opposite the second and third arches, and by the
 
time the embryo has reached the second month of development the recess is
 
definitely indicated; it projects laterally with its contained cavity, compressed
 
dorso-ventrally, widely open into the general pharyngeal cavity. Its roof
 
supports the otic capsule, while the outer parts of the first two visceral grooves
 
are seen in its floor, with the second arch between them. It is bounded in
 
front by the first arch, and caudally by the third arch. The first lateral pouch,
 
on its lateral edge, is in contact with the persistent upper end of the first outer
 
groove; the second pouch, which has lost contact, is at its postero-lateral angle.
 
The recess deepens, and the third arch grows forward, cutting off the outer part
 
of the cavity from the pharynx and narrowing the anterior part, which still
 
remains continuous with the pharynx; the outer and larger part is the early
 
tympanum, and the constricted front portion becomes the tube.
 
 
 
The otic capsule enlarges and chondrifies, and as it grows depresses the
 
inner part of the tympanum, slightly rotating it, so that its former roof now
 
becomes its inner wall, applied to the surface of the capsule. Its floor, also
 
rotated, now slopes downwards and medially, and is in close relation with the
 
meatal plate, a cellular ingrowth from the upper end of the first outer groove;
 
this has grown in below the tympanum, and by a later process of hollowing
 
forms the ectodermal lining of the outer meatus and membrane.
 
 
 
Meckel’s cartilage develops in the mesoderm of the first arch, therefore
 
antero-lateral to the recess, in front of the position of the first pouch. It sends
 
an extension over the pouch to invade the second arch area behind this, passing
 
under the floor between the endoderm and the meatal plate; this extension forms
 
the basis of the tympanic membrane and the manubrium, and its upper part probably also forms the incus. The hyoid bar (Reichert’s cartilage), the bar of the
 
second arch, is behind this, immediately in front of the second pouch; an exten
 
sion from its upper end over the roof gives rise to the stapes. The stapes becomes
 
associated with the cartilaginous capsule, which has enlarged considerably; the
 
enlargement extends postero-laterally, and leads to the fusion of Reichert’s bar
 
with the capsule (tympano-hyal) and the position of the remnant of the second
 
pouch in the fossula rotunda (fenestra cochleae).
 
 
 
The chorda tympani crosses the first pouch; the level of the early tympanum
 
might roughly be taken as extending up to this nerve. The higher level of the
 
adult cavity is attained by a later extension. In the early condition of the
 
tympanum, the malleus, incus, stapes, and chorda tympani nerve lie embedded
 
in the mesodermic tissue which intervenes between the epithelial or mucous
 
roof of the membranous tympanum and its osseous roof. This mesodermic
 
tissue disappears, and the mucous (originally epithelial) lining of the tympanum
 
now comes into direct contact with the malleus, incus, stapes, and chorda
 
tympani nerve, all of which it encloses within folds. Though these structures
 
apparently lie within the tympanic cavity, this is not their actual position. They
 
are really outside the cavity, inasmuch as they lie external to the mucous lining of
 
the cavity. This may be illustrated by stating that the handle or manubrium
 
of the malleus and the chorda tympani nerve do not lie in the tympanic cavity,
 
but are placed between the middle, or fibrous, layer and the internal, or mucous,
 
layer of the membrana tympani.
 
 
 
External Ear.— AThe external ear consists of (1) the external auditory meatus,
 
including the membrana tympani, and (2) the pinna.
 
 
 
The external auditory meatus is developed from the upper part of the first
 
external or ectodermic furrow, which corresponds in position to the first
 
internal visceral cleft.
 
 
 
The membrana tympani is developed from the closing membrane which
 
separates the first internal visceral cleft from the first external ectodermic furrow.
 
 
 
 
 
THE EAR
 
 
 
 
 
1697
 
 
 
This closing membrane is a trilaminar structure. Its inner layer consists of
 
entoderm; its middle layer of mesoderm; and its outer layer of ectoderm. The
 
membrana tympani, which is developed from it, is therefore trilaminar. The
 
outer layer is ectodermic, and is continuous with the cuticular lining of the external
 
auditory meatus; the middle layer is mesodermic, or fibrous; and the inner layer
 
is entodermic, or mucous, and is continuous with the mucous lining of the
 
tympanic cavity.
 
 
 
The component parts of the pinna are developed from six projections, consisting of mesoderm, covered by ectoderm. These appear on the upper ends
 
of the first and second visceral arches, where these bound the upper part of
 
the first external ectodermic furrow, which gives rise to the external auditory
 
meatus. The helix is developed from two of these tubercles, and each of the
 
other four gives rise to the antihelix, tragus, antitragus, and lobule. The mesodermic tissue of the projections becomes differentiated into connective tissue
 
and cartilage, and the ectoderm covers these.
 
 
 
 
 
107
 
 
 
 
 
GLOSSARY
 
 
 
 
 
Terms still in common use, though now ‘discardedare included in this list,
 
with a certain number of proper names coming in the same category.
 
 
 
 
 
Abdomen, a word of uncertain derivation, but possibly from abdo,
 
I hide or conceal.
 
 
 
Aberrant, wandering from the normal
 
source.
 
 
 
Acervulus, a little heap.
 
 
 
Acervulus cerebri, brain-sand.
 
 
 
Acetabulum, a vessel for holding
 
vinegar; a juggler’s cup. But
 
used by Pliny to signify hipsocket.
 
 
 
Acinus, any juicy berry with stones
 
— e.g., the grape; the kernel in the
 
berry.
 
 
 
Acrocephalous, having a pointed or
 
conical head.
 
 
 
Acromion, the point or summit of
 
the shoulder.
 
 
 
Acusticus, a, um, pertaining to sound,
 
or to the sense of hearing.
 
 
 
Adamantoblast, enamel germ cell.
 
 
 
Adductor canal, subsartorial canal.
 
 
 
Adenoid, glandular.
 
 
 
Aditus, an approach or access.
 
 
 
Adrenal, near to the kidney.
 
 
 
Advehens, carrying to.
 
 
 
Afferent, carrying to.
 
 
 
Agger, a mound or rampart.
 
 
 
Agminated, disposed in columns.
 
 
 
Ala, a wing.
 
 
 
Ala cinera, vagal triangle.
 
 
 
Albicans, white.
 
 
 
Albuginea, whitish.
 
 
 
Alcock’s canal, pudendal canal.
 
 
 
Allantois, sausage-like.
 
 
 
Alveolus, a little trough.
 
 
 
Alveus, a trough.
 
 
 
Amacrine, without a long fibre.
 
 
 
Ambiguus, dark, obscure.
 
 
 
Ameloblast, enamel germ.
 
 
 
Ammonis, cornu, horn of Ammon,
 
who was represented as having
 
the head of a ram.
 
 
 
 
 
Amphiarthrosis, literally, articulation on both sides. Secondary
 
cartilaginous joint (fibro-cartilage).
 
 
 
Ampulla, a flask.
 
 
 
Amygdala, an almond.
 
 
 
Anastomosis, literally, an outlet; the
 
communication of branches of
 
vessels with one another.
 
 
 
Anconeus, pertaining to the elbow.
 
 
 
Ankylosis, bony union between two
 
bones which are normally separate.
 
 
 
Annulus, a little ring.
 
 
 
Ansa, a handle, loop, or brace.
 
 
 
Ansa cervicis, ansa hypoglossi.
 
 
 
Anserinus, pertaining to a goose.
 
 
 
Antecubital, in front of the elbow.
 
 
 
Antibrachium, forearm.
 
 
 
Anticubital fossa, cubital fossa.
 
 
 
Anticus, in front, anterior.
 
 
 
Antinion, opposite to the inion.
 
 
 
Antrum, a cave or cavity.
 
 
 
Antrum of Highmore, maxillary
 
sinus.
 
 
 
Antrum, mastoid, tympanic antrum.
 
 
 
Anus, a ring.
 
 
 
Aorta, literally, the lower end of the
 
trachea; a carrier.
 
 
 
Apertura piriformis, anterior aspect
 
of nose.
 
 
 
Aponeurosis, an expansion from a
 
tendon.
 
 
 
Aponeurosis, lumbar, lumbar fascia.
 
 
 
Aponeurosis, pharyngeal, pharyngobasilar fascia.
 
 
 
Apophysis (‘ grow from ’), a process
 
or swelling on a bone.
 
 
 
Appendix ventriculi laryngis, saccule.
 
 
 
Aqueductus cerebri, aqueduct of
 
 
 
 
 
mid-brain.
 
 
 
Aqueductus Fallopii, facial canal.
 
Arachnoid, like a spider’s web.
 
 
 
1698
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
GLOSSARY 1699
 
 
 
 
 
Arantii, corpus, nodule (in cusps of
 
aortic and pulmonary valves).
 
 
 
Archenteron, primitive intestine.
 
 
 
Arcuatus, curved.
 
 
 
Area acustica, vestibular area.
 
 
 
Areola, a small open place.
 
 
 
Arnold’s ganglion, otic ganglion.
 
 
 
Arnold’s nerve, tympanic nerve.
 
 
 
Artery, literally, an air vessel; the
 
trachea was known as the arteria
 
aspera; a bloodvessel which carries
 
the blood from the heart.
 
 
 
Arthrodia, from the Greek word
 
meaning * a joint ’; applied to a
 
gliding joint.
 
 
 
Arthrosis, plane joint.
 
 
 
Arytenoid, pitcher-like.
 
 
 
Ascending frontal convolution, precentral convolution.
 
 
 
Ascending parietal convolution, postcentral convolution.
 
 
 
Aspera, rough.
 
 
 
Asterion, a star.
 
 
 
Astragalus, the ankle-bone; a die
 
(pi. dice); talus.
 
 
 
Atlas, a support; refers to Atlas,
 
who carried the earth on his
 
neck.
 
 
 
Atresia, imperforation.
 
 
 
Atrium, the hall in a Roman house.
 
 
 
Attic, epitympanic recess.
 
 
 
Attollens, raising up, elevating.
 
 
 
Attrahens, drawing to or towards.
 
 
 
Auditory, pertaining to the organ, or
 
sense, of hearing.
 
 
 
Auerbach’s plexus, myenteric plexus.
 
 
 
Auricle, the external ear.
 
 
 
Auricle (O.T.), atrium (heart).
 
 
 
Auricular appendix (O.T.), auricle.
 
 
 
Azygos, without a pair, single.
 
 
 
Bacillary, pertaining to a small staff
 
or rod.
 
 
 
Balanus, an acorn.
 
 
 
Barba, a beard.
 
 
 
Bartholin’s duct (great duct of Rivini),
 
 
 
principal sublingual duct.
 
 
 
Basilar, belonging to the base.
 
 
 
Basilic, royal, important.
 
 
 
Basion, base.
 
 
 
 
 
Bechterew, nucleus of, superior
 
vestibular nucleus.
 
 
 
Bell, nerve of, nerve to serratus
 
anterior.
 
 
 
Bellini, ducts of, terminal collecting
 
tubules of kidney.
 
 
 
Biceps, having two heads.
 
 
 
Bicornis, two-horned.
 
 
 
Bicuspid (teeth), pre-molar.
 
 
 
Bigelow, Y-shaped ligament of, iliofemoral ligament.
 
 
 
Biventer, having two bellies.
 
 
 
Bowman’s capsule, capsule of glomerulus.
 
 
 
Bowman’s membrane, anterior elastic lamina of cornea.
 
 
 
Brachium, the arm.
 
 
 
Brachium conjunctivum, superior
 
cerebellar peduncle.
 
 
 
Brachium pontis, middle cerebellar
 
peduncle.
 
 
 
Brachycephalic, short-headed.
 
 
 
Bregma, from a Greek verb meaning
 
‘ to moisten/
 
 
 
Broca, area of, parolfactory area.
 
 
 
Broca, band of, diagonal band.
 
 
 
Bronchiole, a little bronchus.
 
 
 
Bronchus, literally, a draught; the
 
windpipe.
 
 
 
Bryant’s triangle, (1) horizontal line
 
from anterior superior spine;
 
(2) vertical line from top of great
 
trochanter; (3) line joining anterior superior spine to top of
 
great trochanter.
 
 
 
Bubonocele, a variety of tumour in
 
the groin.
 
 
 
Buccinator, a trumpeter.
 
 
 
Bulla, a knob; a bubble.
 
 
 
Burdach, fasciculus of, fasciculus
 
cuneatus.
 
 
 
Burns, falciform process of (ligament
 
of Hey), superior cornu of saphenous opening.
 
 
 
Burns’ space, suprasternal space.
 
 
 
Bursa, a sac containing fluid.
 
 
 
Bursa omentalis, lesser sac.
 
 
 
Cacumen, tip, peak, or end.
 
 
 
Caecum, blind.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
GLOSSARY
 
 
 
 
 
1700
 
 
 
Caeruleus, dark blue.
 
 
 
Calamus, a reed-pen.
 
 
 
Calcaneum, the heel.
 
 
 
Calcar, a spur.
 
 
 
Calcination, reduction to a powder
 
(or line) by heat.
 
 
 
Calcis, of the heel.
 
 
 
Calix, a cup or goblet.
 
 
 
Callosal convolution, gyrus cinguli.
 
 
 
Calloso-marginal fissure, sulcus cinguli.
 
 
 
Callosum, hard, thick.
 
 
 
Calvaria ( calva , the bald scalp), the
 
upper part of the skull.
 
 
 
Canalis reuniens, ductus reuniens.
 
 
 
Cancellated, lattice-formed, reticulated.
 
 
 
Canthus, the angle of the eye.
 
 
 
Capillary, pertaining to the hair;
 
a vessel of hair-like minuteness.
 
 
 
Capitellum, a small head.
 
 
 
Capsular, suprarenal.
 
 
 
Caput gallinaginis, urethral crest.
 
 
 
Caput medusae, varicose veins radiating from umbilicus in portal
 
obstruction.
 
 
 
Cardia, the opening of the stomach;
 
the heart.
 
 
 
Cardiac, pertaining to the heart
 
(originally to the stomach).
 
 
 
Cardinal, principal or chief.
 
 
 
Carina, a keel.
 
 
 
Carneae, pertaining to flesh.
 
 
 
Carotid, stupefying; or perhaps from
 
two Greek words meaning ‘ head ’
 
and ‘ ear.’
 
 
 
Carpus, the wrist.
 
 
 
Cartilages, alar, lower lateral cartilage.
 
 
 
Cartilages, lateral, upper lateral cartilage (of nose).
 
 
 
Cartilages, Santorini, of, corniculate
 
cartilage.
 
