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(1899) THE AMERICAN NATURALIST. [Vol. XXXIII. 729-734
(1899) THE AMERICAN NATURALIST. [Vol. XXXIII. 729-734  
 
  
 
https://archive.org/details/jstor-2454357
 
https://archive.org/details/jstor-2454357
  
Pads On The Palm And Sole Of The Human Foetus.  
+
Pads On The Palm And Sole Of The Human Foetus.
 
 
Roswell H. Johnson.
 
 
 
In examining the soles of the feet of human foetuses of two
 
and three months, I have found four distinct dome-like elevations situated interdigitally along the line of the metatarso-phalangeal joints. Similar mounds were found in the
 
corresponding position upon the palm, there being, however,
 
only three true mounds in a transverse line. The thumb-index
 
finger elevation was merely represented by the large thenar
 
eminence. The reason for the absence of the true mound is
 
probably that its presence would interfere
 
with the opposition of the thumb. Upon
 
the palm the mounds are less distinct, and
 
in the older foetuses the well-defined outline
 
becomes lost, leaving only an elevation comparable to the " mounts " of the palmists,
 
to which Wilder ('97) has called attention.
 
The mounds on the sole are succeeded by
 
the smooth "ball" of the foot of the adult
 
in embryos of about one hundred millimeters in length.
 
 
 
Unfortunately the poor preservation of many of the specimens resulting from the inevitable exigencies of their collection and 
 
 
 
 
 
Fig 1 . Plantar surface of the right foot of foetus, No. 259 Minot collection. The method of stippling causes the mounds to appear  with too sharp outlines.
 
 
 
 
 
preservation make it impossible to determine precisely the stage of development attained by the pads in the various cases.
 
This difficulty and the gradual increase to a maximum with the
 
subsequent gradual decrease prevent a precise statement of the
 
stages of development of the foetus where the pads are evident.
 
The accompanying table shows the conditions found in the
 
embryos examined, with the exception of a few cases of very bad preservation. It is believed by the author that the variation shown is the result of the preservation and not a real
 
individual variation. This cannot be definitely stated however.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
N.O. IN
 
 
 
Collection.
 
 
 
 
 
Collection.
 
 
 
 
 
Length
 
in
 
 
 
MM.
 
 
 
 
 
Condition of Pads
 
on Feet.
 
 
 
 
 
Condition of Pads on Hands.
 
 
 
 
 
6 7
 
 
 
 
 
H.M.C.
 
 
 
 
 
31
 
 
 
 
 
Slightly developed.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
58
 
 
 
 
 
P.&S.
 
 
 
 
 
36
 
 
 
 
 
tt
 
 
 
 
 
Slightly developed.
 
 
 
  
2
+
Roswell H. Johnson.
  
 +
==Introduction==
  
P.&S.  
+
In examining the soles of the feet of human foetuses of two and three months, I have found four distinct dome-like elevations situated interdigitally along the line of the metatarso-phalangeal joints. Similar mounds were found in the corresponding position upon the palm, there being, however, only three true mounds in a transverse line. The thumb-index finger elevation was merely represented by the large thenar eminence. The reason for the absence of the true mound is probably that its presence would interfere with the opposition of the thumb. Upon the palm the mounds are less distinct, and in the older foetuses the well-defined outline becomes lost, leaving only an elevation comparable to the " mounts " of the palmists, to which Wilder ('97) has called attention. The mounds on the sole are succeeded by the smooth "ball" of the foot of the adult in embryos of about one hundred millimeters in length.
  
 +
Unfortunately the poor preservation of many of the specimens resulting from the inevitable exigencies of their collection and
  
42
 
  
 +
Fig 1 . Plantar surface of the right foot of foetus, No. 259 Minot collection. The method of stippling causes the mounds to appear with too sharp outlines.
  
Well developed.
 
  
 +
preservation make it impossible to determine precisely the stage of development attained by the pads in the various cases. This difficulty and the gradual increase to a maximum with the subsequent gradual decrease prevent a precise statement of the stages of development of the foetus where the pads are evident. The accompanying table shows the conditions found in the embryos examined, with the exception of a few cases of very bad preservation. It is believed by the author that the variation shown is the result of the preservation and not a real individual variation. This cannot be definitely stated however.
  
Well developed.
 
  
 +
N.O. IN
  
32
+
Collection.
  
  
tt
+
Collection.
  
