From Embryology

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Fig. 597. Semi-diagrammatic view of the Organs of Circulation in the Foetus from Before

(from Luschka, modified, and from Nature).

a, front of the thyroid cartilage ; b, right side of the thyroid body ; c, trachea ; d, surface of the right lung turned outwards from the heart ; e, diaphragm below the apex of the heart ; /, right lobe of the liver, dissected to show ramifications of the portal and hepatic veins ; /', the middle part and left lobe of the liver in the same manner, .showing branches of the umbilical veins and ductus venosus ; g, right, fj', left kidney ; ij" , suin-arenal bodies ; h, right, li, left ureter ; i, portion of the small intestine tunied towards the side, to show the veins from it going to the portal vein ; Ic, urinary bladder ; I, is placed below the umbilicus, which is turned towards the left of the fcetus, and points by a line to the urachus ; m, rectum, divided and tied at its upjier part.

A, A. right auricle of the heart opened to show the foramen ovale : a probe, introduced through the large divided right hepatic vein and vena cava inferior, is seen passing through the fossa ovalis into the left auricle : at the lower part of the fossa ovalis is seen the Eustachian valve, to the right and inferioi'ly the auriculo-ventricular orifice ; B, the left auricular appendix ; C, the surface of the right ventricle ; D, placed on the inner surface of the left lung, points to the left ventricle.

1, ascending part of the arch of the aorta ; 1', back part beyond the ductus arteriosus ; 1", abdominal aorta; 2, stem of the pulmonary artery ; 2', the place of division into right and left pulmonary arteries and root of the ductus arteriosus : the left pueumo-gastric nerve is seen descending over the arch of the aorta ; 3, superior vena cava ; 3', right, 3", left innominate vein ; 4, stem of the inferior vena cava, between the junction of the hepatic vein and the right auricle ; 4', continuation of the vena cava inferior below ; 5, umbilical vein within the body of the foetus ; 5 x , without the bo'ly, in the umbilical cord ; 5', 5', ductus venosus ; between 5 and 5', the direct branches of the umbilical vein to the liver ; 5", 5", hepatic veins, tlu-ough one of which a probe is passed into the fossa ovalis and through the foramen ovale ; 6, vena portD3 ; 6', its left branch joining the umbilical vein; 6", its right branch; 7, placed on the right iliac vein, points to the right common iliac ai-tery; 7', left common iliac artery; 8, right, 8', left umbilical arteries coming from the internal iliac arteries ; 8 x , umbilical arteries without the body, in the umbilical cord ; 9, 9', external iliac arteries ; 10, placed below the right renal vessels ; 11, inferior mesenteric artery, above the root of which .ore seen the two spermatic arteries.

Heart and Blood-Vessels Figures: 594. Development of Great Veins | 595. A and B. Vestige of Left Superior Cava and a Case of its Persistence | 596. Foetal Heart and Great Vessels | 597. Foetus Organs of Circulation

Reference: Quain's Elements of Anatomy. William Sharpey, Allen Thomson and Edward Albert Schafer (1878) William Wood And Co., New York.

1878 Elements of Anatomy: The Ovum | The Blastoderm | Fetal Membranes | Placenta | Musculoskeletal | Neural | Gastrointesinal | Respiratory | Cardiovascular | Urogenital
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