 
 
Cartilages, Wrisberg, of, cuneiform
 
cartilage.
 
 
 
Caruncula, a little piece of flesh.
 
 
 
Caruncula sublingualis, sublingual
 
papilla.
 
 
 
Carunculae myrtiformes, carunculae
 
hymenales.
 
 
 
 
 
Cauda, a tail.
 
 
 
Caudate, tailed.
 
 
 
Caudate lobe (O.T.), tail of caudate
 
lobe.
 
 
 
Cavernous, full of hollows or cavities.
 
 
 
Centimetre (cm.), § of an English
 
inch.
 
 
 
Cephalic, pertaining to the head.
 
Cerato, horny.
 
 
 
Ceruminous, pertaining to wax.
 
Chiasma, two lines placed like an X.
 
Choana, a funnel.
 
 
 
Choanse, posterior apertures of nose.
 
Choledochus, bile-receiving.
 
Chondral, pertaining to cartilage.
 
 
 
Choroid (Chorioid), like skin.
 
Cinereus, ash-coloured.
 
 
 
Cingulum, a small girdle.
 
Circumflexus, bent around.
 
Circumvallate papillae, vallate papillae.
 
 
 
Cisterna, a cistern or reservoir.
 
Clarke, posterior vesicular column of,
 
 
 
thoracic (dorsal) nucleus.
 
Claustrum, a bulwark, barrier, or
 
inclosure.
 
 
 
Clava, a club; gracile tubercle.
 
Clavicle, from clavis, a key, or possibly a hoop-stick.
 
 
 
Cleido-, pertaining to the clavicle.
 
Clinoid, like the knob of a bedpost.
 
Clitoris, from a Greek verb meaning
 
‘ I shut up ’ or ‘ enclose.’
 
 
 
Clivus, a slope.
 
 
 
Cloaca, a sewer or drain.
 
 
 
Coccyx, a cuckoo.
 
 
 
Cochlea, a snail.
 
 
 
Cochlea, membranous, duct of cochlea.
 
 
 
Cochleariformis, spoon-like.
 
 
 
Coeliac, pertaining to the belly.
 
Colliculus, a little hill.
 
 
 
Colliculus, quadrigeminal body.
 
Colliculus seminalis, urethral crest.
 
Colon, the great gut.
 
 
 
Columns, rectal (Morgagni), anal
 
columns.
 
 
 
Comes, a companion.
 
 
 
Comma tract, semilunar tract.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
GLOSSARY
 
 
 
 
 
Complexus, literally, folded together;
 
encompassing.
 
 
 
Concatenatae, chained together.
 
Concatenate glands, deep cervical
 
(lymph) glands.
 
 
 
Concha, a shell.
 
 
 
Condyle (‘ knuckle ’), a small round
 
prominence covered by cartilage.
 
Coni vasculosi, lobules of epididymis.
 
Conjunctiva, connecting.
 
Conniventes, winking or blinking.
 
Conoid, cone-like.
 
 
 
Conoid tubercle, coracoid tuberosity.
 
Conus arteriosus, infundibulum.
 
Conus elasticus, crico-vocal membrane.
 
 
 
Convoluta, rolled together.
 
 
 
Coracoid, like a crow or raven.
 
 
 
Cord, vocal, false, vestibular folds.
 
Cord, vocal, true, vocal fold.
 
Cordiform, heart-shaped.
 
 
 
Cords (gangliated, lumbo-sacral,
 
etc.), trunks.
 
 
 
Cornea, horny.
 
 
 
Corniculum, a little horn.
 
 
 
Cornu ammonis, hippocampus.
 
Coronal, literally, pertaining to a
 
crown; transverse.
 
 
 
Coronary, encircling.
 
 
 
Coronoid, like a crooked beak.
 
Corpora albicantia (brain), corpora
 
mamillaria.
 
 
 
Corpus (of long bone), shaft.
 
 
 
Corpus adiposum buccae, buccal pad.
 
Corpus arantii, nodule (aortic and
 
pulmonary valves).
 
 
 
Corpus cavernosum penis, corpus
 
cavernosum.
 
 
 
Corpus cavernosum urethrae, corpus
 
spongiosum.
 
 
 
Corrugator, a wrinkler.
 
 
 
Cortex, the bark or outer covering.
 
Costal, pertaining to a rib.
 
 
 
Cotyloid, cup-like.
 
 
 
Cowper’s gland, bulbo-urethral gland.
 
Coxa, the hip.
 
 
 
Cranium, the skull.
 
 
 
Crassum, thick, dense, or bulky.
 
Cremaster, a suspender.
 
 
 
Cribriform, sieve-like.
 
 
 
 
 
1701
 
 
 
Cribrosa, perforated with sieve-like
 
pores.
 
 
 
Cricoid, like a ring.
 
 
 
Crista tuberculi majoris, lateral lip
 
of bicipital groove.
 
 
 
Crista tuberculi minoris, medial lip
 
of bicipital groove.
 
 
 
Crucial, pertaining to, or shaped like,
 
a cross.
 
 
 
Crural, pertaining to the leg.
 
 
 
Crural canal, femoral canal.
 
 
 
Crural ring, femoral ring.
 
 
 
Crural septum, femoral septum.
 
 
 
Crus, cerebral peduncle.
 
 
 
Crusta, basis pedunculi.
 
 
 
Cryptorchismus, concealment of the
 
testis.
 
 
 
Cryptozygous, hidden arches.
 
 
 
Cubitum, the elbow.
 
 
 
Cucullaris, pertaining to a cowl or
 
hood.
 
 
 
Culmen, the top or summit.
 
 
 
Cuneate, wedge-shaped.
 
 
 
Cuneiform bone (hand), triquetrum.
 
 
 
Cuneus, a wedge.
 
 
 
Cupola, a dome.
 
 
 
Cymba, a boat or skiff.
 
 
 
Cystic, pertaining to the gall-bladder.
 
The condition of a thin-walled
 
swelling containing fluid or semifluid.
 
 
 
Cytoplasm, formative yolk; protoplasm in a cell.
 
 
 
Dacryon, a tear.
 
 
 
Dartos, skinned or flayed.
 
 
 
Deciduous, falling away.
 
 
 
Decussation of lemnisci (fillet), sensory decussation.
 
 
 
Deferens, carrying away.
 
 
 
Deiters, nucleus of, lateral vestibular
 
nucleus.
 
 
 
Dens, odontoid process.
 
 
 
Dens serotinus, wisdom tooth.
 
 
 
Dentate fascia, dentate gyrus.
 
 
 
Descemet’s membrane, posterior elastic lamina of cornea.
 
 
 
Detrusor, from detrudo, I drive away.
 
 
 
Deutoplasm, literally, wet plasm;
 
nutritive yolk.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
1702
 
 
 
 
 
GLOSSARY
 
 
 
 
 
Dia-, through or between.
 
 
 
Diaphragm, a partition.
 
 
 
Diaphysis grow between ’), the
 
shaft of a bone, or the part which
 
grows between the epiphyses.
 
 
 
Diarthrosis, an ‘ apart ’ joint— i.e.,
 
a ‘ free ’ joint (the articular surfaces being free to play upon each
 
other); synovial joint.
 
 
 
Diencephalon, the ’tween-brain or
 
inter-brain; thalamencephalon.
 
 
 
Digastric, having two bellies.
 
 
 
Diploe, a doubling.
 
 
 
Discus proligerus, cumulus ovaricus.
 
 
 
Diverticulum, from diverto, ‘ I separate/ or ‘ part/ or ‘ go a different
 
way.’
 
 
 
Dolichocephalic, long-headed.
 
 
 
Dorsal, pertaining to the back
 
aspect.
 
 
 
Dorsum, the back.
 
 
 
Douglas, pouch of, recto-uterine or
 
recto-vaginal pouch.
 
 
 
Douglas, semilunar fold of, arcuate
 
line.
 
 
 
Duct, nasal, naso-lacrimal duct.
 
 
 
Ductus deferens, vas deferens.
 
 
 
Ductus perilymphaticus, aqueduct of
 
cochlea.
 
 
 
Duodenum, twelve (probably fingerbreadths) .
 
 
 
Ebur, -oris, ivory.
 
 
 
Eburnea, pertaining to ivory.
 
 
 
Ectopia, a displacement.
 
 
 
Efferent, carrying out.
 
 
 
Embolif ormis, beak-shaped or wedgeshaped.
 
 
 
Emissary, sent out.
 
 
 
Emulgent, milking, straining out.
 
 
 
Enarthrosis, ball-and-socket joint.
 
 
 
Encephalon, the contents of the head
 
or skull.
 
 
 
Endocardium, ‘ within the heart ’;
 
the lining membrane of the cardiac
 
chambers.
 
 
 
Endognathion, literally, inner jaw.
 
 
 
Endosteum, ‘ within a bone ’; the
 
medullary membrane.
 
 
 
Ensiform, sword-like.
 
 
 
 
 
Ensiform process, xiphoid process.
 
 
 
Entomion, a notch.
 
 
 
Ependyma, from Greek words meaning ' clothing upon/
 
 
 
Ephippium, a saddle.
 
 
 
Epi-, upon or over, above.
 
 
 
Epicardium, upon the heart.
 
 
 
Epididymis, upon the testicle.
 
 
 
Epiglottis, cushion of, tubercle of
 
epiglottis.
 
 
 
Epiotic, upon or over the ear.
 
 
 
Epiphysis (‘ grow upon ’); a process
 
of a bone which has a secondary
 
centre of ossification.
 
 
 
Epiploon, from a Greek verb meaning
 
‘ to float upon/
 
 
 
Epipteric, upon a wing.
 
 
 
Epipteric bone, sutural bone at
 
pterion.
 
 
 
Epistropheus, axis.
 
 
 
Epoophoron, above the egg-bearing
 
organ.
 
 
 
Erythroblast, red (cell) germ.
 
 
 
Ethmoid, like a strainer.
 
 
 
Eustachian cushion, tubal elevation.
 
 
 
Eustachian spine (of medial pterygoid plate), processus tubarius.
 
 
 
Eustachian tube, pharyngo-tympanic
 
tube.
 
 
 
Eustachian valve, valve of inferior
 
 
 
vena cava.
 
 
 
Exognathion, literally, outer jaw.
 
 
 
Exomphalos, out of the navel.
 
 
 
Facet (French, facette, a little face),
 
a small plane surface, usually
 
articular.
 
 
 
Falciform, sickle-like.
 
 
 
Fallopian tube, uterine tube.
 
 
 
Falx, a sickle.
 
 
 
Falx aponeurotica inguinalis, conjoint tendon.
 
 
 
Fascia, a bandage, or a bundle of
 
reeds.
 
 
 
Fascia bulbi, fascial sheath of eyeball.
 
 
 
Fascia, Camper’s, superficial layer of
 
superficial fascia of anterior abdominal wall.
 
 
 
Fascia, Colies’, deep layer of superficial fascia of perineum.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
/
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
GLOSSARY
 
 
 
 
 
1703
 
 
 
 
 
Fascia, coraco-clavicular, clavi-pec
 
toral fascia.
 
 
 
Fascia infundibular, internal spermatic fascia.
 
 
 
Fascia intercolumnar, external spermatic fascia.
 
 
 
Fascia, Scarpa’s, deep layer of superficial fascia of anterior abdominal
 
wall.
 
 
 
Fascia, Sibson’s, suprapleural membrane.
 
 
 
Fasciculus, a small bundle.
 
 
 
Fasciola cinerea, splenial gyrus.
 
 
 
Fastigium, a roof.
 
 
 
Fauces, the throat.
 
 
 
Fauces, anterior pillar, glosso-palatine arch.
 
 
 
Fauces, posterior pillar, pharyngopalatine arch.
 
 
 
Fel, the gall-bladder.
 
 
 
Femur, the thigh.
 
 
 
Fenestra, an opening, a window.
 
 
 
Fenestra ovalis, fenestra vestibuli.
 
 
 
Fenestra rotunda, fenestra cochleae.
 
 
 
Ferruginea, pertaining to iron-rust.
 
 
 
Fibula, a buckle, clasp, or brace.
 
 
 
Fillet, lemniscus.
 
 
 
Filum, a thread.
 
 
 
Fimbria, a fringe.
 
 
 
Fimbriatum, fringed.
 
 
 
Fissure, a cleft or slit.
 
 
 
Fistula, .a pipe or tube.
 
 
 
Flechsig, tract of, posterior spinocerebellar tract.
 
 
 
Flocculus, a little lock of wool.
 
 
 
Fold, bloodless (Treves), ileo-caecal
 
fold.
 
 
 
Fold, ileo-colic, vascular fold of
 
caecum.
 
 
 
Fold, recto-vesical, sacro-genital fold.
 
 
 
Follicle, a small bag or sac.
 
 
 
Fontana, spaces of, spaces of iridocorneal angle.
 
 
 
Fontanelle, a small spring.
 
 
 
Foramen, an aperture or a hole.
 
 
 
Forceps, a claw of a beetle.
 
 
 
Fornicatus, pertaining to an arch.
 
 
 
Fornix, an arch or a vault.
 
 
 
Fossa, a ditch or trench.
 
 
 
Fossa, antecubital, cubital.
 
 
 
 
 
Fossa ovalis, saphenous opening.
 
 
 
Fossa, rhomboid, floor of fourth
 
ventricle.
 
 
 
Fossa, spheno-maxillary, pterygopalatine fossa.
 
 
 
Fourchette, a fork.
 
 
 
Fovea, a small pit.
 
 
 
Foveola, a very small pit.
 
 
 
Frenulum, a small bridle.
 
 
 
Frenum, a bridle.
 
 
 
Frontal, pertaining to the forehead.
 
 
 
Frontal spine (of frontal), nasal spine.
 
 
 
Fundiform, sling-like.
 
 
 
Funicular, pertaining to a cord.
 
 
 
Funiculus, a slender rope, a cord.
 
 
 
Furcalis, pertaining to a two-pronged
 
fork.
 
 
 
Furcula, a small two-pronged fork.
 
 
 
Fusca, dark or dusky.
 
 
 
Galactophorous, milk-carrying.
 
 
 
Galea, a helmet.
 
 
 
Galea aponeurotica, epicranial aponeurosis.
 
 
 
Galen, great vein of, great cerebral
 
vein.
 
 
 
Galen, veins of, internal cerebral
 
veins.
 
 
 
Gallinaginis, of a woodcock.
 
 
 
Gallus, a cock.
 
 
 
Ganglion, a swelling or excrescence.
 