  
44
+
Length in
  
 +
MM.
  
"
 
  
 +
Condition of Pads on Feet.
  
"
 
  
 +
Condition of Pads on Hands.
  
21
 
  
 +
6 7
  
"
 
  
 +
H.M.C.
  
55
 
  
 +
31
  
u
 
  
 +
Slightly developed.
  
Fairly developed.
 
  
  
249
+
58
  
  
H. M. C.
+
P.&S.
N. Y. L. I. H.  
 
  
  
57
+
36
65
 
  
  
a
+
tt
  
  
" Mounts " barely shown.  
+
Slightly developed.
  
  
183
+
2
  
  
H.M.C.  
+
P.&S.
  
  
69
+
42
  
  
Fairly developed  
+
Well developed.
  
  
Fairly developed on one hand.  
+
Well developed.
  
  
6
+
32
  
  
P.&S. .
+
tt
  
  
+
44
  
  
Slightly developed.
+
"
  
  
Not present as pads.
+
"
  
  
no
+
21
  
  
H.M.C.
+
"
  
  
76
+
55
  
  
"
+
u
  
  
"
+
Fairly developed.
  
  
20
+
249
  
  
P.&S.  
+
H. M. C. N. Y. L. I. H.
  
  
80
+
57 65
  
  
Well developed.
+
a
  
  
Fairly developed.  
+
" Mounts " barely shown.
  
  
149
+
183
  
  
H.M.C.  
+
H.M.C.
  
  
85
+
69
  
  
Fairly developed.
+
Fairly developed
  
  
Not present as pads.  
+
Fairly developed on one hand.
  
  
+
6
  
  
P.&S.  
+
P.&S. .
  
  
97
+
  
  
Not present.  
+
Slightly developed.
  
  
tt
+
Not present as pads.
  
  
8
+
no
  
  
tt
+
H.M.C.
  
  
100
+
76
  
  
Poorly developed.
+
"
  
  
Faintly developed.
+
"
  
  
3
+
20
  
  
H.M.C.  
+
P.&S.
  
  
103
+
80
  
  
Not present.  
+
Well developed.
  
  
Not present as pads.  
+
Fairly developed.
  
  
216
+
149
  
  
U
+
H.M.C.
  
  
104
+
85
  
  
ft
+
Fairly developed.
  
  
"
+
Not present as pads.
  
  
5 1
+
  
  
P.&S.  
+
P.&S.
  
  
105
+
97
  
  
Scarcely discernible.  
+
Not present.
  
  
tt  
+
tt
  
  
10
+
8
  
  
tt  
+
tt
  
  
"5
+
100
  
  
Not present.  
+
Poorly developed.
  
  
tt
+
Faintly developed.
  
  
12
+
3
  
  
tt
+
H.M.C.
  
  
120
+
103
  
  
tt
+
Not present.
  
  
tt
+
Not present as pads.
  
  
68
+
216
  
  
H.M.C.
+
U
  
  
120
+
104
  
  
Scarcely discernible.
+
ft
  
  
tt
+
"
  
  
239
+
5 1
  
  
tt
+
P.&S.
  
  
150
+
105
  
  
tt
+
Scarcely discernible.
  
  
tt  
+
tt
  
  
 +
10
  
H. M. C.=Harvard Medical School Collection.
 
P.&S.=Collection of College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia Univ.
 
N.Y. L. I. H.= " " New York Lying-in Hospital.
 
  
Sections (Figs. 2 and 3) show the pad to be the result of the
+
tt
growth of the mesodermic tissue beneath, rather than an epidermic thickening. A cross-section (Fig. 4) of the right hind
 
foot of a cat embryo in the region of the Anlagen of the walking pads shows an essential similarity in their form, position,
 
and structure with the mounds on the human foetal foot (Fig. 2).
 
  
Since the interdigital position precludes the possibility of
 
the mounds being merely contour lines resulting from the influence of the joints or digits, we may infer from the fact that the
 
position is characteristic of walking pads that we have here
 
structures of this kind. Further evidence lies in the fact that
 
  
 +
"5
  
  
No. 393.]
+
Not present.
  
  
 +
tt
  
THE HUMAN FCETUS.
 
