Talk:Advanced - Abnormalities

From Embryology
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Major Cardiovascular Abnormalities

--Mark Hill 13:28, 30 September 2009 (EST) Please avoid using acronyms in the image labeling. I would have liked all the images to have been uploaded as "Heart defect - full name of defect.jpg" as they are from UNSW Embryology and not figures that you have drawn. This would also look better as a gallery format.

--Phoebe Norville 11:24, 29 September 2009 (EST)Content added:

Coarctation of the Aorta
Functional Hypoplastic Left Heart
File:HeartILP draft hlh.jpg
Hypoplastic Left Heart
Interrupted Aortic Arch
File:HeartILP draft patentda.jpg
Patent Ductus Arteriosus
File:HeartILP draft transposition.jpg
Transposition of the Great Vessels

--Mark Hill 01:36, 10 September 2009 (EST) Data from Table 2: Reference guide to the stages of chick heart embryology. Martinsen BJ. Dev Dyn. 2005 Aug;233(4):1217-37. Review. PMID: 15986452

Alignment defects

  • Tetralogy of Fallot
  • Pulmonary artery stenosis
  • Double-outlet right ventricle
  • Double-inlet left ventricle
  • Straddling tricuspid valve
  • Tricuspid valve atresia

Septation defects

  • AV canal defects
  • Subaortic ventricular septal defects
  • Ventricular septal defects
  • Atrial septal defects
  • Persistent truncus arteriosus
  • Transposition of the great arteries
  • Aortic stenosis

Aortic arch anomalies

  • Interrupted aortic arch
  • Double aortic arch
  • Left aortic arch (chick)
  • Right aortic arch (mammals)
  • Aortic arch hypoplasia
  • Coarctation of the aorta

Myocardial and conduction system defects

  • Decreased contractility
  • Decreased excitation-contraction couplingb
  • Myocardial hypertrophy
  • Hypoplastic left heart syndrome (rare)
  • Cardiomyopathy
  • Arrhythmias

Coronary vasculature defects

  • Partial absence of coronary arterial stems
  • Complete loss of coronary arterial (CA) stems with ventricular CA communications


  • Alagille
  • Carpenter
  • Williams
  • Holt-Oram
  • DiGeorge
  • Velocardiofacial
  • Trisomy 21
  • Noonans
  • Ivemark


  • Alcohol
  • Retinoic Acid
  • Hyperhomocysteine

Background Reading

--Mark Hill 01:50, 10 September 2009 (EST)

  • Changes after birth in the tunica media and in the internal diameter of the aortic isthmus in normal newborns. H Van Meurs-Van Woezik and P Krediet J Anat. 1982 May; 134(Pt 3): 573–581. PMCID: PMC1167894