 
 
Ganglion, aortico-renal, lower part
 
of coeliac ganglion.
 
 
 
Ganglion, Gasserian, trigeminal ganglion.
 
 
 
Ganglion, jugular (O.T.), superior
 
ganglion of ninth.
 
 
 
Ganglion, jugular (B.N.A.), superior
 
ganglion of tenth.
 
 
 
Ganglion, lenticular, ciliary ganglion.
 
 
 
Ganglion, Meckel’s, spheno-palatine
 
ganglion.
 
 
 
Ganglion nodosum (B.N.A.), inferior ganglion of tenth.
 
 
 
Ganglion, ophthalmic, ciliary ganglion.
 
 
 
Ganglion, petrous (O.T. and B.N.A.),
 
 
 
inferior ganglion of ninth.
 
 
 
Ganglion, semilunar, trigeminal ganglion.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
1704
 
 
 
 
 
GLOSSARY
 
 
 
 
 
Ganglion, stellate, first thoracic
 
ganglion.
 
 
 
Ganglion, submaxillary, submandibular ganglion.
 
 
 
Gartner’s duct, duct of epoophoron.
 
Gastric, pertaining to the stomach.
 
 
 
Gastrocnemius, the belly of the
 
leg.
 
 
 
Gemellus, paired or double.
 
 
 
Geminus, twin or twofold.
 
 
 
Geniculate, knee-like.
 
 
 
Genio-, pertaining to the chin.
 
Gennari, stria of, visual stria.
 
 
 
Genu, the knee.
 
 
 
Gerota’s capsule, renal fascia.
 
Giacomini, banderella or frenulum,
 
tail of dentate gyrus.
 
 
 
Gimbernat’s ligament, pectineal part
 
of inguinal ligament.
 
 
 
Ginglymus, a hinge.
 
 
 
Ginglymus, hinge-joint.
 
 
 
Giraldes, organ of, paradidymis.
 
Glabella, without hair; smooth.
 
Gladiolus, a small sword.
 
 
 
Gladiolus, body of sternum.
 
 
 
Gland, Bartholin’s, greater vestibular
 
gland.
 
 
 
Gland, Cowper’s, bulbo-urethral
 
gland.
 
 
 
Glenoid, like a shallow socket.
 
Glisson’s capsule, hepato-biliary capsule.
 
 
 
Globosus, round or spherical.
 
Globus, a globe or sphere.
 
Glomerulus, a small ball of thread.
 
Glosso-, pertaining to the tongue.
 
Glottis, the mouthpiece of a flute.
 
Gluteal, pertaining to the buttock.
 
 
 
Gnathic, pertaining to the jaw.
 
Gnathion, the jaw.
 
 
 
Gomphosis, a bolting together.
 
Gonion, an angle.
 
 
 
Gracilis, slender.
 
 
 
Grisea, grey.
 
 
 
Gubernaculum, a rudder.
 
 
 
Gula, the gullet.
 
 
 
Gustatory, pertaining to taste.
 
Guttural, pertaining to the throat.
 
Gyrus, a circle; a crook.
 
 
 
 
 
Habenula, a small thong or rein.
 
Hsemorrhoidal, associated with
 
haemorrhoids.
 
 
 
Hallux, the great toe.
 
 
 
Ham, a thing bent or crooked.
 
Hamular, hook-shaped.
 
 
 
Harmonia, a fitting together.
 
Hartmann’s pouch, sacculation at
 
junction of neck and body of gallbladder.
 
 
 
Hassall, corpuscles of (thymus), concentric corpuscles.
 
 
 
Haustrum, a machine for drawing
 
water.
 
 
 
Heister’s valves, spiral valve.
 
Helicine, spiral.
 
 
 
Helicotrema, hole of a spiral.
 
 
 
Helix, a coil or spiral.
 
 
 
Hepar, the liver.
 
 
 
Hepatic, pertaining to the liver.
 
Hernia, a sprout; a rupture.
 
Hesselbach’s triangle, inguinal triangle.
 
 
 
Hiatus, a gap.
 
 
 
Hiatus Fallopii, hiatus for superficial
 
petrosal nerve.
 
 
 
Highmore, antrum of, maxillary
 
sinus.
 
 
 
Hilum, a little thing; a trifle.
 
 
 
Hippocampus, a seahorse.
 
Hippocampus major, hippocampus.
 
Hippocampus minor, calcar avis.
 
Hircina, pertaining to a goat.
 
 
 
His, bundle of, atrio-ventricular
 
bundle.
 
 
 
Homodynamic]
 
 
 
Homogenesis see Chapter I.
 
Homologous )
 
 
 
Houston’s valves, horizontal folds of
 
rectum.
 
 
 
Huguier, canal of, anterior canaliculus for chorda tympani.
 
 
 
Humerus, the upper part of the arm;
 
the shoulder.
 
 
 
Hunter’s canal, subsartorial canal.
 
Hyaline, glassv.
 
 
 
Hyaloid, like glass.
 
 
 
Hydatid, a watery vesicle.
 
 
 
Hydrocele, a watery tumour.
 
 
 
Hymen, the marriage deity.
 
 
 
 
 
/
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
GLOSSARY
 
 
 
 
 
1705
 
 
 
 
 
Hyoid, like the Greek letter upsilon.
 
 
 
Hypo-, beneath or under.
 
 
 
Hypophysis, ‘ grow beneath.’
 
 
 
Hypothenar, beneath the palm of the
 
hand.
 
 
 
Ileum, implying twists or coils.
 
 
 
Ilium, literally of the soft parts—
 
i.e., of the flank; os ilium, the bone
 
of the flank.
 
 
 
Ima, lowest.
 
 
 
Impar, dissimilar (in number), unequal.
 
 
 
Incisivus, cutting into.
 
 
 
Incisura jugularis, suprasternal notch.
 
 
 
Incisura scapularis, suprascapular
 
notch.
 
 
 
Incisura semilunaris (ulna), trochlear
 
notch.
 
 
 
Infundibuliform, funnel-shaped.
 
 
 
Infundibulum, a funnel.
 
 
 
Inguinal, pertaining to the groin.
 
 
 
Inion, literally, the occiput.
 
 
 
Innominatum, unnamed.
 
 
 
Insula, an island.
 
 
 
Intercalary, inserted.
 
 
 
Internodium, the space between two
 
knots or joints.
 
 
 
Interparietal bone, membranous part
 
of occipital as a separate bone.
 
 
 
Interpositum, placed between.
 
 
 
Interstitial, belonging to interstices
 
or small parts between the main
 
parts of bodies.
 
 
 
Intertubercular sulcus, bicipital
 
groove.
 
 
 
Intumescentia, enlargement (spinal
 
cord).
 
 
 
Iris, the rainbow.
 
 
 
Ischiatic, pertaining to the hip.
 
 
 
Ischium, the hip.
 
 
 
Isthmus, faucium, oro-pharyngeal
 
isthmus.
 
 
 
Isthmus rhombencephali, upper constricted end of fourth ventricle.
 
 
 
Iter, a passage or road.
 
 
 
Jacobson, cartilage of, sub-vomerine
 
cartilage.
 
 
 
Jacobson, organ of, vomero-nasal
 
organ.
 
 
 
 
 
Jacobson’s nerve, tympanic nerve.
 
 
 
Jejunum, empty or hungry.
 
 
 
Jugal, yolking.
 
 
 
Jugular, pertaining to the throat.
 
 
 
Jugular notch (B.N.A.), suprasternal
 
notch.
 
 
 
Jugum, a yolk.
 
 
 
Kerckring, ossicle, occasional centre
 
in posterior margin of foramen
 
magnum.
 
 
 
Key and Retzius, foramina of
 
 
 
(Luschka), lateral apertures of
 
fourth ventricle.
 
 
 
Kobelt’s tubes, epoophoron.
 
 
 
Labbe, vein of, inferior anastomotic
 
vein (connects superficial middle
 
cerebral with transverse sinus).
 
 
 
Labrum, a basin.
 
 
 
Lacertus fibrosus, bicipital aponeurosis.
 
 
 
Laciniosum, full of folds, indented,
 
jagged.
 
 
 
Lacrimal, pertaining to tears.
 
 
 
Lacteal, pertaining to milk.
 
 
 
Lactiferous, milk-carrying.
 
 
 
Lacuna, a hollow or cavity.
 
 
 
Lacunee (of sagittal sinus), lacunae
 
laterales.
 
 
 
Lacunar, pertaining to a hollow or
 
gap.
 
 
 
Lacunar ligament, pectineal part of
 
inguinal ligament.
 
 
 
Lamella, a small plate.
 
 
 
Lamina, a plate.
 
 
 
Lamina cinerea, lamina terminalis.
 
 
 
Lamina cribrosa, medial boundary
 
of internal auditory meatus.
 
 
 
Lamina papyracea, orbital plate of
 
ethmoid.
 
 
 
Lamina quadrigemina, tectum.
 
 
 
Lateral, on the side of. Used in
 
reference to the sagittal plane of
 
the body.
 
 
 
Lateral mass (ethmoid), labyrinth.
 
 
 
Lateral sinus, transverse sinus.
 
 
 
Latissimus, broadest.
 
 
 
Latum, broad.
 
 
 
Lemniscus, a ribbon.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
1706
 
 
 
 
 
GLOSSARY
 
 
 
 
 
Leptorhine, having small narrow
 
nostrils.
 
 
 
Levator, a lifter or raiser.
 
 
 
Lien, the spleen.
 
 
 
Lieno-, pertaining to the spleen.
 
Ligament, a band or bandage.
 
 
 
Ligula, a little tongue.
 
 
 
Limbic lobe, gyrus fornicatus.
 
Limbous, pertaining to a border.
 
Limbus, a border.
 
 
 
Limbus fossae ovalis (or limbus
 
ovalis), annulus ovalis.
 
 
 
Limen, a threshold.
 
 
 
Linea, a line.
 
 
 
Lines, oblique (tibia), soleal line.
 
Lines, oblique internal (jaw), mylohyoid line.
 
 
 
Lines (occiput), nuchal lines.
 
 
 
Lines, popliteal, soleal line.
 
 
 
Lingual, pertaining to the tongue.
 
Lingula, a little tongue.
 
 
 
Lister’s tubercle, dorsal tubercle of
 
radius.
 
 
 
Longissimus, longest.
 
 
 
Longitudinal sinus, sagittal sinus.
 
Lower, tubercle of, intervenous
 
tubercle (heart).
 
 
 
Lumbar, pertaining to the loin.
 
Lumbricalis, like an earth-worm.
 
Lunar, pertaining to the moon.
 
Lunula, a little moon; a crescent.
 
Luteum, of a yellow colour.
 
 
 
Luys’ nucleus, subthalamic body.
 
Lymphatic, from lympha, pure or
 
spring water; lymph.
 
 
 
Lyra, a lyre; hippocampal commissure.
 
 
 
McBurney’s point (base of appendix),
 
 
 
junction of lower and middle
 
thirds of spino-umbilical line.
 
Macula, a spot.
 
 
 
Magendie, foramen, median aperture
 
of fourth ventricle.
 
 
 
Magnum, os, capitate bone.
 
 
 
Malar, pertaining to the cheek.
 
 
 
Malar bone, zygomatic bone.
 
Malleolus, a small hammer or mallet.
 
 
 
Malleus, a hammer or mallet.
 
 
 
 
 
Mamma, a breast or pap.
 
 
 
Mammilla, a little breast or pap.
 
Properly spelt mamilla.
 
 
 
Mandible, the chewing bone— i.e.,
 
lower jaw.
 
 
 
Manubrium, a handle or hilt.
 
 
 
Marshall, oblique vein, oblique vein
 
of left atrium.
 
 
 
Massa intermedia, interthalamic
 
 
 
connexus.
 
 
 
Masseter, the chewing muscle.
 
 
 
Mastoid, breast- or pap-like (nipplelike).
 
 
 
Maxilla, jaw.
 
 
 
Meatus (pi. Meatfis), a passage or
 
canal.
 
 
 
Meckel’s cave, cavum trigeminale.
 
 
 
Meckel’s diverticulum, diverticulum
 
ilei.
 
 
 
Mediastinum, standing in the middle;
 
a partition.
 
 
 
Medulla, marrow.
 
 
 
Megacephalic, having a large head.
 
 
 
Megaseme, having a large index.
 
 
 
Meibomian glands, tarsal glands.
 
 
 
Meissner’s plexus, plexus of the submucosa.
 
 
 
Membrane, costo-coracoid, clavi
 
pectoral fascia.
 
 
 
Meninges, membranes.
 
 
 
Meniscus, a crescent.
 
 
 
Meniscus (knee), semilunar cartilage.
 
 
 
Mental, pertaining to the chin.
 
 
 
Mesaticephalic, having a head with
 
an index of mean value.
 
 
 
Mesencephalon, the mid-brain.
 
 
 
Mesentery, in the middle of, or
 
among, the intestines.
 
 
 
Mesial, nearer to the sagittal plane
 
of the body.
 
 
 
Meso-, in the midst of. In compounds usually implies a structure
 
like a mesentery, a peritoneal attachment fold.
 
 
 
Mesocephalic, pertaining to a head
 
of mean capacity.
 
 
 
Mesogastrium=meso- (q.v.) and
 
stomach.
 
 
 
Mesognathion, middle jaw.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
GLOSSARY
 
 
 
 
 
Mesometrium=meso- [q-v.) and
 
womb.
 
 
 
Mesonephros, mid-kidney.
 
 
 
Mesorhine, pertaining to an intermediate nasal index; a condition
 
intermediate between broad-nosed
 
and narrow-nosed.
 
 
 
Mesosalpinx =meso- (q.v.) and tube.
 
 
 
Mesoseme, intermediate index.
 
 
 
Meta-, after or beyond.
 
 
 
Meta-nephros, hind-kidney.
 
 
 
Metencephalon, the after-brain.
 
 
 
Metopic, pertaining to the forehead.
 
 
 
Metopism, persistence of the metopic
 
or frontal suture.
 
 
 
Microcephalic, pertaining to a small
 
head.
 
 
 
Microseme, small index.
 
 
 
Middle commissure, interthalamic
 
connexus.
 
 
 
Millimetre (mm.), slightly less than
 
2V of an English inch.
 
 
 
Minimae, least, smallest.
 
 
 
Mitral, resembling an Asiatic headdress, or mitre.
 
 
 
Modiolus, the nave of a wheel.
 
 
 
Molar, pertaining to a mill, or to
 
grinding.
 
 
 
Monro, foramen, interventricular
 
foramen.
 