  
 +
12
  
  
73 1
+
tt
  
  
 +
120
  
in the baboons we have in the same positions upon the palm
 
and sole strongly developed mounds with marked patterns of
 
the epidermic ridges, and that in man there are upon the palms
 
  
 +
tt
  
  
 +
tt
  
Fig. 2. — Cross-section of the left foot of the same foetus. Section 193 G 48 in collection of
 
slides in Harvard Medical School. Roman numerals = metatarsal bones. Arabic numerals = number of mound.
 
  
and soles "patterns" (Galton) or "centers of disturbance"
+
68
(Wilder) of the epidermic ridges at these points. Seldom, however, do we find them all present upon one palm or sole.
 
  
  
 +
H.M.C.
  
  
Fig. 3. — Longitudinal section of the right foot of the same foetus. Section 194
+
120
H 20 in Harvard collection.
 
  
Typically there is but one pattern upon the adult hand and
 
two upon the adult foot. The accompanying table shows the
 
relative frequency of occurrences of the several patterns in the
 
  
adult.  
+
Scarcely discernible.
  
  
 +
tt
  
200 hands.
 
41 feet.
 
  
 +
239
  
  
Number of
+
tt
  
Thenar
 
  
Patterns.
+
150
  
  
 +
tt
  
17 = 8.5 %
 
  
39 = 95- 1 %
+
tt
  
  
 +
H. M. C.=Harvard Medical School Collection. P.&S.= Collection of College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia Univ. N.Y. L. I. H.= " " New York Lying-in Hospital.
  
Number of Radial or Tibial
+
Sections (Figs. 2 and 3) show the pad to be the result of the growth of the mesodermic tissue beneath, rather than an epidermic thickening. A cross-section (Fig. 4) of the right hind foot of a cat embryo in the region of the Anlagen of the walking pads shows an essential similarity in their form, position, and structure with the mounds on the human foetal foot (Fig. 2).
Patterns.  
 
  
 +
Since the interdigital position precludes the possibility of the mounds being merely contour lines resulting from the influence of the joints or digits, we may infer from the fact that the position is characteristic of walking pads that we have here structures of this kind. Further evidence lies in the fact that in the baboons we have in the same positions upon the palm and sole strongly developed mounds with marked patterns of the epidermic ridges, and that in man there are upon the palms and soles "patterns" (Galton) or "centers of disturbance" (Wilder) of the epidermic ridges at these points. Seldom, however, do we find them all present upon one palm or sole.
  
  
13 = 6.5%
 
9= 21.9%
 
  
 +
Fig. 2. — Cross-section of the left foot of the same foetus. Section 193 G 48 in collection of slides in Harvard Medical School. Roman numerals = metatarsal bones. Arabic numerals = number of mound.
  
  
Number of
 
  
Median
 
Patterns.
 
  
  
 +
Fig. 3. — Longitudinal section of the right foot of the same foetus. Section 194 H 20 in Harvard collection.
  
Number of Fibular or Ulnar
+
Typically there is but one pattern upon the adult hand and two upon the adult foot. The accompanying table shows the relative frequency of occurrences of the several patterns in the adult.
Patterns.  
 
  
  
 +
200 hands. 41 feet.
  
129 = 64.5%
 
32 - 78.1 %
 
  
 +
Number of
  
 +
Thenar
  
62 = 32.5 %
+
Patterns.
  
5 = 12.1 %
 
  
 +
17 = 8.5 %
  
 +
39 = 95- 1 %
  
It will be noticed that with the exception of the ulnar-fibular
 
pattern the occurrence of any pattern is more frequent in the  case of the feet than in the case of the hands, as might be
 
expected from the poorer development of the mounds upon the
 
foetal palm.
 
  
The ulnar-fibular pattern is remarkable not only for the fact
+
Number of Radial or Tibial Patterns.
that it is the only one of the four metatarso-phalangeal patterns
 
which occurs less frequently in the feet than in the hands, but
 
also for the fact that of these four " centers " it is the only one
 
which occurs more frequently in the female than the male, as
 
the following table shows.  
 
  
  
 +
13 = 6.5% 9= 21.9%
  
  
 +
Number of
  
Cases in
+
Median Patterns.
  
  
Cases in
+
Number of Fibular or Ulnar Patterns.
  