 
 
Mons veneris, mons pubis.
 
 
 
Montanum, pertaining to a mountain.
 
 
 
Monticulus, a small mountain.
 
 
 
Morbus, a disease.
 
 
 
Muliebris, pertaining to a woman,
 
feminine.
 
 
 
Miillerian duct, para-mesonephric
 
duct.
 
 
 
Multangulum majus, os, trapezium.
 
 
 
Multifidus, many cleft; divided into
 
many parts.
 
 
 
Musculo-spiral nerve, radial nerve.
 
 
 
Myelencephalon, marrow-brain.
 
 
 
Myeloplaxes, marrow-plates.
 
 
 
Myentericus, pertaining to the muscular tissue of the bowel.
 
 
 
Mylo-, pertaining to a mill.
 
 
 
Myocardium, the muscular tissue of
 
the heart.
 
 
 
Myrtiform, like a myrtle-berry.
 
 
 
 
 
1707
 
 
 
Nares, posterior, posterior apertures
 
of nose.
 
 
 
Naris (pi. nares), a nostril.
 
 
 
Nasal, pertaining to the nose.
 
 
 
Natal, pertaining to the buttock.
 
Natis (pi. nates), the buttock.
 
Navicular, pertaining to a boat.
 
Nephros, a kidney.
 
 
 
Neural, pertaining to a nerve.
 
Neuroglia, literally ‘ nerve glue.’
 
Nictitans, winking.
 
 
 
Norma, a rule or measure (aspect).
 
Notochord, string or cord of the back.
 
Nucha, the nape of the neck.
 
 
 
Nuck, canal, vaginal process.
 
Nucleus, a kernel.
 
 
 
Nuhn, glands, anterior lingual (seromucous) glands.
 
 
 
Nymphae, nymphs or goddesses of
 
the fountains, woods, trees, etc.;
 
labia minora.
 
 
 
Obelion, a horizontal line (perhaps
 
a little spit).
 
 
 
Obex, a bolt; a barrier.
 
 
 
Obturator, one who closes or stops
 
up.
 
 
 
Occipital, pertaining to the back
 
part of the head.
 
 
 
Odontoblast, a tooth-germ.
 
 
 
Odontoid, tooth-like.
 
 
 
Odoriferae, carrying odours.
 
(Esophagus, food-carrier.
 
 
 
Olecranon, head or point of the
 
forearm.
 
 
 
Olfactory, pertaining to smell.
 
Olfactory trigone, olfactory pyramid.
 
Olivary, pertaining to an olive.
 
Omentum, that which is drawn over.
 
 
 
Omentum, gastro - hepatic, lesser
 
omentum.
 
 
 
Omentum, gastro-splenic, gastrosplenic ligament.
 
 
 
Omo-, pertaining to the shoulder.
 
Omphalo-, pertaining to the navel.
 
Operculum, a cover or lid.
 
 
 
Ophryon, the eyebrow.
 
 
 
Ophthalmic, pertaining to the eye.
 
Opisthion, hinder or rear.
 
 
 
Opisthotic, behind the ear.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
1708
 
 
 
 
 
GLOSSARY
 
 
 
 
 
Optic, pertaining to sight.
 
 
 
Optic thalamus, thalamus.
 
 
 
Ora, a border or margin.
 
Orthognathous pertaining to a
 
straight (non-projecting) jaw.
 
 
 
Os incae, interparietal bone.
 
 
 
Os japonicum, bi-partite zygomatic
 
bone.
 
 
 
Os magnum, capitate bone.
 
 
 
Os, oris, a mouth.
 
 
 
Os, ossis, a bone.
 
 
 
Os tincae, external os of uterus.
 
Ossicle of Kerckring, occasional
 
centre in posterior margin of
 
foramen magnum.
 
 
 
Osteoblast, bone-germ.
 
 
 
Osteoclast, bone-destroyer.
 
Osteogenetic, bone-forming.
 
 
 
Ostium, a door, entrance, or exit.
 
Otic, pertaining to the ear.
 
 
 
Otoconia, ear-dust.
 
 
 
Otoliths, ear-stones.
 
 
 
Ovary, egg-forming organ.
 
 
 
Oxyntic, producing acid.
 
 
 
Pacchionian bodies, arachnoid granulations.
 
 
 
Pacinian corpuscles, lamellated corpuscles.
 
 
 
Palatum, the palate.
 
 
 
Pallium, a covering.
 
 
 
Palmar, pertaining to the palm.
 
Palpebra, an eyelid.
 
 
 
Pampiniform, tendril-like.
 
 
 
Pancreas, literally, all or completely
 
flesh.
 
 
 
Para-, near, by the side of.
 
Paradidymis, near the testis.
 
Parametrium, near the womb.
 
Parietal, pertaining to a wall.
 
Paroophoron, near the egg-bearing
 
organ; medial mesonephric tubules.
 
 
 
Parbtid, near the ear.
 
 
 
Parovarium, epoophoron.
 
 
 
Pars intermedia (Wrisberg), sensory
 
root of facial nerve.
 
 
 
Patella, a small dish; a plate.
 
 
 
Pecten, another name for the os
 
pubis; a comb.
 
 
 
 
 
Pectinatus, pertaining to a comb.
 
 
 
Pectineal or Pectineus, associated
 
with the pecten bone or os pubis.
 
 
 
Pectiniform, comb-like.
 
 
 
Pectoralis, pertaining to the breast.
 
 
 
Peduncle of corpus callosum, paraterminal gyrus.
 
 
 
Pelvis, a basin.
 
 
 
Penicillus, a painter’s brush or pencil.
 
 
 
Penis, a tail, or pendant process.
 
 
 
Peri-, around, about, or near.
 
 
 
Pericardium, around the heart.
 
 
 
Perineum, from a Greek verb meaning ‘ I dwell, or am situated,
 
around/
 
 
 
Perineum, central point of, perineal
 
 
 
body.
 
 
 
Periosteum, around bone.
 
 
 
Periotic, around the ear.
 
 
 
Peritoneum, from a Greek word
 
meaning ‘ stretched around/
 
 
 
Peroneal or Peroneus, ‘ pertaining
 
to the peronee/ the Greek name for
 
fibula.
 
 
 
Petit’s canal, zonular spaces.
 
 
 
Petit’s triangle, lumbar triangle.
 
 
 
Petrous, rocky.
 
 
 
Phalanx, a rank of soldiers.
 
 
 
Pharynx, the throat.
 
 
 
Phenozygous, having visible arches.
 
 
 
Philtrum, a love potion.
 
 
 
Phrenic, pertaining to the diaphragm.
 
 
 
Pineal, belonging to, or like, a pinenut or pine-cone.
 
 
 
Pinna, a kind of shell-fish; a feather
 
or wing.
 
 
 
Pisiform, like a pea.
 
 
 
Pituitary, pertaining to phlegm or
 
mucus; hypophysis.
 
 
 
Placenta, a flat cake.
 
 
 
Plagiocephalous, pertaining to an
 
oblique or twisted head.
 
 
 
Planta, the sole of the foot.
 
 
 
Plantar, pertaining to the sole of the
 
foot.
 
 
 
Platycnemism, broadness of leg.
 
 
 
Platyrhine, having a broad nose.
 
 
 
Platysma, a broad sheet.
 
 
 
Pleura, a rib.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
iyog
 
 
 
 
 
GLOSSARY
 
 
 
i
 
 
 
 
 
Plexus, a twining or network.
 
 
 
Plexus, Auerbach’s, myenteric plexus.
 
Plexus, gulae, cesophageal plexus.
 
Plexus, Meissner’s, plexus of the
 
submucosa.
 
 
 
 
 
Plica, a fold.
 
 
 
Plica hypogastrica, lateral umbilical
 
 
 
 
 
fold.
 
 
 
Plica urachi, median umbilical fold.
 
Plicae palmatae (uterus), arbor vitae.
 
Pneumogastric, pertaining to the
 
breathing organs and stomach.
 
Pocularis, pertaining to a cup.
 
 
 
 
 
Pollex, the thumb.
 
 
 
Pomum Adami, laryngeal prominence.
 
 
 
Pons, a bridge.
 
 
 
Popliteal or Popliteus, pertaining to
 
the ham.
 
 
 
Porta, a gate.
 
 
 
Portal, pertaining to a gate.
 
 
 
Portio major and minor, sensory and
 
motor roots of trigeminal nerve.
 
 
 
Postaxiah r , , T
 
Preaxial / see Cha P ter L
 
 
 
Posterior vesicular column (Clarke),
 
thoracic (or dorsal) nucleus.
 
 
 
Posticus, posterior.
 
 
 
Poupart’s ligament, inguinal liga
 
 
 
ment.
 
 
 
Primary divisions (of spinal nerves),
 
 
 
anterior and posterior rami.
 
Proctodaeum, the threshold of the
 
 
 
 
 
anus.
 
 
 
Prognathous, having a projecting
 
lower jaw.
 
 
 
Proligerus, bearing offspring; germinating.
 
 
 
Pro-nephros, fore-kidney.
 
 
 
Pro-otic, before the ear.
 
 
 
Prosencephalon, the fore-brain.
 
 
 
Prostate, standing before; or, more
 
probably, pertaining to a porch
 
or vestibule.
 
 
 
Psalterium, a psaltery or instrument
 
of the lute kind.
 
 
 
Psalterium (lyra), hippocampal commissure.
 
 
 
Psoas, from a Greek word meaning
 
* the muscles of the loins,’ and
 
secondarily ‘ the loins themselves.’
 
 
 
 
 
Pterion, a wing.
 
 
 
Pterotic, pertaining to a wing.
 
Pterygoid, wing-like.
 
 
 
Pubes, the hair which appears on the
 
external genital organs at the age
 
of puberty.
 
 
 
Pubic, pertaining to the os pubis.
 
Pudendal, pertaining to the pudendum.
 
 
 
Pudendum, ‘ of which one ought to
 
be ashamed.’
 
 
 
Pudic, modest or chaste.
 
 
 
Pulmo, a lung.
 
 
 
Pulmonary, belonging to the lungs.
 
Pulvinar, a couch or cushion,
 
Putamen, trimmings or clippings.
 
Pyloric vestibule, pyloric antrum.
 
Pylorus, literally, a gate-keeper.
 
Pyriformis, pear-shaped.
 
 
 
Quadratus, square.
 
 
 
Quadriceps, having four heads.
 
Quadrigeminus, fourfold, four.
 
 
 
Racemose, pertaining to a cluster of
 
grapes; full of clusters; clustering.
 
Radius, a staff or rod; the spoke of
 
a wheel.
 
 
 
Ramus, a branch.
 
 
 
Ranine, pertaining to a frog.
 
 
 
Raphe, a seam.
 
 
 
Receptaculum, a receptacle.
 
Receptaculum chyli, cisterna chyli.
 
Rectus, straight.
 
 
 
Recurrent, running back.
 
 
 
Refractory, breaking up.
 
 
 
Reil, island of, insula.
 
 
 
Ren, a kidney.
 
 
 
Restiform, like a rope or cord.
 
Restiform body, inferior cerebellar
 
peduncle.
 
 
 
Rete, a net.
 
 
 
Retina, from rete, a net.
 
 
 
Retrahens, drawing back.
 
 
 
Retzius, cave, retro-pubic space.
 
Revehens, carrying back.
 
 
 
Rhinencephalon, the ‘ nose ’ or olfactory brain.
 
 
 
Rhinion, a nose.
 
 
 
Rhombencephalon, the rhomb-brain
 
(hind-brain).
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
1710
 
 
 
 
 
GLOSSARY
 
 
 
 
 
Rhomboid ligament, costoclavicular
 
ligament.
 
 
 
Riedel’s lobe, an elongation of lower
 
margin of right lobe of liver (due
 
to pressure).
 
 
 
Rima, a cleft or chink.
 
 
 
Risorius, laughing.
 
 
 
Rivini, ducts, sublingual ducts.
 
 
 
Rolando, fissure, central sulcus.
 
 
 
Rostrum, a beak.
 
 
 
Rotula, a little wheel.
 
 
 
Rugae, wrinkles.
 
 
 
Saccus reuniens, sinus venosus
 
(heart).
 
 
 
Sacrum, sacred; derivation and original meaning very doubtful.
 
 
 
Sagittal, pertaining to an arrow;
 
antero-posterior.
 
 
 
Salpinx, a trumpet or tube.
 
 
 
Salvatella, saving, or making well.
 
 
 
Santorini, cartilages, corniculate cartilages.
 
 
 
Santorini, duct, accessory pancreatic
 
duct.
 
 
 
Santorini, fissures, clefts in cartilage
 
of exterior auditory meatus.
 
 
 
Saphenous, apparent, manifest.
 
 
 
Sartorius, pertaining to a tailor.
 
 
 
Scala, a ladder, flight of steps, or
 
staircase.
 
 
 
Scala media, duct of cochlea.
 
 
 
Scalenus, of unequal sides.
 
 
 
Scansorius, of, or for, climbing.
 
 
 
Scaphocephalous, having a head like
 
a boat.
 
 
 
Scaphoid, like a boat.
 
 
 
Scapula, a spade; probably from a
 
Greek verb meaning ‘ I dig/
 
 
 
Scarpa’s triangle, femoral triangle.
 
 
 
Schlemm, canal, sinus venosus
 
sclerae.
 
 
 
Schindylesis, a splitting or cleavage.
 
 
 
Sciatic (identical with Ischiatic),
 
pertaining to the hip.
 
 
 
Sclera, hard.
 
 
 
Sclerotic, hard; sclera.
 
 
 
Scrobiculus, a little ditch or trench.
 
 
 
Scrotum, a skin bag or pouch; a hide
 
(probably originally ‘ scortum J ).
 
 
 
 
 
Sebaceous, pertaining to grease.
 
Sella, a seat; a saddle.
 
 
 
Semilunar bone, lunate.
 
 
 
Semilunar fold of Douglas, arcuate
 
line.
 
 
 
Seminalis, pertaining to semen.
 
Septum, a fence or barrier.
 
 
 
Serotinus, that comes or happens
 
late.
 
 
 
Serratus, jagged like a saw.
 
 
 
Sesamoid, like sesame (a kind of
 
grain).
 
 
 
Shrapnell’s membrane, flaccid part
 
of membrana tympani.
 
 
 
Sibson’s fascia, suprapleural membrane.
 
 
 
Sigmoid, like the Greek letter S
 
 
 
(sigma).
 
 
 
Sigmoid cavity, greater, trochlear
 
notch.
 
 
 
Sigmoid cavity, lesser, radial notch.
 
Sigmoid cavity (of radius), ulnar
 
 
 
notch.
 
 
 
Sigmoid notch (mandible), mandibular notch.
 
 
 
Sinus, a cavity or hollow.
 
 
 
Sinus, Valsalva, of, sinuses of aorta.
 
Smegma, a cleanser.
 
 
 
Solar, relating to the sun.
 
 
 
Solar plexus, coeliac plexus.
 
 
 
Soleus, a sole or sandal; a sole-fish.
 
Sperma, seed or semen.
 
 
 
Spermatic, pertaining to semen.
 
Spermatoblast, a seminal bud.
 
Spermatozoa (plural), seminal
 
animals.
 
 
 
Sphenoid, wedge-like.
 
Spheno-maxillary fossa, pterygopalatine fossa.
 
 
 
Sphenotic, pertaining to the sphenoid
 
bone and ear-capsule.
 
 
 
Sphincter, binding or closing tight.
 
Spigelian lobe, caudate lobe.
 
Splanchnic, pertaining to viscera.
 
Splenium, a bandage or compress.
 
Splenius, pertaining to a bandage.
 
Squamous, scaly.
 
 
 
Stapes, a stirrup.
 
 
 
Stellatum, starry.
 
 
 
Stensen’s duct, parotid duct.
 
 
 
 
 
/
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
GLOSSARY
 
 
 
 
 
Stephanion, a crown or wreath.
 
 
 
Sternebra, a segment of the sternum.
 
 
 
Sternum, the breast or chest.
 
 
 
Stomata, mouths or pores.
 
 
 
Stomatodaeum or Stomodaeum, the
 
threshold of the mouth.
 
 
 
Stria medullaris, stria habenularis.
 
 
 
Striae acusticae, auditory striae.
 
 
 
Striae medullares, auditory striae.
 
 
 
Styloid, pen-like.
 
 
 
Subflava, somewhat yellow.
 
 
 
Subiculum, an under layer or support.
 
 
 
Submaxillary, submandibular.
 
 
 
Substantia gelatinosa (Roland), gelatinous matter.
 
 
 
Sudoriferous, sweat-carrying.
 
 
 
Sulcus, a furrow.
 
 
 
Supercilium, an eyebrow.
 
 
 
Supracallosal gyrus, indusium griseum.
 
 
 
Sural, pertaining to the calf of the
 
leg.
 
 
 
Sustentaculum, a prop or support.
 
 
 
Sustentaculum lienis, phrenico-colic
 
ligament.
 
 
 
Suture, a sewing together, a seam.
 
 
 
Sylvius, aqueduct, aqueduct of midbrain.
 
 
 
Symphysis, growth together.
 
 
 
Syn-, with; together with (union or
 
harmony may be implied).
 
 
 
Synarthrosis, literally, a * together
 
with ' (direct) joint; fibrous joint.
 
 
 
Synchondrosis, bound together with
 
cartilage; cartilaginous joint.
 
 
 
Syndesmosis, bound together with
 
bands or bonds.
 
 
 
Synovia, resemblance to the white
 
of an egg.
 
 
 
Taenia, a band or ribbon.
 
 
 
Talus, a die (pi. dice); the ankle-bone.
 
 
 
Tapetum, a carpet or coverlet.
 
 
 
Tarsus, a broad flat surface; the
 
instep.
 
 
 
Tectorius, pertaining to a cover.
 
 
 
Tegmen, a covering.
 
 
 
Tegmentum, a covering.
 
 
 
Tela, a web.
 
 
 
Telencephalon, the end-brain.
 
 
 
 
 
1711
 
 
 
Temporal, pertaining to the temples
 
of the head.
 
 
 
Tendo Achillis, tendo calcaneus.
 
 
 
Tendon, from tendo, ‘ I stretch.’
 
 
 
Tenon’s capsule, fascial sheath of
 
eyeball.
 
 
 
Tentorium, a tent.
 
 
 
Tenuis, slender, small.
 
 
 
Teres, rounded.
 
 
 
Testis, a witness.
 
 
 
Thalamencephalon, the bedchamberbrain, or inter-brain.
 
 
 
Thalamus, a bedchamber; a marriage-bed.
 
 
 
Thebesian valve, valve of coronary
 
sinus.
 
 
 
Thebesian veins, venae cordis minimae.
 
 
 
Theca, a cover, case, or sheath.
 
 
 
Thenar, the flat of the hand.
 
 
 
Thorax, the breast or chest; a breastplate.
 
 
 
Thymus, thyme.
 
 
 
Thyroid, like a shield.
 
 
 
Tibia, a pipe or flute; the shin-bone.
 
 
 
Tinea, a small fish, perhaps the tench.
 
 
 
Tonsil, palatine, tonsil.
 
 
 
Tonsil, pharyngeal, naso-pharyngeal
 
tonsil.
 
 
 
Torcular, a wine-press (twisting is
 
implied).
 
 
 
Torcular Herophili, confluens sinuum.
 
 
 
Torus, a protuberance.
 
 
 
Torus tubarius, tubal elevation.
 
 
 
Trabecula, a little beam.
 
 
 
Trachea (‘ rough ’), the wind-pipe.
 
 
 
Trachelo-, belonging to the neck.
 
 
 
Tragus, a goat.
 
 
 
Trapezium, a table; a four-sided,
 
figure, no two sides of which are
 
parallel to one another.
 
 
 
Trefoil, having three leaves.
 
 
 
Treitz, muscle, suspensory muscle of
 
duodenum.
 
 
 
Treves, bloodless fold of, ileo-csecal
 
fold.
 
 
 
Triangular fascia, reflected part of
 
inguinal ligament.
 
 
 
Triangular fibro-cartilage, articular
 
disc.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
1712
 
 
 
 
 
GLOSSARY
 
 
 
 
 
Triangular ligament, inferior or superficial layer; perineal membrane.
 
 
 
Triceps, having three heads.
 
 
 
Trigeminus, threefold, triple.
 
 
 
Trigdnocephalus, a triangular head.
 
 
 
Trigonum, a triangle; triangular.
 
 
 
Triquetrum, three-cornered; triangular.
 
 
 
Triticea, wheaten, or like a grain of
 
wheat.
 
 
 
Trochanter, from a Greek verb meaning ‘ I roll, turn, or revolve.'
 
 
 
Trochlea, the wheel of a pulley.
 
 
 
Trochlear, pulley-shaped.
 
 
 
Trochlearthrosis, a pulley-joint.
 
 
 
Trochoides, wheel-like.
 
 
 
Trolard, vein of, superior anastomotic
 
vein.
 
 
 
Tuba, a trumpet.
 
 
 
Tubarius, pertaining to a trumpet.
 
 
 
Tube, auditory, pharyngo-tympanic
 
tube.
 
 
 
Tube, Eustachian, pharyngo-tympanic tube.
 
 
 
Tubercle, a small swelling.
 
 
 
Tubercle, articular, articular eminence.
 
 
 
Tubercle, greater multangular, of,
 
 
 
crest of trapezium.
 
 
 
Tubercle, Lister’s, dorsal tubercle of
 
radius.
 
 
 
Tubercle, Lower, of, intervenous
 
tubercle (heart).
 
 
 
Tubercle, radial, dorsal tubercle of
 
radius.
 
 
 
Tuberosity, an exaggerated tubercle.
 
 
 
Turbinals or turbinate bones, conchse.
 
 
 
Turbinate, whirled or coiled; like a
 
top.
 
 
 
Turbo, a whirl or coil; a top.
 
 
 
Turcica, Turkish.
 
 
 
Tympanum, a drum.
 
 
 
Ulna, the elbow, but more usually
 
the forearm.
 
 
 
Umbilicus, the navel.
 
 
 
Umbo, a boss or knob.
 
 
 
Unciform, hook-like.
 
 
 
Unciform bone, hamate.
 
 
 
Uncinate, furnished with a hook.
 
 
 
 
 
Ungual, relating to a nail.
 
 
 
Unguis, a nail.
 
 
 
Unicornis, one-horned.
 
 
 
Urachus, urine-holder.
 
 
 
Ureter, from a Greek verb meaning
 
‘ I pass urine.'
 
 
 
Urethra, the canal by which urine is
 
passed.
 
 
 
Uriniferous, urine-carrying.
 
 
 
Uterus, the womb or matrix.
 
 
 
Uterus masculinus, prostatic utricle.
 
Utricle, a little womb or matrix.
 
Uvea, from uva, a bunch of grapes;
 
a cluster.
 
 
 
Uvula, a small bunch of grapes.
 
 
 
Vagina, a scabbard or sheath.
 
 
 
Vagus, strolling about, wandering,
 
vagrant.
 
 
 
Valgus, bow-legged.
 
 
 
Vallecula, a little valley.
 
 
 
Vallecula Sylvii, vallecula cerebri.
 
Vallum, a rampart.
 
 
 
Valsalva, sinuses, sinuses of aorta.
 
Valve, bicuspid, left atrio-ventricular
 
valve.
 
 
 
Valve, Eustachian, valve of inferior
 
 
 
vena cava.
 
 
 
Valve, ileo-caecal, ileo-colic valve.
 
Valve, mitral, left atrio-ventricular
 
 
 
valve.
 
 
 
Valve, Thebesian, valve of coronary
 
sinus.
 
 
 
Valve, tricuspid, right atrio-ventricular valve (cusps are anterior
 
inferior medial).
 
 
 
Valve, Vieussens, superior medullary
 
velum.
 
 
 
Varus, bent or turned inwards.
 
 
 
Vas (pi. vasa), a vessel.
 
 
 
Velum, a curtain or veil.
 
 
 
Velum interpositum, tela choroidea.
 
Velum palatinum, soft palate.
 
Veneris, ' of Venus.’
 
 
 
Ventral, pertaining to the belly.
 
Ventricle of larynx, sinus of larynx.
 
Vermiform, like a worm.
 
 
 
Vertebra, primarily means a joint,
 
but more particularly a joint of
 
the spine.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
GLOSSARY
 
 
 
 
 
Vertex, the top or crown of the head.
 
 
 
Veru, a dart, javelin, or spear.
 
 
 
Verumontanum, urethral crest.
 
 
 
Vesalii, foramen, emissary sphenoidal
 
foramen.
 
 
 
Vesica, the urinary bladder.
 
 
 
Vesical, pertaining to the urinary
 
bladder.
 
 
 
Vespertilio, a bat.
 
 
 
Vestibular nucleus, principal or
 
dorsal; medial nucleus.
 
 
 
Vestigial, pertaining to a trace.
 
 
 
Vestigium, a trace or vestige.
 
 
 
Vibrissa, a stiff hair of the nostril.
 
 
 
Vicq d’Azyr, bundle of, mamillothalamic tract.
 
 
 
Vidian canal, pterygoid canal.
 
 
 
Vidian nerve, nerve of pterygoid
 
canal.
 
 
 
Vieussens, ansa of, ansa subclavia.
 
 
 
Vieussens, valve, superior medullary
 
velum.
 
 
 
Villus, shaggy hair; a tuft of hair.
 
 
 
Vinculum, a band or bond.
 
 
 
Vitelline, pertaining to the yolk of
 
an egg.
 
 
 
Vitellus, the yolk of an egg.
 
 
 
Vitreous, like glass, glassy.
 
 
 
Vola, the palm of the hand.
 
 
 
Volar, pertaining to the palm; palmar, or anterior.
 
 
 
Vomer, a ploughshare.
 
 
 
 
 
I 7 I 3
 
 
 
Vorticosse, full of whirlpools, eddying, coiled.
 
 
 
Vulva, a wrapper or covering.
 
 
 
Wharton’s duct, submandibular
 
duct.
 
 
 
Willis, circle of, circulus arteriosus.
 
 
 
Winslow, foramen, opening of lesser
 
sac.
 
 
 
Winslow, ligament, oblique posterior
 
ligament of knee.
 
 
 
Wirsung, duct, pancreatic duct.
 
 
 
Wolffian duct, mesonephric duct.
 
 
 
Wood’s muscle, abductor metatarsi
 
quinti.
 
 
 
Wormian bones, sutural bones.
 
 
 
Wrisberg, cartilage, cuneiform cartilage.
 
 
 
Wrisberg, ligament, accessory attachment of lateral semilunar cartilage.
 
 
 
Wrisberg, nerve, medial cutaneous
 
nerve of arm.
 
 
 
Xiphoid, like a sword.
 
 
 
Y-shaped ligament of Bigelow, iliofemoral ligament.
 
 
 
Zinn, inferior tendon or ligament
 
 
 
(eye), lower part of common tendinous ring.
 
 
 
Zinn, zonule, ciliary zonule.
 
 
 
Zygoma, a yoke.
 
 
 
 
 
108
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
INDEX
 
 
 
 
 
Arteries, nerves, ligaments, joints, muscles, and veins are classified under corresponding
 
headings. Where a number is given in heavy type, the principal reference is indicated.
 