  
 +
129 = 64.5% 32 - 78.1 %
  
  
ioo Male
+
62 = 32.5 %
  
 +
5 = 12.1 %
  
ioo Female
 
  
 +
It will be noticed that with the exception of the ulnar-fibular pattern the occurrence of any pattern is more frequent in the case of the feet than in the case of the hands, as might be expected from the poorer development of the mounds upon the foetal palm.
  
 +
The ulnar-fibular pattern is remarkable not only for the fact that it is the only one of the four metatarso-phalangeal patterns which occurs less frequently in the feet than in the hands, but also for the fact that of these four " centers " it is the only one which occurs more frequently in the female than the male, as the following table shows.
  
  
Hands.
 
  
 +
Cases in
  
Hands.
 
  
 +
Cases in
  
Thenar
 
  
  
12
+
ioo Male
  
  
5
+
ioo Female
  
  
Radial-tibial . . .
 
  
 +
Hands.
  
9
 
  
 +
Hands.
  
4
 
  
 +
Thenar
  
Median
 
  
 +
12
  
75
 
  
 +
5
  
54
 
  
 +
Radial-tibial . . .
  
Ulnar-fibular . . .
 
  
 +
9
  
2 5
 
  
 +
4
  
40
 
  
 +
Median
  
Hypothenar * . . .
 
  
 +
75
  
29
 
  
 +
54
  
37
 
  
 +
Ulnar-fibular . . .
  
  
I am under great obligations to Dr. C. B. Davenport, for suggestions and criticisms ; to Professor C. Sedgwick Minot, for
+
2 5
kindness in allowing me to examine his collection of foetuses
 
  
  
 +
40
  
  
Fig. 4. — Cross-section of the right hind foot of a cat foetus in region of the Anlage of the
+
Hypothenar * . . .
walking pad. Section 195 B 109 in Harvard collection. Roman numerals = metatarsal bones. Arabic numerals = number of mound.  
 
  
  
 +
29
  
and to section the feet figured, and for suggestions and criticism; to Professor H. H. Wilder, for the use of a series of
 
footprints ; and to Dr. J. A. Blake, for permission to examine  the collection of foetuses of Columbia University.
 
  
1 The hypothenar pattern is one not in the metatarso-phalangeal series. See  Figs. 5 and 6.
+
37
  
  
 +
I am under great obligations to Dr. C. B. Davenport, for suggestions and criticisms ; to Professor C. Sedgwick Minot, for kindness in allowing me to examine his collection of foetuses
  
No. 393.]
 
  
  
Conclusions.  
+
Fig. 4. — Cross-section of the right hind foot of a cat foetus in region of the Anlage of the walking pad. Section 195 B 109 in Harvard collection. Roman numerals = metatarsal bones. Arabic numerals = number of mound.
  
I. There are upon the sole of the human foetus of two to
 
three months four mounds situated interdigitally along the line
 
of the metatarso-phalangeal joints. Three mounds exist in a
 
similar situation upon the palm of the foetus of the same age.
 
In the foot the mounds disappear. Upon the hand they persist as the less definite " mounts " of palmistry.
 
  
II. These mounds are homologous with the walking pads of  
+
and to section the feet figured, and for suggestions and criticism; to Professor H. H. Wilder, for the use of a series of footprints ; and to Dr. J. A. Blake, for permission to examine the collection of foetuses of Columbia University.
some mammals, and have a direct relation to the " centers of  
 
  
 +
1 The hypothenar pattern is one not in the metatarso-phalangeal series. See Figs. 5 and 6.
  
  
 +
==Conclusions==
  
 +
# There are upon the sole of the human foetus of two to three months four mounds situated interdigitally along the line of the metatarso-phalangeal joints. Three mounds exist in a similar situation upon the palm of the foetus of the same age. In the foot the mounds disappear. Upon the hand they persist as the less definite " mounts " of palmistry.
 +
# These mounds are homologous with the walking pads of some mammals, and have a direct relation to the " centers of disturbance " of the epidermic ridges upon the palms and soles of man and other primates.
  
Fig. 5. — Palm of a fcetus of  Evotomys gapperi.
 
  
  
  
Fig. 6. — Palm of Inuus (from Kollmann after Purkinje).  
+
Fig. 5. — Palm of a fcetus of Evotomys gapperi.
  
  
 +
Fig. 6. — Palm of Inuus (from Kollmann after Purkinje).
  
disturbance " of the epidermic ridges upon the palms and soles
 
of man and other primates.
 