 
 
 
 
Abapical pole of ovum, 25
 
Abdomen, 674, 754
 
 
 
division into regions, 755
 
Abdominal cavity, 756
 
pregnancy, 19
 
wall, 704
 
 
 
landmarks of, 704
 
Abducent nerve, 1166, 1447, 1616
 
in orbit, 1254
 
 
 
Abductor digiti minimi (foot), 646
 
(hand), 496
 
hallucis, 644
 
 
 
ossis metatarsi quinti, 643
 
pollicis brevis, 493
 
longus, 505
 
 
 
Abernethy, fascia of, 854
 
Aberrant ductules, 751
 
Abnormal definition, 5
 
Accessory bile-ducts, 779
 
 
 
nerve. See Cranial nerves
 
obturator nerve, 580, 847
 
process, 140
 
Acervulus cerebri, 1590
 
Acetabulum, 340
 
 
 
ossification of, 341
 
Acrocephaly, 270
 
Acromial anastomosis, 443
 
Acromion, 296 , 298
 
Acromio-clavicular joint, 444
 
Acromio-thoracic artery, 426
 
Adamantoblasts, 287
 
Addison's lines, 755
 
Adductor brevis, 577
 
hallucis, 649
 
longus, 576
 
magnus, 577
 
minimus, 578
 
pollicis, 494, 496
 
Adenoids, 1373
 
Agger nasi, 214
 
Aggregated nodules, 868
 
Air-cells, mastoid, i88
 
sphenoidal, 199
 
Akinesis, 9
 
Ala cinerea, 1490
 
 
 
of frontal bone, 181
 
orbitalis, 273
 
of sacrum, 148
 
temporalis, 275
 
 
 
 
 
Alae of ethmoid, 207
 
of vomer, 228
 
Alar thoracic artery, 427
 
Alimentary canal (embryonic), 23
 
Allantoic diverticulum, 31
 
Allantois, 31, 32, 33, 954
 
Alveolar arches, 1337
 
index, 269
 
point, 244, 268
 
process of maxilla, 214
 
Alveoli, pulmonary, 1028
 
Alveus, 1525, 1569
 
Ambiguus nucleus, 1625 , 1626, 1627
 
Ameloblasts, 287
 
Amitosis, 9, 12
 
Amnion, 27, 30, 32, 106
 
Amniotic cavity, 25, 26, 32
 
duct, 32
 
fluid, 106
 
folds, 31, 32
 
 
 
Amphioxus gastrulation, 35
 
mesoderm, 36
 
Ampulla of duodenum, 865
 
of ear, 1684
 
of rectum, 944
 
of vas deferens, 935
 
Amygdaloid nucleus, 1524, 1532
 
tubercle, 1524
 
 
 
Anal canal, development of, 965
 
of female, 978
 
lymphatics of, 964
 
of male, 945
 
structure of, 961
 
columns, 961
 
fascia, 922
 
membrane, 965
 
valves, 962
 
Analogy, 122
 
Anaphase, 10
 
 
 
Anastomosis, acromial, 443
 
cruciate, 538, 585 , 587
 
round, elbow-joint, 479
 
knee-joint, 548
 
scapular, 441
 
trochanteric, 585
 
Anatomical description, 2
 
snuff-box, 484
 
textbooks, 2
 
Anatomy, 1
 
 
 
 
 
1714
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
INDEX
 
 
 
 
 
1715
 
 
 
 
 
Anconeus muscle, 500
 
Angle, cranio-facial, 260
 
of eye, 1289
 
of mandible, 232
 
pubic, 339, 552
 
sacro-vertebral, 151
 
sternal, 102, 1013
 
subcostal, 165
 
subpubic, 344
 
 
 
Angles of pharyngeal lateral pouches. 70,76
 
Angular process, medial, 181
 
Animal cell, 8
 
Ankle-joint, 661
 
 
 
Annular-ligament of radius, 520
 
Annulus fibrosus—
 
 
 
of intervertebral disc, 1107
 
of tympanic membrane, 1676
 
ovalis, 1055
 
 
 
Ano-coccygeal body, 675
 
Ansa hypoglossi, 1206
 
 
 
lenticularis, 1531, 1539 , 1567
 
peduncularis, 1565, 1567
 
subclavia, 1239, 1335
 
Antecubital lymphatic glands, 452, 514
 
Antihelix, 1295
 
Antinion, 268
 
Antitragicus muscle, 1296
 
Antrum, definition, 115
 
pyloric, 760
 
tympanic, 188, 1681
 
Anus, 674
 
 
 
development of, 965
 
imperforate, 965
 
lymphatics of, 964
 
Aorta, abdominal, 825
 
 
 
branches of, 825
 
guides to bifurcation of, 708
 
arch of, 1037
 
 
 
development of, 1041
 
ascending, 1033
 
 
 
branches of, 1036
 
development of, 1037
 
great sinus of, 1036
 
descending, 1089
 
 
 
development of, 1094
 
embryonic, 51, 68
 
thoracic, 1033
 
varieties of, 1040
 
Aortic arches, 68, 91, 1118
 
isthmus, 1038
 
lymphatic glands, 832
 
nodule, 1063
 
orifice, 1062
 
 
 
position of, 1064
 
plexus, 811
 
sinuses, 1063
 
spindle, 1038
 
valve, 1062
 
vestibule, 1060
 
Aortico-renal ganglion, 809
 
Aperture, bony, of nose, anterior, 244
 
posterior, 251
 
 
 
median, of fourth ventricle, 1492, 1608
 
Apex of lung, 1021
 
Apical pole of ovum, 25
 
 
 
 
 
Aponeurosis, bicipital, 453
 
epicranial, 1156
 
palatine, 1351
 
palmar, 484
 
plantar, 642
 
Apophysis, 114
 
 
 
Appendices epiploicae, 768, 871
 
Appendix, vermiform, 764
 
 
 
development of, 63, 872, 883
 
mesentery of, 764, 787 , 884
 
Aquatic respiration, 1377
 
Aqueduct of mid-brain, 1488, 1560
 
 
 
development of, 58, 1561, 1589
 
of vestibule, 191, 264
 
Aqueductus cochleae, 193, 1165, 1686
 
Aqueous humour, 1661
 
Arachnoid granulations, 1599, 1609
 
membrane, cranial, 1608
 
spinal, 1413
 
 
 
Arbor vitae cerebelli, 1485
 
of uterus, 977
 
 
 
Arc, longitudinal, of skull, 269
 
Arch, coraco-acromial, 445
 
crico-thyroid, 1215
 
femoral, deep, 719, 734
 
jugular, 1175
 
nasal, 1154
 
palato-glossal, 1350
 
palato-pharyngeal, 1350
 
palmar, deep, 484, 497 , 499
 
superficial, 483, 487, 498
 
plantar, 614, 657
 
subpubic, 344
 
superciliary, 181
 
Archenteric cavity, 25
 
Archenteron, 27, 30
 
Arches, arterial, 1118
 
dental, 281
 
of foot, 672
 
visceral, 66, 278
 
 
 
metamorphosis of, 1376
 
Archoplasm, 9
 
 
 
Arcuate eminence, 189, 263, 1684
 
fibres of medulla, 1465
 
ligaments of knee-joint, 631
 
of diaphragm, 836
 
line, 727
 
 
 
Arcus parieto-occipitalis, 1501
 
tendineus, 947
 
Area, bucco-pharyngeal, 34
 
cochlear, 190
 
embryonic, 33
 
orbital, 1493
 
proto-cardiac, 34
 
tentorial, 1493
 
vestibular, 1491
 
Areas of Broca, 1446
 
of cortex, 1569
 
of Flechsig, 1467
 
 
 
vestibular, superior and inferior, 190
 
Areola of nipple, 414
 
Arm, landmarks of, 446
 
Arteria, centralis retinae, 1260
 
rectae, 906
 
 
 
thyroidea ima, 1038, 1204, 1221
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
1716
 
 
 
 
 
INDEX
 
 
 
 
 
Artery or arteries—
 
 
 
acromio-thoracic, 426
 
alar thoracic, 427
 
anastomosis, cruciate, 538, 585 , 87
 
round, elbow-joint, 479
 
knee-joint, 548
 
scapular, 441
 
aorta, abdominal, 825
 
 
 
branches of, 825
 
development of, 1041, 1118
 
guides to bifurcation, 708
 
arch of, 1037
 
 
 
development of, 1041
 
ascending, 1033
 
 
 
branches of, 1036
 
development of, 1037
 
great sinus of, 1036
 
descending, 1089
 
 
 
development of, 1094
 
embryonic, 51, 68
 
primitive dorsal, 1118
 
ventral, 1118
 
thoracic, 1033
 
varieties of, 1040
 
aortic arches (emb.), 68, 91
 
appendicular, 797
 
arch, crico-thyroid, 1215
 
 
 
palmar, deep, 484, 497 , 499
 
superficial, 483, 487, 498
 
plantar, 614, 657
 
arcuate, 612
 
 
 
ascending pharyngeal, 1219
 
auditory, internal, 1448, 1576
 
of auricle, 1672
 
auricular, deep, 1305
 
 
 
posterior, 1161, 1219
 
axillary, 425
 
 
 
varieties of, 428
 
azygos, of vaginal, 980
 
basilar, 1447, 1575
 
brachial, 454
 
 
 
collateral circulation after ligature, 457
 
profunda, 455
 
varieties of, 456
 
bronchial, 1090, 1029
 
buccal, 1282, 1307
 
of bulb, female, 703
 
male, 688
 
 
 
bulbar, of vertebral, 1575
 
caecal, 797
 
 
 
calcaneal, lateral, of peroneal, 626
 
medial, of post-tibial, 627
 
calcarine, 1577
 
capsular, of liver, 885
 
carotid, common, 1207
 
 
 
left, in thorax, 1039
 
ligation of, 1210
 
surgical compression, 1210
 
internal, 1323
 
 
 
at base of brain, 1449
 
cavernous part of, 1169
 
cerebral part of, 1570
 
development of, 91, 1118,
 
1122, 1324
 
 
 
 
 
Artery or arteries ( continued )—
 
 
 
carotid, internal, petrous part of, 1399
 
carpal, anterior, of radial, 475
 
of ulnar, 479
 
 
 
arch, posterior, 478, 508, 511
 
posterior, of radial, 511
 
of ulnar, 478
 
 
 
rete, anterior, 478, 479, 498
 
centralis, retinae, 1260, 1658
 
cerebellar, anterior inferior, 1448, 1576
 
posterior inferior, 1575
 
superior, 1448, 1576
 
cerebral, anterior, 1449, 1572
 
middle, 1449, 1573
 
posterior, 1448, 1576
 
 
 
cerebral areas of, 1577
 
cervical, ascending, 1242
 
deep, 1148, 1244
 
transverse, 1193, 1243
 
 
 
deep branch of, 402, 1192,
 
1243
 
 
 
superficial branch of, 1142,
 
 
 
1243
 
 
 
of uterine, 980
 
 
 
choroidal, anterior, 1449, 1571
 
posterior, 1577
 
ciliary, anterior, 1260, 1651
 
long, 1260, 1651
 
posterior, 1260
 
short, 1260
 
 
 
circulus arteriosus, 1449, 1577
 
major, 1651
 
minor, 1651
 
 
 
circumflex, anterior humeral, 427
 
fibular, 609
 
iliac, deep, 732
 
 
 
superficial, 508, 712
 
lateral femoral, 585, 588
 
medial femoral, 585, 589
 
posterior humeral, 427, 428
 
scapular, 427
 
 
 
clitoris, dorsal artery of, 703
 
cochlear, 1694
 
coeliac, 811
 
colic, left, 801
 
middle, 797
 
right, 797
 
 
 
communicating, anterior, 1449, 1573
 
posterior, 1449, 1571
 
companion artery of sciatic nerve,
 
538
 
 
 
coronary, of heart, 1036
 
of uterine, 980
 
of corpus callosum, 1573
 
cremasteric, 731
 
crico-thyroid arch, 1215
 
 
 
branch of superior thyroid, 1214
 
dental, anterior superior, 1308
 
inferior, 1307
 
posterior superior, 1307
 
dorsalis, indicis, 511
 
linguae, 1216
 
pedis, 611
 
 
 
varieties of, 614
 
pollicis, 511
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
INDEX
 
 
 
 
 
1717
 
 
 
 
 
Artery or arteries ( continued )—
 
epigastric, inferior, 729
 
 
 
branches of, 731
 
guide to, 708
 
superficial, 584, 711
 
superior, 731, 1000
 
 
 
ethmoidal, anterior, 1261, 1281,
 
 
 
1362
 
 
 
posterior, 1261
 
facial, on face, 1278
 
in neck, 1217
 
transverse, 1158, 1281
 
femoral, 563, 581 » 587
 
 
 
profunda of, 584, 588
 
fibular, circumflex, 609
 
 
 
of frenulum linguae, 1216
 
ganglionic, 1449, 1573 , 1577
 
gastric, left, 812
 
right, 814
 
 
 
gastro-duodenal, 814
 
gastro-epiploic, left, 812
 
right, 814
 
 
 
genicular, of popliteal, 548
 
gluteal, inferior, 538, 926
 
superior, 536, 927
 
helicine, 953
 
hepatic, 813, 885
 
 
 
varieties of, 815
 
hyaloid, 1664
 
ileal, 796
 
ileo-colic, 787
 
iliac, circumflex deep, 732
 
superficial, 712
 
common, 849
 
 
 
branches of, 851
 
collateral circulation after
 
ligature of, 852
 
guide to, 708
 
varieties of, 852
 
external, 853
 
 
 
branches of, 854
 
collateral circulation after
 
ligature of, 854
 
guide to, 708
 
varieties of branches, 854
 
internal, 923
 
 
 
branches of, 924
 
foetal condition of, 923
 
varieties of, 923
 
ilio-lumbar, 926
 
indicis, dorsalis, 511
 
radialis, 487, 498
 
infra-hyoid, 1214
 
infra-orbital, 1282 , 1307
 
innominate, 1038
 
 
 
varieties of, 1039
 
intercostal, 997
 
 
 
anterior, 998, 1000
 
collateral, 1093
 
lower two, 732, 999
 
posterior, 998, 1091
 
superior, 997, 1093, 1243
 
interlobar, of kidney, 904
 
interlobular, of kidney, 905
 
of liver, 885
 
 
 
 
 
Artery or arteries ( continued )—
 
interosseous, anterior, 478
 
common, 478
 
posterior, 506, 507
 
recurrent, 508
 
of iris, 1651
 
jejunal, 796
 
of kidney, 904
 
labial, inferior, 1279
 
 
 
superior, 1280, 1362
 
of labyrinth, 1694
 
lacrimal, 1260
 
laryngeal, inferior, 1243
 
superior, 1214
 
of larynx, 1396
 
lenticular, 1573
 
lenticulo-striate, 1573
 
lenticulo-thalamic, 1573
 
of ligamentum teres of uterus, 731
 
lingual, 1215
 
lumbar, 847
 
 
 
abdominal branches of, 732
 
branches of, 847
 
malleolar, lateral anterior, 609
 
medial anterior, 609
 
of posterior tibial, 627
 
mammary, external branches of
 
lateral thoracic artery, 426
 
internal, cervical part of, 1242
 
thoracic part of, 999
 
branches of, 1000
 
masseteric, 1307
 
mastoid of occipital, 1146, 1219
 
maxillary, 1304
 
 
 
branches of, 1305
 
median, 478 , 498, 5 1 ^>
 
meningeal, accessory, 1306, 1600
 
anterior of ethmoidal, 1599
 
of ascending pharyngeal, 1220,
 
1601
 
 
 
of internal carotid, 1600
 
middle, 1306, 1600
 
of occipital, 1146, 1219, 1601
 
of vertebral, 1575, 1601
 
mental, of facial, 1279
 
 
 
of inferior dental, 1283, 1307
 
mesenteric inferior, 801
 
branches of, 801
 
superior, 796
 
 
 
branches of, 796
 
metacarpal, dorsal, 511
 
palmar, 498
 
metatarsal, dorsal, 613
 
first plantar, 657
 
musculo-phrenic, 1000
 
mylo-hyoid, of inferior dental, 1307
 
nasal, dorsal, 1261, 1281
 
lateral, of facial, 1280
 
nutrient arteries—
 
of femur, 587
 
of fibula, 626
 
of humerus, 455, 456
 
of radius, 478
 
of tibia, 626
 
of ulna, 478
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
INDEX
 
 
 
 
 
1718
 
 
 
Artery or arteries [continued )—
 
obturator, 589, 925, 927
 
abnormal, 566
 
occipital, first part, 1218
 
 
 
descending branch of, 1218
 
second and third parts, 1146
 
olecanon rete, 479
 
ophthalmic, 1170, 1259
 
ovarian, 830
 
 
 
in pelvis, 978
 
of palate, soft, 1354
 
palatine, ascending, of facial, 1217
 
of ascending pharyngeal, 1220
 
greater, 1308 , 1338, 1362
 
lesser, 1308
 
 
 
palmar arch, deep, 484, 497, 499
 
superficial, 483, 487, 498
 
palpebral, lateral, 1260, 1281
 
medial, 1261, 1281
 
pancreatica magna, 812
 
pancreatico-duodenal, inferior, 798
 
superior, 814
 
pedis, dorsalis, 611
 
varieties of, 614
 
perforating, foot, 613, 657
 
hand, 498
 
 
 
of profunda femoris, 586
 
pericardiaco-phrenic, 1000
 
perineal, superficial, of female, 703
 
of male, 687
 
transverse, 687
 
peroneal, 610, 626
 
branches of, 626
 
communicating branch of, 627
 
varieties, 626
 
 
 
pharyngeal, ascending, 1219
 
of maxillary, 1308
 
of pharynx, 1373
 
phrenic, 827
 
placental, 51
 
plantar arch, 655, 657
 
lateral, 655 , 657
 
medial, 654 , 657
 
pollicis, dorsalis, 511
 
princeps, 487, 497
 
pontine, 1448, 1575
 
popliteal, 541, 546
 
varieties of, 548
 
princeps pollicis, 487, 497
 
profunda, of brachial, 455
 
femoris, 584 , 588
 
linguae, 1216, 1346
 
of pterygoid canal, 1308, 1362
 
pterygoid, of maxillary, 1307
 
pubic, 731
 
 
 
of obturator, 589
 
pudendal, accessory, 689
 
deep external, 584
 
internal, 925
 
female, 703
 
in gluteal region, 539
 
male, 686
 
 
 
superficial external, 584, 710
 
pulmonary, 1028, 1042
 
development of, 1042
 
 
 
 
 
Artery or arteries [continued )—
 
pulmonary, trunk, 1042
 
 
 
development of, 1042
 
radial, 473
 
 
 
first part, 474
 
 
 
recurrent branch of, 475
 
second part, 509
 
third part, 497
 
varieties of, 475, 498
 
radialis indicis, 487, 498
 
rectal, 906
 
 
 
inferior, 963
 
middle, 925, 963
 
superior, 802, 963
 
recurrent, anterior tibial, 609
 
ulnar, 477
 
 
 
posterior interosseous, 508
 
tibial, 609
 
ulnar, 477
 
radial, 475
 
renal, 827
 
 
 
aberrant, 828
 
accessory, 828
 
varieties, 828
 
rete, olecranon, 479
 
retinal, 1658
 
sacral, lateral, 926
 
median, 946
 
 
 
saphenous, of descending genicular,
 
 
 
587, 589
 
 
 
of scalp, 1153
 
scapular, circumflex, 427
 
of sclera, 1643
 
septal, of facial, 1280
 
 
 
of spheno-palatine, 1308, 1339,
 
1362
 
 
 
spheno-palatine, 1308, 1361
 
spinal, anterior, 1447, 1575
 
lateral, 1434
 
 
 
posterior, 1434, 1447, 1575
 
of posterior intercostals, 1093,
 
1411
 
splenic, 812
 
striate, 1573
 
stylo-mastoid, 1219
 
subclavian, 1237
 
 
 
development of, 1240
 
left, first part of, 1240
 
in thorax, 1040
 
right, first part of, 1237
 
second part of, 1240
 
third part of, 1191
 
 
 
guide to, 1192
 
subcostal, 732, 848, 1093
 
sublingual, 1216
 
submental, 1218
 
subscapular, 427
 
suprahyoid, 1216
 
supra-orbital, 1154, 1260
 
suprarenal, inferior, 828
 
middle, 827
 
 
 
superior, of phrenic, 827
 
suprascapular, 402, 438 , ii 93 ; 1243
 
suprasternal of suprascapular,
 
 
 
43 8 . 1243
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
INDEX
 
 
 
 
 
1719
 
 
 
 
 
Artery or arteries ( continued )—
 
supratrochlear (brachial), 456
 
of ophthalmic, 1154, 1261
 
sural cutaneous, 548
 
tarsal, 612
 
 
 
temporal, anterior deep, 1307
 
middle, 1158
 
posterior deep, 1307
 
superficial, 1158
 
testicular, 829
 
 
 
terminal part of, 738
 
varieties, 829
 
thoracic, alar, 427
 
lateral, 427
 
somatic, 1244
 
superior, 426
 
 
 
thyro-cervical trunk, 1242
 
thyroid, inferior, 1242
 
superior, 1213 , 1242
 
thyroidea ima, 1038, 1204, 1221
 
tibial, anterior, 607
 
 
 
guide to, 599
 
recurrent, 609
 
posterior, 624
 
guide to, 599
 
recurrent, 609
 
varieties, 627
 
of tongue, 1346
 
of tonsils, 1215, 1355
 
tonsillar, of facial, 1217
 
transverse facial, 1158
 
tympanic, anterior, 1306
 
inferior, 1220
 
 
 
of tympanic membrane, 1677
 
ulnar, 475
 
 
 
collateral, 456
 
first part, 476
 
 
 
recurrent branches of, 477
 
second part, 480
 
third part, 487
 
varieties, 479. 49$
 
umbilical, 51, 9 2 3> io8 3
 
urachal, of superior vesical, 924
 
ureteric, of superior vesical, 924
 
uterine, 979
 
vaginal, 980
 
 
 
azygos, 980
 
of liver, 885
 
of uterine, 980
 
 
 
vas aberrans, brachial, 456, 475
 
to vas deferens, 738, 925
 
vertebral, at base of brain, 1447
 
development of, 1121, 1242
 
first part, 1241
 
fourth part, 1574
 
second part, 1241
 
third part, 1151
 
varieties of, 1242
 
vesical, inferior, 925
 
superior, 924
 
vestibular, 1694
 
zygomatic, 115 8
 
Articular discs— . .
 
 
 
of acromio-clavicular joint, 444
 
of mandibular joint, 1318
 
 
 
 
 
| Articular discs ( continued )—
 
of radio-ulnar joint, 520
 
of sterno-clavicular joint, 444
 
Articularis genu muscle, 573
 
Articular nerves—
 
 
 
ankle-joint, 610, 615, 627, 663
 
calcaneo-cuboid, 654
 
carpal joints, 507, 525
 
carpo-metacarpal, 526
 
elbow-joint, 461, 480, 519
 
hip-joint, 545, 574, 580, 597
 
intermetacarpal, 526
 
interphalangeal, foot. 653, 654
 
shoulder-joint, 432, 464
 
talo-calcanean, 615
 
tarsal, 614, 652, 654
 
tarso-metatarsal, 614, 652, 654
 
tibio-fibular, inferior, 550, 610, 660
 
intermediate, 660
 
superior, 550, 659
 
wrist-joint, 489, 507, 523
 
Aryepiglottic fold, 1386
 
development of, 73
 
Arytenoid cartilages, 1382
 
development of, 1383
 
Arytenoideus muscle, 1393
 
Aspera, linea, 350
 
 
 
Association fibres of cerebrum, 1568
 
Aster, 9, 10
 
 
 
Asterion, 180, 239, 251, 268, 1630
 
Atavism, 6
 
 
 
Atlanto-axial joints, 1404 , 1408
 
Atlanto-occipital joints, 1406, 1409
 
Atlas, 128
 
 
 
development of, 170
 
ossification of, 142
 
Atresia ani, 955
 
Atria of heart, left, 1052
 
 
 
interior of, 1059
 
right, 1051
 
 
 
interior of, 1054
 
of lung, 1027
 
 
 
Atrio-ventricular bundle, 1071
 
node, 1071
 
 
 
Atrium of middle meatus, 1357
 
Attraction particles, 9
 
sphere, 9
 
 
 
Atypical, definition, 6
 
Auditory artery, internal, 1448, 1576
 
cells, 1689, 1692
 
epithelium, 1689
 
hairs, 1689
 
 
 
meatus, external, 193 , 1671
 
internal, 190, 264
 
nerve, 1165, 1404, 1447, 1620
 
process, external, 194
 
radiation, 1531, 1568
 
striae, 1471, 1489, 1620
 
teeth, 1691
 
Auricle, 1294
 
 
 
blood-supply of, 1297
 
lymphatics of, 1297
 
muscles of, extrinsic, 1160
 
intrinsic, 1296
 
nerve-supply of, 1297
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
INDEX
 
 
 
 
 
1720
 
 
 
Auricle, structure of, 1295
 
veins of, 1297
 
Auricles of heart, left, 1052
 
right, 1051
 
 
 
Auricular artery, deep, 1305
 
posterior, 1219
 
nerve, great, 1142 , 1278
 
posterior, 1160, 1272
 
point, 251, 268, 1629
 
surface of sacrum, 147
 
tubercle, 1295
 
tubercles (emb.), 68
 
vein, posterior, 1161
 
Auricularis anterior muscle, 1160
 
posterior, 1160
 
superior, 1160
 
 
 
Auriculo-temporal nerve, 1157, 1277
 
Auscultation triangle, 400
 
Autonomic nervous system, 1634
 
parasympathetic, 1639
 
cranial, 1639
 
sacral, 1640
 
sympathetic, 1635
 
 
 
course of efferent impulses, 1636
 
development of, 1640
 
ganglia, 1635
 
 
 
rami communicantes, 1635
 
Axial filament in spermatozoon, 13
 
skeleton, 23
 
Axillary artery, 425
 
 
 
varieties of, 428
 
fascia, 414
 
folds, 412
 
 
 
lymphatic glands, 416, 424, 434 , 514
 
sheath, 429
 
space, 412, 422
 
vein, 428 , 451
 
Axis, 131
 
 
 
odontoid process of, 131
 
ossification of, 143
 
Azygos arteries of vagina, 890
 
veins, 839
 
 
 
Back, landmarks of, 397
 
of scalp and neck, 1141
 
Baillarger, bands of, 1565
 
Balfour’s cell-chain theory, 55
 
Ball-and-socket joint, 393
 
Band, diagonal, 1515
 
ilio-trochanteric, 593
 
moderator, 1057
 
pudendal, 929
 
sciatic, 929
 
 
 
Basal cartilaginous plate in skull, 89
 
ganglia, 1526
 
Base of brain, 1443
 
Base-line of Reid, 1633
 
Basi-bregmatic axis, 260
 
Basi-cranial axis, 260
 
Basi-facial axis, 260
 
Basi-hyal, 236
 
Basilar artery, 1447, 1575
 
 
 
branches of, 1447, 1575
 
groove, 174
 
membrane, 1690
 
 
 
 
 
Basilar, part of occipital bone, 174
 
vein, 1521, 1579
 
Basilic vein, 450, 451
 
Basi-occipital, 275
 
Basion, 258, 268
 
Basket cells of cerebellum, 1487
 
Beak of ulna, 312
 
Bechterew, band of, 1565
 
Bellini, duct of, 903
 
Bergmann, fibres of, 1487
 
Biceps brachii, 452 , 463
 
third head, 454
 
femoris, 542
 
 
 
Bicipital aponeurosis, 453
 
groove, 300
 
synovial sheath, 465
 
Bifurcated ligament—•
 
 
 
calcaneo-cuboid part, 666
 
calcaneo-navicular part, 665
 
Bile canaliculi, 886
 
capillaries, 886
 
ducts, 779
 
 
 
accessory ducts, 779
 
interlobular ducts, 886
 
Birth of foetus, 107
 
Biventer cervicis muscle, 407
 
Bladder, urinary, blood-supply of, 952
 
development of, 955
 
female, 977
 
infantile, 952
 
 
 
ligaments of, false, 918, 952
 
true, 952
 
 
 
lumen of empty bladder, 951
 
male, 932
 
 
 
nerve-supply of, 953
 
orifices of, 951
 
peritoneal relations of, 934
 
structure of, 949
 
trigone, external, of, 934
 
internal, of, 951
 
 
 
Blastocele, 24
 
Blastocyst, 24
 
Blastoderm, 24
 
Blastodermic vesicle, 24
 
Blastomere, 21
 
Blastopore, 35
 
Blastula, 24
 
Blind spot, 1653
 
 
 
Blood circulation, development of, so, s
 
islands, 51
 
 
 
Bochdalek, ganglion of, 1320
 
Body, ano-coccygeal, 675
 
carotid, 1211
 
cavity, primitive, 23, 42
 
ciliary, 1647
 
geniculate, lateral, 1538
 
medial, 1538
 
Pacinian, 490, 653
 
perineal, female, 701
 
male, 681
 
pineal, 1540
 
ponto-bulbar, 1584
 
stalk, circulation in, 51, 52
 
morphology, 31 "
 
relation to umbilicus, 65
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
INDEX
 
 
 
 
 
1721
 
 
 
 
 
Body, ultimo-branchial, 76
 
vitreous, 1662
 
wall, development of, 59
 
split by pleurae, 78
 
Bone, canaliculi, 117
 
cell, 117
 
chemical, 115
 
lacunae, 117
 
marrow, 121
 
Bones, cancellated, 118
 
classification of, 118
 
compact, 116
 
of head, 172
 
ossification, 119
 
Borders, post- and pre-axial, 5
 
Bowman, capsule of, 901, 906
 
Brachia of corpora quadrigemina, 1538,
 
 
 
1548
 
 
 
Brachial artery, 454, 456
 
 
 
collateral circulation after ligature, 457
 
profunda, 455
 
varieties of, 456
 
plexus, 439
 
 
 
infraclavicular branches, 431
 
in neck, 1193
 
 
 
supraclavicular branches, 430,
 
1194
 
 
 
Brachialis muscle, 454
 
Brachio-radialis, 501
 
Brachycephalic skulls, 243, 267, 269
 
Brain, 1442
 
 
 
development of, 55, 15 81
 
superior surface of, 1433
 
weight of, 1570
 
 
 