  
III. Corresponding with a poorer development of these
 
mounds upon the hand than on the foot in the foetus, the
 
" centers of disturbance " occur upon the foot more frequently
 
than upon the hand in the adult.
 
  
 +
III. Corresponding with a poorer development of these mounds upon the hand than on the foot in the foetus, the " centers of disturbance " occur upon the foot more frequently than upon the hand in the adult.
  
  
Harvard University,  
+
Harvard University, May 23, 18c
May 23, 18c  
 
  
  

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Johnson RH. Pads on the palm and sole of the human foetus. (1899) Amer. Naturalist. 33: 729-734

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(1899) THE AMERICAN NATURALIST. [Vol. XXXIII. 729-734

https://archive.org/details/jstor-2454357

Pads On The Palm And Sole Of The Human Foetus.

Roswell H. Johnson.

Introduction

In examining the soles of the feet of human foetuses of two and three months, I have found four distinct dome-like elevations situated interdigitally along the line of the metatarso-phalangeal joints. Similar mounds were found in the corresponding position upon the palm, there being, however, only three true mounds in a transverse line. The thumb-index finger elevation was merely represented by the large thenar eminence. The reason for the absence of the true mound is probably that its presence would interfere with the opposition of the thumb. Upon the palm the mounds are less distinct, and in the older foetuses the well-defined outline becomes lost, leaving only an elevation comparable to the " mounts " of the palmists, to which Wilder ('97) has called attention. The mounds on the sole are succeeded by the smooth "ball" of the foot of the adult in embryos of about one hundred millimeters in length.

Unfortunately the poor preservation of many of the specimens resulting from the inevitable exigencies of their collection and


Fig 1 . Plantar surface of the right foot of foetus, No. 259 Minot collection. The method of stippling causes the mounds to appear with too sharp outlines.


preservation make it impossible to determine precisely the stage of development attained by the pads in the various cases. This difficulty and the gradual increase to a maximum with the subsequent gradual decrease prevent a precise statement of the stages of development of the foetus where the pads are evident. The accompanying table shows the conditions found in the embryos examined, with the exception of a few cases of very bad preservation. It is believed by the author that the variation shown is the result of the preservation and not a real individual variation. This cannot be definitely stated however.


N.O. IN

Collection.


Collection.


Length in

MM.


Condition of Pads on Feet.


Condition of Pads on Hands.


6 7


H.M.C.


31


Slightly developed.


58


P.&S.


36


tt


Slightly developed.


2


P.&S.


42


Well developed.


Well developed.


32


tt


44


"


"


21


"


55


u


Fairly developed.


249


H. M. C. N. Y. L. I. H.


57 65


a


" Mounts " barely shown.


183


H.M.C.


69


Fairly developed


Fairly developed on one hand.


6


P.&S. .



Slightly developed.


Not present as pads.


no


H.M.C.


76


"


"


20


P.&S.


80


Well developed.


Fairly developed.


149


H.M.C.


85


Fairly developed.


Not present as pads.



P.&S.


97


Not present.


tt


8


tt


100


Poorly developed.


Faintly developed.


3


H.M.C.


103


Not present.


Not present as pads.


216


U


104


ft


"


5 1


P.&S.


105


Scarcely discernible.


tt


10


tt


"5


Not present.


tt


12


tt


120


tt


tt


68


H.M.C.


120


Scarcely discernible.


tt


239


tt


150


tt


tt


H. M. C.=Harvard Medical School Collection. P.&S.= Collection of College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia Univ. N.Y. L. I. H.= " " New York Lying-in Hospital.

Sections (Figs. 2 and 3) show the pad to be the result of the growth of the mesodermic tissue beneath, rather than an epidermic thickening. A cross-section (Fig. 4) of the right hind foot of a cat embryo in the region of the Anlagen of the walking pads shows an essential similarity in their form, position, and structure with the mounds on the human foetal foot (Fig. 2).

Since the interdigital position precludes the possibility of the mounds being merely contour lines resulting from the influence of the joints or digits, we may infer from the fact that the position is characteristic of walking pads that we have here structures of this kind. Further evidence lies in the fact that in the baboons we have in the same positions upon the palm and sole strongly developed mounds with marked patterns of the epidermic ridges, and that in man there are upon the palms and soles "patterns" (Galton) or "centers of disturbance" (Wilder) of the epidermic ridges at these points. Seldom, however, do we find them all present upon one palm or sole.