Bregma, 180, 237, 238, 268, 1629
 
Bregmatic bone, 265
 
Broca, area of, 1446
 
Bronchioles, 1027
 
 
 
development of, 1030
 
Bronchus, eparterial, 1027, 1030
 
hyparterial, 1027
 
 
 
development of, 1030
 
left, 1086
 
right, 1086
 
 
 
Bruch, membrane of, 1646
 
Bryant’s triangle, 552
 
Buccal mucous glands, 1272
 
Buccinator muscle, 1269
 
Bucco-pharyngeal area, 34, 44
 
 
 
fascia, 1179, I 3 68
 
membrane, 44, 56. 69
 
Bulb, olfactory, 1165, 1510 , 157 °
 
of penis, 682
 
of posterior horn, i 5 2 4
 
Bulbar ridges, 1079
 
Bulbo-urethral glands, 685
 
Bulbs of vestibule, 696
 
Bulla ethmoidalis, 1357
 
Bundle, atrio-ventricular, I ° 7 I
 
 
 
medial longitudinal, 1464, 1555
 
of Munzer, 1588
 
Bursa of biceps brachii, 453
 
femoris, 542, 641
 
 
 
of coraco-clavicular ligament, 405
 
 
 
 
 
Bursa, under gastrocnemius, 544, 619, 640
 
gluteal muscles, 598
 
of infraspinatus, 465
 
under obturator internus, 535
 
olecranon, 447
 
of popliteal tendon, 641
 
prepatellar, 554, 640
 
under semimembranosus, 544, 64°
 
subacromial, 436, 464
 
subhyoid, 235
 
subpsoas, 598
 
subscapular, 464
 
suprapatellar, 574, 640
 
of teres major, 465
 
Bursae at elbow-joint, 519
 
at hip-joint, 598
 
at knee-joint, 640
 
at shoulder-joint, 464
 
 
 
Caecum, 762
 
 
 
development of, 63, 882
 
peritoneal relations of, 763
 
varieties of, 764
 
vascular fold of, 792
 
Cajal, horizontal cells of, 1562
 
moss fibres of, 1488
 
Calamus scriptorius, 1452
 
Calcaneal arteries—
 
 
 
lateral of peroneal, 626
 
medial of post-tibial, 627
 
Calcaneo-cuboid joint, 666
 
Calcaneo-navicular ligament, plantar, 665,
 
673
 
 
 
part of bifurcated ligament, 665
 
Calcaneum, 370
 
 
 
ossification of, 378
 
peroneal tubercle, 372, 388
 
structure of, 372
 
 
 
sustentaculum tali of, 371, 388, 390
 
tubercles on, 370, 386
 
tuberosity of, 370
 
varieties of, 372
 
Calcar avis, 1524
 
femorale, 354
 
 
 
Calcarine area of cortex, 1569
 
artery, 1577
 
Callosal radiation, 1568
 
Calvaria, 260
 
Canal or canals—
 
anal, 945, 97 8
 
carotid, 189, 191, 258, 263
 
central, of cord, 1422
 
condylar, 175, 258
 
cranio-pharyngeal, 197, 206
 
dental, 212, 213
 
facial, 190
 
femoral, 566
 
Haversian, 116
 
hepatic, 886
 
hyaloid, 1664
 
incisive, 248
 
infra-orbital, 245
 
inguinal, 708, 735
 
innominate, 201
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
1722
 
 
 
 
 
INDEX
 
 
 
 
 
Canal or canals—( continued )
 
intestinal, 761
 
lacrimal, 245
 
mandibular, 231
 
naso-lacrimal, 248
 
neural, 40
 
 
 
of Nuck, 743, 744, 969
 
obturator, 993
 
 
 
palatine, greater and lesser, 255
 
palato-vaginal, 199, 255
 
palmar, 332
 
 
 
pharyngo-tympanic, 257
 
portal, 885
 
 
 
pterygoid, 204, 255, 263
 
pterygo-palatine, 227
 
pudendal, 688
 
pyloric, 760
 
of sacrum, 148
 
semicircular, 1684
 
spiral, of cochlea, 1685
 
subsartorial, 580
 
vertebral, 154
 
Volkmann's, 117
 
zygomatico-facial, 219
 
zygomatico-temporal, 219
 
Canaliculus for chorda tympani, anterior,
 
187, 1673
 
 
 
posterior, 190, 1675
 
lacrimal, 1287
 
mastoid, 191, 258
 
tympanic, 258
 
Cancellated bone, 118
 
Canine fossa, 212
 
ridge, 211
 
teeth, 280
 
Capitate bone, 320
 
 
 
ossification of, 322
 
Capitellum, definition, 114
 
Capitulum of humerus, 304
 
Capsular decidua, 104, 106
 
Capsule, external, of brain, 1531
 
internal, of brain, 1528
 
Caput cornu, 1421
 
 
 
gyri hippocampi, 1507
 
medusae, 712
 
 
 
Cardiac nerves of sympathetic cervical,
 
1334 . 1335
 
 
 
of vagus, cervical, 1330
 
thoracic, 1045
 
plexus, 1046
 
deep, 1046
 
superficial, 1046
 
 
 
Cardinal veins, 51, 1127, 1132, 1136
 
Carotico-clinoid foramen, 200
 
Carotid artery, common, 1207
 
 
 
left, in thorax, 1039
 
external, 1212
 
 
 
development of, 1119, 1213
 
internal, 1169, 1323, 1324, 1399'
 
1449
 
 
 
development of, 91, 1118,
 
1122, 1324
 
 
 
body, 1211
 
 
 
canal, 189, 191, 258, 263
 
groove of sphenoid, 200
 
 
 
 
 
Carotid notch of sphenoid, 200
 
plexus, 1333
 
sheath, 1207
 
triangle, 1196
 
tubercle, 134, 1172
 
Carpal arch, posterior, 478, 508, 511
 
arteries—
 
 
 
anterior, of radial, 475
 
posterior, of radial, 511
 
of ulnar, 479
 
joints, 524
 
 
 
rete, anterior, 478, 479, 498
 
Carpo-metacarpal joints, 525
 
Carpus, 315
 
 
 
morphology, 323
 
ossification of, 322
 
varieties of, 322
 
as a whole, 321
 
Cartilage or cartilages—
 
arytenoid, 1382
 
corniculate, 1383
 
costal, 160
 
cuneiform, 1383
 
of larynx, 1379
 
 
 
of mandibular arch, 74, 75, 232
 
nasal, 1298
 
of second arch, 75
 
semilunar, 632
 
thyroid, 1380
 
 
 
Cartilaginous base of skull, 89, 270, 275
 
Cartilago triticea, 1384
 
Caruncula lacrimalis, 1289, 1292
 
Carunculae hymenales, 696
 
Cauda equina, 1417
 
Caudal, definition, 122
 
Caudate nucleus, 1526
 
Cave of Retzius, 339
 
Cavernous sinus, 1169, 1606
 
Cavity, glenoid, 294 , 461
 
of larynx, 1386
 
nasal, 1356
 
 
 
of septum lucidum, 1520
 
thoracic, 1002
 
Cavum trigeminale, 1167
 
Cell, animal, 8
 
 
 
of Cajal, 1562
 
division, 9
 
germ, 12
 
of Golgi, 1564
 
membrane, 8
 
pyramidal, 1562
 
Cement, 285
 
 
 
Centra, vertebral development, 59
 
Central artery of retina, 1260, 1658
 
canal of cord, 1422
 
lobule of cerebullum, 1478
 
tendon of diaphragm, 835
 
Centrale, os, 322
 
 
 
Centro-acinar cells of Langerhans, 891
 
Centrosome, 9, 10, 21
 
in spermatozoa, 13
 
Centrum of vertebrae, 125
 
Cephalic, definition, 122
 
vein, 450, 451
 
Cerg,to-hyal, 76, 23$
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
/
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
INDEX
 
 
 
 
 
I 7 2 3
 
 
 
 
 
Cerebellar fossae, 264
 
 
 
Cerebelli, tentorium, 1163, 1602, 1633
 
 
 
Cerebellum, 1475
 
 
 
arbor vitae of, 1485
 
association and commissural fibres
 
of, 1485
 
 
 
basal surface, 1443
 
development of, 1488, 1586
 
lobes and lobules of under surface
 
of, 1480
 
 
 
of upper surface, 1478
 
medullary vela, 1485
 
morphology of, 1481
 
nuclei of, i486
 
peduncles, inferior, 1484
 
middle, 1484
 
superior, 1483 , 1553
 
structure of, i486
 
under surface of, 1479
 
upper surface of, 1476
 
Cerebral commissure, anterior, 1518, 1568
 
hippocampal, 1518, 1568
 
posterior, 1542
 
cortex, 1561
 
 
 
development, 1510, 1591
 
fissures of, 1495
 
 
 
calcarine, 1503
 
choroidal, 1525
 
collateral, 1497
 
dentate, 1508
 
ecto-rhinal, 1508
 
lateral, 1495
 
parieto-occipital, 1496
 
postcalcarine, 1503
 
precalcarine, 1503
 
ganglia, basal, of, 1526
 
gyri of, 1493. See under Gyri
 
hemispheres, 1493
 
lobes of—
 
 
 
frontal, 1497
 
insula, 1505
 
limbic, 1506
 
occipital, 1502
 
olfactory, 1510
 
parietal, 1499
 
pyriform, 1508
 
 
 
temporal, 1504
 
lobules of—
 
 
 
cuneus, 1504
 
paracentral, 1499
 
parietal, 1501
 
postcentral, 1506
 
prsecuneus, 1502
 
precentral, 1506
 
quadrate, 1502
 
pole, frontal, of, 1451
 
 
 
occipital, of, 1451, i 5°3
 
temporal, of, 1444
 
veins, 1578
 
vesicles, primary, 58
 
Cerebri, crura, 1445. 1551
 
Cerebro-spinal axis, 1410
 
Cerebrum, the, 1493
 
Ceruminous glands, 1672
 
Cervical canal in pregnancy, 104
 
 
 
 
 
Cervical fascia, deep, 1178
 
 
 
compartments of, 1180
 
 
 
fistula, 1377
 
 
 
lymphatic glands, deep, 1189, H 99
 
superficial, 1178
 
plexus, 1185
 
 
 
branches, deep, 1188
 
 
 
superficial, 1141, 1187
 
spinal nerves, origins of, 1418
 
vertebrae, 126
 
Cervix cornu of cord, 1421
 
of uterus, 973
 
 
 
Check ligaments of eyeball, 1253
 
Cheeks, 1337
 
Chiasma, optic, 1545
 
Chondrocranium, 89, 270, 275
 
Chorda tympani nerve, 1347, 1402
 
Chordae tendineae, 1057
 
Chorio-decidual vessels, 109
 
Chorion, 29, 106
 
Chorionic ectoderm 29
 
mesoderm, 29
 
villus, 29
 
 
 
Choroid coat of eyeball, 1645
 
nerves of, 1651
 
structure of, 1646
 
plexus of fourth ventricle, 1492
 
of lateral ventricle, 1521
 
 
 
of inferior horn of, 1525
 
of third ventricle, 1521
 
Choroidal fissure, 1525
 
Chromatin, 9
 
 
 
discharged from nucleus, 18
 
Chromosomes, 10, 17, 18
 
Chyli, cisterna, 838, 1100
 
Ciliary body of eye, 1647
 
ganglion, 1257
 
margin, 1649
 
nerves, long, 1256
 
short, 1258
 
processes, 1647
 
vessels, 1260, 1651
 
Cinereum, tuber, 1445* 1544
 
Cingulate sulcus, 1496
 
Circular folds of small intestine, 864
 
sinus, 1606
 
sulcus, 1497
 
 
 
Circulation, course of, 1050
 
embryonic, 51
 
 
 
Circulus arteriosus, 1449, 1 577
 
major, 1651
 
minor, 1651
 
Circumduction, 395
 
 
 
Circumflex artery, anterior humeral, 427
 
fibular, 609
 
 
 
lateral femoral, 585, 588
 
medial femoral, 585, 589
 
posterior humeral, 427, 428
 
scapular, 427
 
iliac artery, deep, 732
 
 
 
superficial, 584, 712
 
nerve, 432 , 436
 
Cisterna basalis, 1609
 
 
 
cerebello-medullaris, 1609
 
chyli, 838, 1100
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
INDEX
 
 
 
 
 
1724
 
 
 
 
 
Cisterna pontis, 1609
 
venae magnae, 1609
 
Classification of joints, 394
 
of movements, 395
 
Claustrum, 1531
 
 
 
Clava of medulla oblongata, 1455
 
Clavicle, 289
 
 
 
in female, 291
 
ossification of, 292
 
structure of, 291
 
varieties of, 291
 
Clavi-pectoral fascia, 420
 
Cleavage nucleus, 21
 
Cleft, intratonsillar, 1354
 
palate, varieties of, 218
 
uro-genital, 693
 
 
 
Clinoid process, anterior, 200 , 261
 
middle, 200 , 261
 
posterior, 198 , 261
 
Clitoris, 694
 
 
 
arteries of, 703
 
development of, 698
 
frenulum, 694
 
glans, 695
 
lymphatics of, 695
 
prepuce, 695
 
Clivus monticuli, 1478
 
of sphenoid, 197, 264
 
Cloaca, 45, 99, 954
 
division of, 98
 
Cloacalfossa, 956
 
 
 
membrane, 45, 955, 956
 
septum, 99, 954
 
Closing membrane, 66
 
Coats of eyeball, 1641
 
Coccygeal plexus, 531
 
Coccygeus muscle, 948
 
Coccyx, 149
 
 
 
cornua of, 150
 
ossification of, 151
 
varieties, 151
 
Cochlea, 1685, 1689
 
 
 
aqueduct of, 193, 1165, 1686
 
Coeliac artery, 811
 
ganglia, 809
 
plexus, 807, 809
 
Coelom, 23, 29, 65
 
 
 
extra-embryonic, obliterated,
 
106
 
 
 
Coils of intestine, formation, 63
 
Collateral fissure, 1497
 
Colliculus facialis, 1491
 
Colon, ascending, 766
 
descending, 767
 
 
 
iliac part of, 767
 
left flexure of, 767
 
pelvic, 943
 
right flexure of, 766
 
taeniae of, 768, 870
 
transverse, 766
 
Column, vertebral, 124
 
as a whole, 151
 
Columnae rugarum, 986
 
Columns, anal, 961
 
renal, 900