Fig. 2. — Cross-section of the left foot of the same foetus. Section 193 G 48 in collection of slides in Harvard Medical School. Roman numerals = metatarsal bones. Arabic numerals = number of mound.



Fig. 3. — Longitudinal section of the right foot of the same foetus. Section 194 H 20 in Harvard collection.

Typically there is but one pattern upon the adult hand and two upon the adult foot. The accompanying table shows the relative frequency of occurrences of the several patterns in the adult.


200 hands. 41 feet.


Number of

Thenar

Patterns.


17 = 8.5 %

39 = 95- 1 %


Number of Radial or Tibial Patterns.


13 = 6.5% 9= 21.9%


Number of

Median Patterns.


Number of Fibular or Ulnar Patterns.


129 = 64.5% 32 - 78.1 %


62 = 32.5 %

5 = 12.1 %


It will be noticed that with the exception of the ulnar-fibular pattern the occurrence of any pattern is more frequent in the case of the feet than in the case of the hands, as might be expected from the poorer development of the mounds upon the foetal palm.

The ulnar-fibular pattern is remarkable not only for the fact that it is the only one of the four metatarso-phalangeal patterns which occurs less frequently in the feet than in the hands, but also for the fact that of these four " centers " it is the only one which occurs more frequently in the female than the male, as the following table shows.


Cases in


Cases in


ioo Male


ioo Female


Hands.


Hands.


Thenar


12


5


Radial-tibial . . .


9


4


Median


75


54


Ulnar-fibular . . .


2 5


40


Hypothenar * . . .


29


37


I am under great obligations to Dr. C. B. Davenport, for suggestions and criticisms ; to Professor C. Sedgwick Minot, for kindness in allowing me to examine his collection of foetuses


Fig. 4. — Cross-section of the right hind foot of a cat foetus in region of the Anlage of the walking pad. Section 195 B 109 in Harvard collection. Roman numerals = metatarsal bones. Arabic numerals = number of mound.


and to section the feet figured, and for suggestions and criticism; to Professor H. H. Wilder, for the use of a series of footprints ; and to Dr. J. A. Blake, for permission to examine the collection of foetuses of Columbia University.

1 The hypothenar pattern is one not in the metatarso-phalangeal series. See Figs. 5 and 6.


Conclusions

  1. There are upon the sole of the human foetus of two to three months four mounds situated interdigitally along the line of the metatarso-phalangeal joints. Three mounds exist in a similar situation upon the palm of the foetus of the same age. In the foot the mounds disappear. Upon the hand they persist as the less definite " mounts " of palmistry.
  2. These mounds are homologous with the walking pads of some mammals, and have a direct relation to the " centers of disturbance " of the epidermic ridges upon the palms and soles of man and other primates.



Fig. 5. — Palm of a fcetus of Evotomys gapperi.


Fig. 6. — Palm of Inuus (from Kollmann after Purkinje).


III. Corresponding with a poorer development of these mounds upon the hand than on the foot in the foetus, the " centers of disturbance " occur upon the foot more frequently than upon the hand in the adult.


Harvard University, May 23, 18c


Bibliography

Alix, M. Recherches sur la disposition des lignes papillaires de la main et du pied. Ann. des Set. Nat. Tome viii, 1867, pp. 295-362, et Tome ix, 1868, pp. 5-42, avec Pis. 2-5. Galton, Francis. Finger Prints. London, 1892.


Klaatsch, H. Zur Morphologie der Tastballen der Saiigethiere. Morph. Jahrb. Bd. xiv, pp. 407-435, Tomes xvii and xviii, 1888.

Kollmann, Arthur. Der Tastapparat der Hand der menschlichen Rassen und der Affen in seiner Entwicklung und Gliederung. Hamburg and Leipzig. Tomes i and ii, pp. 1-75, 1883.


Purkinje. Commentatio de examine physiologico organi visus et systemmatis cutanei. Vratislav, 1823.


Wilder, H. H. On the Disposition of the Epidermic Folds upon the Palms and Soles of the Primates. Anat. Anz. Bd. xiii, pp. 250 256, 1897.



Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2020, April 7) Embryology Paper - Pads on the palm and sole of the human foetus. Retrieved from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Paper_-_Pads_on_the_palm_and_sole_of_the_human_foetus

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